著者
Yoko Yoshida Hideki Kato Yoichiro Ikeda Masaomi Nangaku
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.RV17026, (Released:2018-11-02)
参考文献数
98

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) defined by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and renal failure. aHUS is caused by uncontrolled complement activation in the alternative pathway (AP). A variety of genetic defects in complement-related factors or acquired autoantibodies to the complement regulators have been found in 50 to 60% of all cases. Recently, however, the classification and diagnosis of aHUS are becoming more complicated. One reason for this is that some factors, which have not been regarded as complement-related factors, have been reported as predisposing factors for phenotypic aHUS. Given that genotype is highly correlated with the phenotype of aHUS, careful analysis of underlying genetic abnormalities or acquired factors is needed to predict the prognosis or to decide an optimal treatment for the disease. Another reason is that complement dysregulation in the AP have also been found in a part of other types of TMA such as transplantation-related TMA and pregnancy-related complication. Based on these findings, it is now time to redefine aHUS according to the genetic or acquired background of abnormalities.Here, we review the pathogeneses and the corresponding phenotypes of aHUS and complement-related TMAs.
著者
Yuko Yamada Shuji Takabayashi Hideki Kato Kenji Ishiwata Naohiro Watanabe Erika Sasaki Sonoko Habu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017.01219, (Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
29

The in vivo model of pollinosis has been established using rodents, but the model cannot completely mimic human pollinosis. We used Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset (CM), to establish a pollinosis animal model using intranasal weekly administration of cedar pollen extract with cholera toxin adjuvant. Some of the treated CMs exhibited the symptoms of snitching, excess nasal mucus and/or sneezing, but the period was very short, and the symptoms disappeared after several weeks. The CD4+CD25+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood increased in CMs quickly after the nasal administration of cedar pollen extract, but the timing was not parallel with the symptoms. IL-10 mRNA was enhanced in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), suggesting CM-induced tolerance for cedar pollen administration. Similarly, Foxp3 mRNA was also detected in the PBMC. Additive sensitization of these CMs with Ascaris egg administration did not enhance chronic inflammation of type 1 allergy to induce the symptoms. These results suggest that the environmental immune cells develop transient allergic symptoms and subsequent immune-tolerance in the intranasally sensitized CMs.