著者
Jianjun Gao Zhenxue Tian Xu Yang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01047, (Released:2020-02-19)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
58 461

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future.
著者
Jianjun Gao Zhenxue Tian Xu Yang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.72-73, 2020-02-29 (Released:2020-03-16)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
461

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future.
著者
Hongzhou Lu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01020, (Released:2020-01-28)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
164

As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments.
著者
Hongzhou Lu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.69-71, 2020-02-29 (Released:2020-03-16)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
164

As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments.
著者
Masashi Ohe Haruki Shida Satoshi Jodo Yoshihiro Kusunoki Masahide Seki Ken Furuya Houman Goudarzi
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03058, (Released:2020-04-05)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
4

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic that has developed in late 2019 and 2020 is a serious threat to human health. With no vaccines or drugs approved for prevention and treatment until now, all efforts at drug design and/or clinical trials of already approved drugs are worthy and creditable. Using structure-based drug selection for identification of SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors, old drugs such as macrolides (MAC) were predicted to be effective for COVID-19. Lately, the anti-viral effects of macrolides have attracted considerable attention. Very recently, hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin treatment was reported to be effective for COVID-19. We believe that treatments with macrolides alone or in combination with other drugs are promising and open the possibility of an international strategy to fight this emerging viral infection.
著者
Hongyan Wu Atsuko Yamaguchi
出版者
バイオ&ソーシャル・サイエンス推進国際研究交流会
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.4, pp.192-201, 2014-08-31 (Released:2014-09-12)
参考文献数
92
被引用文献数
2

The life sciences field is entering an era of big data with the breakthroughs of science and technology. More and more big data-related projects and activities are being performed in the world. Life sciences data generated by new technologies are continuing to grow in not only size but also variety and complexity, with great speed. To ensure that big data has a major influence in the life sciences, comprehensive data analysis across multiple data sources and even across disciplines is indispensable. The increasing volume of data and the heterogeneous, complex varieties of data are two principal issues mainly discussed in life science informatics. The ever-evolving next-generation Web, characterized as the Semantic Web, is an extension of the current Web, aiming to provide information for not only humans but also computers to semantically process large-scale data. The paper presents a survey of big data in life sciences, big data related projects and Semantic Web technologies. The paper introduces the main Semantic Web technologies and their current situation, and provides a detailed analysis of how Semantic Web technologies address the heterogeneous variety of life sciences big data. The paper helps to understand the role of Semantic Web technologies in the big data era and how they provide a promising solution for the big data in life sciences.
著者
Jianjun Gao Shasha Hu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03072, (Released:2020-04-13)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Drugs that are specifically efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 have yet to be established. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have garnered considerable attention for their potential to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Increasing evidence obtained from completed clinical studies indicates the prospects for chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19. More randomized control clinical studies are warranted to determine the feasibility of these two drugs in treating COVID-19.
著者
Peipei Song Takashi Karako
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01056, (Released:2020-02-25)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
9

Rapidly sharing scientific information is an effective way to reduce public panic about COVID-19, and doing so is the key to providing real-time guidance to epidemiologists working to contain the outbreak, clinicians managing patients, and modelers helping to understand future developments and the possible effectiveness of various interventions. This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies. As an academic journal, we will continue to quickly and transparently share data with frontline healthcare workers who need to know the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.
著者
Zhenwei Wang Xiaorong Chen Yunfei Lu Feifei Chen Wei Zhang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01030, (Released:2020-02-09)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
89

Pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is continuously and rapidly circulating at present. No effective antiviral treatment has been verified thus far. We report here the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four patients with mild or severe 2019-nCoV pneumonia admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. After treatment, three patients gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms, two of whom were confirmed 2019-nCoV negative and discharged, and one of whom was virus negative at the first test. The remaining patient with severe pneumonia had shown signs of improvement by the cutoff date for data collection. Results obtained in the current study may provide clues for treatment of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study.
著者
Lan Yu Zhen Yang Ming An
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.4, pp.308-313, 2019-08-31 (Released:2019-09-17)
参考文献数
51
被引用文献数
1

Wearable sensors have garnered considerable interest because of their great promise in terms of personalized health and disease management. Tears are a superior target for wireless, non-invasive wearable devices, and tear-based platforms have developed rapidly over the past decade. Although an increasing number of tear analytes have been found to be associated with multiple diseases, glucose still serves as a main target for tear-based wearable devices. There has been much investment and efforts to develop tear-based wearable biosensors, with contact lens-based and spring-like sensors flourishing commercially. Current efforts have moved past ocular and systematic disease markers to nutrients and chemicals. Moreover, tear-based wearable devices also have the potential to treat some ocular diseases. This review discusses aspects of tear-based wearable devices and it emphasizes that strict clinical validation is needed before such platforms enter the market. Multifunctional and theranostic strategies would further broaden their clinical use in the future.
著者
Yingying Ding Huamei Yan Zhen Ning Xiaofeng Cai Yin Yang Rong Pan Yanqiu Zhou Huang Zheng Meiyang Gao Keming Rou Zunyou Wu Na He
出版者
バイオ&ソーシャル・サイエンス推進国際研究交流会
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2016.01035, (Released:2016-04-06)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
30

