著者
Mariko Harada-Shiba Takao Ohta Akira Ohtake Masatsune Ogura Kazushige Dobashi Atsushi Nohara Shizuya Yamashita Koutaro Yokote Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.CR002, (Released:2018-02-06)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
7

This paper describes consensus statement by Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) in order to improve prognosis of FH.FH is a common genetic disease caused by mutations in genes related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway. Because patients with FH have high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from the birth, atherosclerosis begins and develops during childhood which determines the prognosis. Therefore, in order to reduce their lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease, patients with FH need to be diagnosed as early as possible and appropriate treatment should be started.Diagnosis of pediatric heterozygous FH patients is made by LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL, and family history of FH or premature CAD. When the diagnosis is made, they need to improve their lifestyle including diet and exercise which sometimes are not enough to reduce LDL-C levels. For pediatric FH aged ≥10 years, pharmacotherapy needs to be considered if the LDL-C level is persistently above 180 mg/dL. Statins are the first line drugs starting from the lowest dose and are increased if necessary. The target LDL-C level should ideally be <140 mg/dL. Assessment of atherosclerosis is mainly performed by noninvasive methods such as ultrasound.For homozygous FH patients, the diagnosis is made by existence of skin xanthomas or tendon xanthomas from infancy, and untreated LDL-C levels are approximately twice those of heterozygous FH parents. The responsiveness to pharmacotherapy should be ascertained promptly and if the effect of treatment is not enough, LDL apheresis needs to be immediately initiated.
著者
Yutaka Igarashi Yoshie Nogami
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.42937, (Released:2018-05-08)
参考文献数
50

Aim: No meta-analysis has examined the effect of regular aquatic endurance exercise on lipid and lipoprotein levels. The purpose of the current work was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of regular aquatic endurance exercise on lipid and lipoprotein levels.Methods: The inclusion criteria of the randomized controlled trials were healthy adults in an exercise group performing regular aquatic exercise and a control group not exercising, with a description of the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, or triglyceride levels provided. The net change in the lipid and lipoprotein levels was calculated from each trial, and the changes in the lipid and lipoprotein levels were pooled using a random effects model.Results: The meta-analysis examined 10 trials involving aquatic endurance exercise and 327 subjects. The pooled net changes in HDL-C, LDL-C, and total cholesterol improved significantly (HDL-C, 4.6 mg/dL; LDL-C, -10.1 mg/dL; total cholesterol, -8.5 mg/dL). When trials were limited to those involving only women, the pooled net changes in HDL-C, LDL-C, and total cholesterol improved significantly. When trials were limited to those involving subjects with a mean age <60 years, the pooled net changes in HDL-C, total cholesterol, and triglyceride improved significantly. When trials were limited to those with dyslipidemia, the pooled net changes in HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, and triglyceride improved significantly.Conclusions: Aquatic endurance exercise improved the lipid and lipoprotein levels and benefited women, middle-aged subjects, and patients with dyslipidemia in particular.
著者
Yutaka Igarashi Nobuhiko Akazawa Seiji Maeda
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.45864, (Released:2018-10-31)
参考文献数
63

Aim: The purpose of the current work was to review the effects of regular aerobic exercise on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in East Asians using meta-analysis. Methods: The randomized controlled trials analyzed involved healthy adults who were East Asians with a mean age ≥40 years, an exercise group that only performed regular aerobic exercise, and a control group that did not carry out exercise-related intervention; the trials indicated mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), or triglyceride (TG). The mean difference (MD) was defined as the difference (mean value at post-intervention in the exercise group-mean value at baseline in the exercise group)-(mean value at post-intervention in the control group-mean value at baseline in the control group) in HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG and was calculated for each trial. The weighted MD was calculated with a random-effects model. Results: The meta-analysis examined 994 subjects in 25 studies. The weighted MD in HDL-C, TC, and TG improved significantly (HDL-C, 2.2 mg/dL; TC, -5.8 mg/dL; TG, -13.7 mg/dL). The weighted MD in HDL-C and TC contained significant heterogeneity (HDL-C, I2=45.1%; TC, I2=56.2%). When trials were limited to those involving moderate-intensity exercise (55%–69% of the maximum heart rate) or an exercise volume ≥150 min/week, the weighted MD in HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG improved significantly and did not contain significant heterogeneity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the ideal form of exercise to improve lipid and lipoprotein levels in East Asians is exercise of moderate-intensity and in a volume ≥150 min/week.
著者
Michio Shimabukuro Yoshimasa Hasegawa Moritake Higa Rie Amano Hirotsugu Yamada Shunsaku Mizushima Hiroaki Masuzaki Masataka Sata
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.8, pp.854-868, 2015-08-26 (Released:2015-08-26)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
10 6

Aim: The prevalence of overweight and a change in atherosclerotic lipid profiles may be linked to region-specific differences in atherosclerotic diseases. We evaluated whether the lipid phenotype could be linked to region- and sex-specific differences in the degree of atherosclerosis.Methods: Non-diabetic subjects included Okinawa (n=1674) and Nagano (n=1392) residents aged 30–75 years who underwent carotid ultrasonography for the measurement of maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT).Results: Average max IMT was higher in Okinawa men and women, and the increase in max IMT with age was enhanced in men. Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to age and systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were IMT determinants only in men for both Okinawa and Nagano. Meanwhile, HDL-cholesterol was a determinant for Okinawa men and women, but not for Nagano men and women.Conclusions: This is the first report to show region- and sex-specific differences in the determinants for max IMT in a Japanese population. The evaluation of the relationship between lipid profile patterns and region- and sex-specific differences in carotid atherosclerosis burden may be required.
著者
Shen Gao Dong Zhao Yue Qi Wei Wang Miao Wang Jiayi Sun Jun Liu Yan Li Jing Liu
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.43299, (Released:2018-03-07)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
2

Aims: To investigate the association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and to examine whether this link is independent of other low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related parameters.Methods: Totally, 804 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline completed risk factor surveys and carotid ultrasound measurements in 2002 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was performed to examine the association between baseline serum ox-LDL levels and the 10-year risk of progression of carotid atherosclerosis which was defined as the development of at least one new plaque in a previously plaque-free carotid segment at re-examination.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 58.6±7.7 years at baseline and 43.3% were men. A total of 504 (62.7%) subjects had carotid plaque progression at re-examination. Subjects in the intermediate and highest tertiles of ox-LDL had a significantly higher adjusted risk of atherosclerosis progression than those in the lowest tertile [relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.17 (1.01–1.34) for the intermediate tertile and 1.23 (1.07–1.42) for the highest tertile]. This association was independent of baseline levels of LDL-C, total LDL particle number, and small LDL particle number.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that serum ox-LDL levels predict 10-year progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Moreover, this effect is independent of the cholesterol content, the number, and the size of LDL particles.
著者
Mariko Harada-Shiba Hidenori Arai Yasushi Ishigaki Shun Ishibashi Tomonori Okamura Masatsune Ogura Kazushige Dobashi Atsushi Nohara Hideaki Bujo Katsumi Miyauchi Shizuya Yamashita Koutaro Yokote Working Group by Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Familial Hypercholesterolemia
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.CR003, (Released:2018-06-07)
参考文献数
74
被引用文献数
9

Statement1. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal hereditary disease with the 3 major clinical features of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, premature coronary artery disease and tendon and skin xanthomas. As there is a considerably high risk of coronary artery disease, in addition to early diagnosis and intensive treatment, family screening (cascade screening) is required (Recommendation level A)2.For a diagnosis of FH, at least 2 of the following criteria should be satisfied:① LDL-C ≥180 mg/dL, ② Tendon/skin xanthomas, ③ History of FH or premature coronary artery disease (CAD) within 2nd degree blood relatives (Recommendation level A)3. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy is necessary for the treatment of FH. First-line drug should be statin. (Recommendation level A, evidence level 3)4.Screening for coronary artery disease as well as asymptomatic atherosclerosis should be conducted periodically in FH patients. (Recommendation level A)5. For homozygous FH, consider LDL apheresis and treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors or MTP inhibitors. (Recommendation level A)6.For severe forms of heterozygous FH who have resistant to drug therapy, consider PCSK9 inhibitors and LDL apheresis. (Recommendation level A)7.Refer FH homozygotes as well as heterozygotes who are resistant to drug therapy, who are children or are pregnant or have the desire to bear children to a specialist. (Recommendation level A)
著者
Naofumi Yoshida Kengo Sasaki Daisuke Sasaki Tomoya Yamashita Hajime Fukuda Tomohiro Hayashi Tokiko Tabata Ro Osawa Ken-ichi Hirata Akihiko Kondo
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47415, (Released:2018-12-27)
参考文献数
49