Little is known about the acceptance and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. This study is the baseline survey of an intervention study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate (TDF) on a daily use for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among MSM in Shanghai, China. From October 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1,033 MSM in Shanghai were recruited by local district Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a MSM community-based non-governmental organization (NGO). Among them, 197 (19.1%) participants expressed willingness to use the TDF group at baseline survey, but only 26 (2.5%) participated in the TDF group and took TDF one tablet a day. Higher willingness to use PrEP was associated with being 45 years or older, non-local residents, having more male sex partners in the past 6 months and not using condom at last anal sex with man. Acutal uptake of PrEP was associated with having ≥ 11 male sex partners in lifetime and reporting no female sex partners in lifetime. Reasons for not participating in TDF group among those who expressed willingness to use PrEP at baseline survey included loss of contact, ineligiblity because of abnormal results for liver or renal function tests, change of mind, and HIV seroconversion before uptake of PrEP. Our findings suggest that promotion of PrEP in MSM remains challenging at current circumstancein China. Future research is needed to solicit effective education and intervention programs to promote acceptance of PrEP among Chinese MSM.
著者
Yang Sun Hongzhou Lu
出版者
バイオ&ソーシャル・サイエンス推進国際研究交流会
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.189-191, 2014-06-30 (Released:2014-07-17)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1

In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient’s mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient’s reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient’s mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS.
著者
Kenji Karako Peipei Song Yu Chen Wei Tang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01482, (Released:2020-03-19)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
5 7

To assess the effectiveness of response strategies of avoiding large gatherings or crowded areas and to predict the spread of COVID-19 infections in Japan, we developed a stochastic transmission model by extending the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemiological model with an additional modeling of the individual action on whether to stay away from the crowded areas. The population were divided into three compartments: Susceptible, Infected, Removed. Susceptible transitions to Infected every hour with a probability determined by the ratio of Infected and the congestion of area. The total area consists of three zones crowded zone, mid zone and uncrowded zone, with different infection probabilities characterized by the number of people gathered there. The time for each people to spend in the crowded zone is curtailed by 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 hours, and the time spent in mid zone is extended accordingly. This simulation showed that the number of Infected and Removed will increase rapidly if there is no reduction of the time spent in crowded zone. On the other hand, the stagnant growth of Infected can be observed when the time spent in the crowded zone is reduced to 4 hours, and the growth number of Infected will decrease and the spread of the infection will subside gradually if the time spent in the crowded zone is further cut to 2 hours. In conclusions The infection spread in Japan will be gradually contained by reducing the time spent in the crowded zone to less than 4 hours.
著者
Shalong Wang Lianwen Yuan
出版者
バイオ&ソーシャル・サイエンス推進国際研究交流会
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2016.01078, (Released:2016-06-02)
参考文献数
92
被引用文献数
4

Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer. The treatment of GC remains challenging as the outcomes achieved with surgery alone or adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy are relatively poor. New treatment strategies are emerging and are being tested in solid tumors including GC. Over the past few years, the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has made great advances, but strategies to manage GC have improved little. Multiple drug resistance is common in GC chemotherapy and targeted therapy; some patients appear to receive treatment that is suboptimal or even inefficacious. Unfortunately, there are few validated predictive biomarkers to guide the tailored treatment of GC. ToGA and AVAGAST are two phase III trials that tested the efficacy and safety of targeted agents in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), and results clearly indicated that patients need to be selected and that targeted agents are the best hope for better results. This review aims to provide an overview of potential predictive biomarkers for cytotoxic and targeted agents in GC.
著者
Kenji Karako Peipei Song Yu Chen Wei Tang
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.134-138, 2020-04-30 (Released:2020-05-21)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
5 7

To assess the effectiveness of response strategies of avoiding large gatherings or crowded areas and to predict the spread of COVID-19 infections in Japan, we developed a stochastic transmission model by extending the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) epidemiological model with an additional modeling of the individual action on whether to stay away from the crowded areas. The population were divided into three compartments: Susceptible, Infected, Removed. Susceptible transitions to Infected every hour with a probability determined by the ratio of Infected and the congestion of area. The total area consists of three zones crowded zone, mid zone and uncrowded zone, with different infection probabilities characterized by the number of people gathered there. The time for each people to spend in the crowded zone is curtailed by 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 hours, and the time spent in mid zone is extended accordingly. This simulation showed that the number of Infected and Removed will increase rapidly if there is no reduction of the time spent in crowded zone. On the other hand, the stagnant growth of Infected can be observed when the time spent in the crowded zone is reduced to 4 hours, and the growth number of Infected will decrease and the spread of the infection will subside gradually if the time spent in the crowded zone is further cut to 2 hours. In conclusions The infection spread in Japan will be gradually contained by reducing the time spent in the crowded zone to less than 4 hours.
著者
Jufeng Xia
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03154, (Released:2020-05-16)
参考文献数
14