Aim: Bacteroides vulgatus and B. dorei have a protective effect against atherosclerosis, suggesting that expansion of these species in the gut microbiota could help patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistant starch (RS) on the gut microbiota and its metabolites in fecal sample cultures from patients with CAD and individuals without CAD, using a single-batch fermentation system.Methods: Fecal samples from 11 patients with CAD and 10 individuals without CAD were fermented for 30 h with or without RS in the Kobe University Human Intestinal Microbiota Model (KUHIMM). Gut microbiota and the abundance of B. vulgatus and B. dorei were analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Short-chain fatty acids were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography.Results: Gut microbial analysis showed significantly lower levels of B. vulgatus and B. dorei in the original fecal samples from patients with CAD, which was simulated after 30 h of fermentation in the KUHIMM. Although RS significantly increased the absolute numbers of B. vulgatus and B. dorei, and butyrate levels in CAD fecal sample cultures, the numbers varied among each patient.Conclusions: The effect of RS on gut microbiota and its metabolites in the KUHIMM varied between CAD and non-CAD fecal sample cultures. The KUHIMM may be useful for preclinical evaluations of the effects of RS on the gut microbiota and its metabolites.
著者
Haruo Ohnishi Yasushi Saito
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.12, pp.861-877, 2013-12-19 (Released:2013-12-19)
参考文献数
101
被引用文献数
37 39

The clinical efficacy of fish oil and high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (hp-EPA-E) for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. Fish oil contains saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that have pharmacological effects opposite to those of ω3 fatty acids (ω3). Moreover, ω3, such as EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), do not necessarily have the same metabolic and biological actions. This has obscured the clinical efficacy of ω3. Recently, the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) of hp-EPA-E established the clinical efficacy of EPA for CVD, and higher levels of blood EPA, not DHA, were found to be associated with a lower incidence of major coronary events. A significant reduction in the risk of coronary events was observed when the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA) (EPA/AA) was >0.75. Furthermore, the ratio of prostaglandin (PG) I3 and PGI2 to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) ([PGI2+PGI3]/TXA2) was determined to have a linear relationship with the EPA/AA ratio as follows: (PGI2+PGI3)/TXA2 =λ+π* (EPA/AA). Like PGI2, PGI3 not only inhibits platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction, but also is assumed to reduce cardiac ischemic injury and arteriosclerosis and promote angiogenesis. Thus, the effects of EPA in reducing the risk of CVD could be mediated by biological action of PGI3 in addition to hypotriglyceridemic action of EPA. Compared with DHA, EPA administration increases the EPA/AA ratio and the (PGI2+PGI3)/TXA2 balance to a state that inhibits the onset and/or progression of CVD.
著者
Mariko Harada-Shiba John J.P. Kastelein G. Kees Hovingh Kausik K. Ray Akira Ohtake Osamu Arisaka Takao Ohta Tomoo Okada Hideki Suganami Albert Wiegman
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.42242, (Released:2017-11-29)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2

Aim: Children with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) are widely prescribed statins, and it has been suggested that the effects of statins differ among ethnicities. We compared the efficacy and safety of pitavastatin in children and adolescents with FH in clinical trials conducted in Japan and Europe.
著者
Tamio Teramoto Makiko Usami Yoshiharu Takagi Marie T. Baccara-Dinet for the ODYSSEY Japan Investigators
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.45070, (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
39

Aim: To examine the efficacy and safety of alirocumab in Japanese patients with dyslipidemia with or without diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods: Patients (n=216) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH), non-FH at high cardiovascular risk with coronary artery disease (CAD), or category III (primary prevention) were enrolled; 148 (68.5%) patients had a diagnosis of DM at baseline. Patients were randomized (2:1), with stratification factor (heFH, non-FH), to alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks [Q2W] with increase to 150 mg if week 8 LDL-C was above predefined limits) or placebo subcutaneously for 52 weeks on top of stable statin therapy.Results: At Week 24, least square (LS) mean±standard error changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration from baseline in alirocumab-treated patients were -63.1±1.6% and -60.8±2.7% in those with and without DM. These LDL-C reductions were maintained to Week 52: -63.0±1.6% (LS mean difference vs placebo -62.4±3.0%; P<0.0001) with DM and -61.3±2.8% (LS mean difference vs placebo -53.4±4.0%; P<0.0001) without DM. The most common adverse events in the alirocumab group were nasopharyngitis, back pain, injection site reaction, and fall. No particular safety signals or concerns were noted between DM and non-DM groups at 52 weeks. A dose-increase in alirocumab from 75 to 150 mg Q2W was necessary in two heFH patients, neither of whom had DM.Conclusions: In high-cardiovascular-risk Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia on stable statin therapy, alirocumab produced substantial and sustained LDL-C reductions throughout the 52-week study regardless of DM status at baseline, with a similar safety profile to placebo.
著者
Mikio Mukai Keiko Komori Toru Oka
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.RV17027, (Released:2018-09-14)
参考文献数
52

The advent of new chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic treatments has markedly improved outcomes in patients with cancer. However, increasing numbers of elderly patients with cancer and prolonged periods of treatment have made the management of cardiovascular complications and treatment-induced cardiotoxicity an important concern, and onco-cardiology has received increasing attention. The number of patients with cardiotoxicity, particularly atherosclerotic lesions, and the usage of angiogenesis inhibitors have increased, making the involvement of onco-cardiologists essential for effective disease management. A paradigm shift in immunotherapy was caused by the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Because vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) in the cancer microenvironment and cancer immune function are interrelated angiogenesis inhibitors will most likely play an increasingly important role in combined immunotherapy. To ensure the optimal long-term diagnosis and long-term treatment of cancer and the effective management of treatment-related atherosclerotic diseases, the long-term continuous participation of onco-cardiologists is essential.
著者
Ken Harada Hitomi Suzuki Shun Matsunaga Tomohiro Onishi Yoshinori Nishikawa Hiroshi Funakubo Kumiko Mamiya Tomoyuki Nagao Norihiro Shinoda Shinichi Sakai Masataka Kato Nobuyuki Marui Hideki Ishii Tetsuya Amano Tatsuaki Matsubara Toyoaki Murohara
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.42663, (Released:2018-02-01)
参考文献数
30

Aim: Increased epicardial fat volume (EFV) is an independent risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although EFV increases with body mass index (BMI), some ACS patients have an increased EFV but normal BMI. We here investigated the clinical characteristics of nonobese ACS patients with an increased EFV.Methods: A total of 197 Japanese patients hospitalized for ACS was evaluated for EFV, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA), and lipid and glucose profiles. Control subjects comprised 141 individuals who were suspected of having ACS but whose coronary computed tomography findings were normal.Results: EFV was increased in ACS patients compared with control subjects (120±47 versus 95±45 mL, P<0.01). ACS patients were divided into four groups based on average EFV (120 mL) and a BMI obesity cutoff of 25 kg/m2. For the 30 nonobese ACS patients with an above-average EFV, EFV was positively correlated with VFA (r=0.23, P=0.031). These individuals were significantly older (74±10 years) and tended to have a higher homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance value (5.5±3.8) compared with other ACS patients. Among nonobese study subjects, EFV was independently associated with ACS (odds ratio=2.01, P=0.021) and correlated with abdominal circumference (r=0.26, P=0.017).Conclusion: Nonobese ACS patients with an increased EFV were elderly and tended to manifest insulin resistance. Measurement of EFV may prove informative for evaluation of ACS risk among elderly nonobese individuals with an increased abdominal girth.
著者
Hiroshige Itakura Mitsuhiro Yokoyama Masunori Matsuzaki Yasushi Saito Hideki Origasa Yuichi Ishikawa Shinichi Oikawa Jun Sasaki Hitoshi Hishida Toru Kita Akira Kitabatake Noriaki Nakaya Toshiie Sakata Kazuyuki Shimada Kunio Shirato Yuji Matsuzawa
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.99-107, 2011 (Released:2011-02-24)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
98 100 39