Recently, an increasing number of reports have indicated that a few patients who were believed to have recovered from COVID-19 initially tested negative but later tested positive. Several hospitals in different countries have detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the semen and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe COVID-19. Given the fact that the testes and central nervous system are both immune privilege sites and the fact that Ebola virus and Zika virus can avoid immune clearance and continue proliferating and spreading by hiding in those sites, the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in immune privilege sites, it attacks those sites, and it spreads again after proliferating in those sites needs to be investigated.
著者
Genya Kobayashi Shonosuke Sugasawa Hiromasa Tamae Takayuki Ozu
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.03133, (Released:2020-05-28)
参考文献数
15

Japan has observed a surge in the number of confirmed cases of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has caused a serious impact on the society especially after the declaration of the state of emergency on April 7, 2020. This study analyzes the real time data from March 1 to April 22, 2020 by adopting a sophisticated statistical modeling based on the state space model combined with the well-known susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The model estimation and forecasting are conducted using the Bayesian methodology. The present study provides the parameter estimates of the unknown parameters that critically determine the epidemic process derived from the SIR model and prediction of the future transition of the infectious proportion including the size and timing of the epidemic peak with the prediction intervals that naturally accounts for the uncertainty. Even though the epidemic appears to be settling down during this intervention period, the prediction results under various scenarios using the data up to May 18 reveal that the temporary reduction in the infection rate would still result in a delayed the epidemic peak unless the long-term reproduction number is controlled.
著者
Fabian Grass Matthieu Cachemaille David Martin Nicolas Fournier Dieter Hahnloser Catherine Blanc Nicolas Demartines Martin Hübner
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.47-53, 2018-02-28 (Released:2018-03-18)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
4

The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to compare multimodal pain management and pain perception after open vs. laparoscopic colorectal surgery within enhanced recovery care. Pain scores at rest and at mobilization were prospectively assessed in consecutive patients using Visual Analog Scales (VAS 0-10) and consumption of different analgesics was recorded daily until 96 hours postoperatively. Uni- and multivariate risk factors for pain peaks (≥ 4/10) were identified by logistic regression and compared between two propensity score matched groups (open vs. laparoscopic). 156 open and 176 laparoscopic procedures were included. Mean VAS scores were consistently < 3 until 96 hours at rest and at mobilization. Patients operated by laparoscopy experienced more pain peaks (≥ 4) within 24 hours (p < 0.05), while patients operated by open approach experienced more pain peaks (≥ 4) during mobilization at 72 hours (p < 0.05). Independent risk factors for insufficient pain control (≥ 4) within 24 hours from surgery were duration of the procedure (OR 3.37, 95%CI 2.03-5.59), emergency surgery (OR 3.01, 95%CI 1.72-5.31), wound infiltration (OR 3.23, 95%CI 0.97-10.70), age < 70 years (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.18-3.48) and ASA I-II score (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.19-3.56). The perioperative adding of lidocaine ± ketamine to opioids did not improve postoperative pain perception nor decrease morphine equivalents. In conclusion, overall pain scores were low after colorectal surgery. However, pain peaks remained a concern early after minimally invasive surgery and after epidural removal for open surgery. Multimodal strategies were not superior to opioids alone.
著者
Xuanjun Dong Jie Yang Lianqin Lou Liebo Zhu Xiayan Feng Linong Yao
出版者
バイオ&ソーシャル・サイエンス推進国際研究交流会
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017.01113, (Released:2017-06-18)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
2

This study reviewed and analyzed data on malaria cases in Yiwu from 2012 to 2016 via a webbased system for managing and reporting information on infectious diseases. A total of 161 cases were diagnosed (77.02% due to Plasmodium falciparum, 18.01% due to P. vivax, 4.35% due to P. ovale, and 0.62% due to P. malariae). One case was imported from Yunnan Province in China and the others were imported from overseas. The ratio of male to female patients was 7.47:1. The average age was 36.34 years (SD: 9.63). Most cases (87.58%) were imported from 1 of 30 countries in Africa. As malaria is gradually being eliminated in China, the main task at this stage has transitioned to the prevention and control of cases of imported malaria. Particular attention should be paid to malaria cases from Africa.
著者
Zhi Chen Shan He Fan Li Junxiang Yin Xiaoliang Chen
出版者
International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
雑誌
BioScience Trends (ISSN:18817815)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.01110, (Released:2020-04-01)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
3

During the COVID-19 outbreak, China made great progress in controlling the epidemic, and the number of confirmed and suspected cases continues to decrease thanks to the various efforts employed. Mobile field hospitals have played a huge role in the centralized management of patients and they have effectively reduced transmission. This article describes some of our experiences operating mobile field hospitals in order to provide a reference and to better inform countries that are dealing with this crisis.