Aim: The Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) was the first prospective randomized clinical trial to demonstrate prevention of coronary events by pure eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between various plasma fatty acid concentrations and the risk of coronary events in JELIS participants.Methods: In 15,534 participants, we calculated the hazard ratio for major coronary events (sudden cardiac death, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, and angioplasty/stenting or coronary artery bypass grafting) relative to the on-treatment average level of plasma fatty acids with the Cox proportional hazard model.Results: As a result of EPA intervention, the plasma EPA concentration increased, but the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration did not. The other fatty acids measured decreased slightly. The higher plasma level of EPA (hazard ratio=0.83, p=0.049, in all participants and hazard ratio=0.71, p=0.018, in the EPA intervention group), but not of DHA, was inversely associated with the risk of major coronary events. The associations between other fatty acids and the risk of major coronary events were not significant. In all JELIS participants, the risk of major coronary events was significantly decreased (20%) in the group with high (150 µg/mL or more) on-treatment plasma EPA concentration compared with that in the low (less than 87 µg/mL) group.Conclusion: The risk of coronary artery disease is influenced by variations in plasma fatty acid composition. Among n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA exhibited differences in the correlation with the risk of major coronary events.
著者
Yoko Yoshida Hideki Kato Yoichiro Ikeda Masaomi Nangaku
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.RV17026, (Released:2018-11-02)
参考文献数
98

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) defined by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and renal failure. aHUS is caused by uncontrolled complement activation in the alternative pathway (AP). A variety of genetic defects in complement-related factors or acquired autoantibodies to the complement regulators have been found in 50 to 60% of all cases. Recently, however, the classification and diagnosis of aHUS are becoming more complicated. One reason for this is that some factors, which have not been regarded as complement-related factors, have been reported as predisposing factors for phenotypic aHUS. Given that genotype is highly correlated with the phenotype of aHUS, careful analysis of underlying genetic abnormalities or acquired factors is needed to predict the prognosis or to decide an optimal treatment for the disease. Another reason is that complement dysregulation in the AP have also been found in a part of other types of TMA such as transplantation-related TMA and pregnancy-related complication. Based on these findings, it is now time to redefine aHUS according to the genetic or acquired background of abnormalities.Here, we review the pathogeneses and the corresponding phenotypes of aHUS and complement-related TMAs.
著者
Ehimen C Aneni Chukwuemeka U Osondu Javier De La Cruz Seth S Martin Michael J Blaha Adnan Younus Theodore Feldman Arthur S Agatston Emir Veledar Khurram Nasir
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.40741, (Released:2018-09-14)
参考文献数
27

Aims: There is limited knowledge about the association of lipoprotein particles and markers of coronary atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcification (CAC) in relatively young high-risk persons. This study examines the association of lipoprotein subfractions and CAC in high cardiometabolic risk individuals.Methods: The study presents analysis from baseline data of a randomized trial targeted at high-risk workers. Employees of Baptist Health South Florida with metabolic syndrome or diabetes were recruited. At baseline, all 182 participants had lipoprotein subfraction analysis using the ion mobility technique and participants above 35 years (N=170) had CAC test done. Principal components (PC) were computed for the combination of lipoprotein subclasses. Multiple bootstrapped regression analyses (BSA) were conducted to assess the relationship between lipoprotein subfractions and CAC.Results: The study population (N=170) was largely female (84%) with a mean age of 58 years. Three PCs accounted for 88% variation in the sample. PC2, with main contributions from VLDL particles in the positive direction and large LDL particles in the negative direction was associated with a 22% increase in CAC odds (P value <0.05 in 100% of BSA). PC3, with main contributions from HDL lipoprotein particles in the positive direction and small/medium LDL and large IDL particles in the negative direction, was associated with a 9% reduction in CAC odds (P<0.05 in 88% of BSA). PC1, which had approximately even contributions from HDL, LDL, IDL and VLDL lipoprotein subfractions in the positive direction, was not associated with CAC.Conclusion: In a relatively young but high-risk population, a lipoprotein profile predominated by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was associated with increased risk of CAC, while one predominated by HDL lipoproteins offered modest protection. Lipoprotein sub-fraction analysis may help to further discriminate patients who require more intensive cardiovascular work-up and treatment.
著者
Ayako Kurihara Tomonori Okamura Daisuke Sugiyama Aya Higashiyama Makoto Watanabe Nagako Okuda Aya Kadota Naoko Miyagawa Akira Fujiyoshi Katsushi Yoshita Takayoshi Ohkubo Akira Okayama Katsuyuki Miura Hirotsugu Ueshima for the NIPPON DATA90 Research Group
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.44172, (Released:2018-08-09)
参考文献数
36

Aim: To examine the relationship between the intake of dietary vegetable protein and CVD mortality in a 15-year follow-up study of a representative sample of the Japanese population.Methods: A total of 7,744 participants aged 30 years or older (3,224 males and 4,520 females) who were free of CVD at baseline were included in this analysis. Vegetable protein intake (% energy) was assessed using a three-day semi-weighed dietary record at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjusting for confounding factors.Results: The total person-years studied were 107,988 with a mean follow-up period of 13.9 years. There were 1,213 deaths during the follow-up period, among which 354 (29.2%) were due to CVD. Vegetable protein intake was associated inversely with CVD and cerebral hemorrhage mortality, with the HRs for a 1% energy increment in vegetable protein intake being 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75–0.99) and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35–0.95), respectively. In the subgroup analysis of participants with or without hypertension, the inverse association between vegetable protein intake and CVD mortality was more evident in the nonhypertensive group, with the HRs for CVD and stroke being 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50–0.94) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.30–0.84), respectively.Conclusions: Vegetable protein intake may prevent future CVD, particularly in nonhypertensive subjects in the Japanese population. However, further studies are necessary to examine the biological mechanisms of this effect.
著者
Maki Yamashita Naoki Tamasawa Kota Matsuki Jutaro Tanabe Hiroshi Murakami Jun Matsui Toshihiro Suda
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.11, pp.1183-1189, 2010 (Released:2010-11-27)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
8 9

Aims: We studied the effect of insulin on HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The potential involvement of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis and membrane cholesterol transport was also addressed.Methods: Human monocyte-derived THP-1 cells were developed into macrophages. Cholesterol efflux was measured by incubating macrophages, labeled with [3H]-cholesterol, with HDL for 24 h. The cells were treated with insulin (0-500 nM) for 30 min prior to the addition of HDL. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the effect of insulin, the expressions of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase (nCEH) and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) G1 were analyzed.Results: Insulin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Insulin also inhibited the enzyme activity of nCEH and its mRNA and protein expression in cells. Insulin also suppressed the expressions of mRNA and protein for ABCG1.Conclusions: Insulin inhibits HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages, which may result from the suppression of nCEH and ABCG1 expressions. Our findings show part of the potential molecular mechanism of atherogenesis in type 2 diabetes with hyperinsulinemia.
著者
Enric Sánchez Àngels Betriu Andree Yeramian Elvira Fernández Francesc Purroy Manuel Sánchez-de-la-Torre Reinald Pamplona Eva Miquel Mohsen Kerkeni Cristina Hernández Rafael Simó Albert Lecube on behalf of the ILERVAS project ILERVAS Project: Marta Hernández Ferran Rius Dinora Polanco Ferran Barbé Gerard Torres Guillermo Suárez Manuel Portero-Otin Mariona Jové Laura Colàs-Campàs Ikram Benabdelhak Cristina Farràs Marta Ortega José Manuel Valdivielso Marcelino Bermúdez-López Montse Martínez-Alonso
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47498, (Released:2019-03-06)
参考文献数
48

Aim: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been involved in the atherogenic process in the high-risk population. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that AGEs are related to subclinical atheromatous disease in subjects with low to moderate vascular risk.Methods: A cross-sectional study in which 2,568 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes without cardiovascular disease were included. Subcutaneous content of AGEs was assessed by skin autofluorescence (SAF) and subclinical atheromatous disease was measured by assessing the atheromatous plaque burden in carotid and femoral regions using ultrasonography. In addition, serum pentosidine, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and AGE receptors (RAGE) were assessed in a nested case-control study with 41 subjects without plaque and 41 individuals subjects with generalized disease.Results: Patients with atheromatous plaque had a higher SAF than those with no plaque (1.9 [1.7 to 2.3] vs. 1.8 [1.6 to 2.1] arbitrary units (AU), p<0.001). The SAF correlated with the total number of affected regions (r= 0.171, p<0.001), increasing progressively from 1.8 [1.6 to 2.1] AU in those without atheromatous disease to 2.3 [1.9 to 2.7] AU in patients with ≥ 8 plaques (p<0.001). A correlation was also observed between SAF and the total plaque area (r=0.113, p<0.001). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.65 (0.61 to 0.68) for identifying male subjects with atheromatous disease. The multivariable logistic regression model showed a significant and independent association between SAF and the presence of atheromatous disease. However, no significant differences in serum pentosidine, CML, and RAGE were observed.Conclusions: Increased subcutaneous content of AGEs is associated with augmented atheromatous plaque burden. Our results suggest that SAF may provide clinically relevant information to the current strategies for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, especially among the male population.
著者
Hung Hsu Powen Hsu Ming-Hui Cheng Yasuki Ito Eiichiro Kanda Ernst J Schaefer Masumi Ai
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.48330, (Released:2019-02-07)
参考文献数
49

Aims: Prediabetes and diabetes are associated with increased insulin resistance and decreased insulin production, dyslipidemia, and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our goals were to assess lipoprotein subfractions using novel assays in such subjects.Methods: Fasting normal, prediabetic, and diabetic Taiwanese men and women (n=2,049) had their serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL3-C, apolipoprotein E-HDL-C, direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), small dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C), LDL-TG, and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels measured using novel assays. HDL2-C, LDL-C, and large-buoyant LDL-C (lbLDL-C) were calculated.Results: Prediabetic male and female subjects had significantly higher levels of TG, RLP-C, sdLDL-C, the sdLDL-C/LDL-C ratio, and LDL-TG than normal subjects, and statin treatment abolished this effect in men, but not in women. Diabetic male and female subjects had significantly higher TG and sdLDL-C/LDL-C ratios, and significantly lower levels of HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, and apoE HDL-C than normal subjects, as did prediabetic women. Median direct LDL-C levels were >100 mg/dL in all groups, even in those receiving statin therapy. Calculated LDL-C significantly underestimated direct LDL-C by >10% in diabetic subjects.Conclusions: Our data indicate that prediabetic subjects were more likely to have significantly elevated RLP-C, sdLDL-C, and LDL-TG, while diabetic subjects were more likely to have significantly decreased HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, and apoE HDL-C than normal subjects, and calculated LDL-C significantly underestimated their direct LDL-C. In our view, direct LDL-C and sdLDL-C should be measured and optimized in both diabetic and prediabetic subjects to reduce CVD risk.
著者
Tsuyoshi Nozue Takeshi Takamura Kazuki Fukui Kiyoshi Hibi Satoru Kishi Ichiro Michishita
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.47621, (Released:2018-12-20)
参考文献数
29

Aim: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) accurately diagnoses ischemic lesions of intermediate stenosis severity. However, significant determinants of FFRCT have not been fully evaluated.Methods: This was a sub-analysis of the Treatment of Alogliptin on Coronary Atherosclerosis Evaluated by Computed Tomography-Based Fractional Flow Reserve trial. Thirty-nine diabetic patients (117 vessels) with intermediate coronary artery stenosis [percent diameter stenosis (%DS) <70%] in whom FFRCT was measured were included in this study. CCTA-defined, vessel-based volumetric and morphological characteristics of plaques were examined to determine their ability to predict FFRCT.Results: Patient-based, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that hemoglobinA1c, triglycerides, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were significant independent factors associated with FFRCT. Vessel-based, univariate linear regression analysis showed that the total atheroma volume (r=−0.233, p=0.01) and the percentage atheroma volume (PAV) (r=−0.284, p=0.002) as well as %DS (r=−0.316, p=0.006) were significant determinants of FFRCT. Among the plaque components, significant negative correlations were observed between FFRCT and low- (r=−0.248, p=0.007) or intermediate-attenuation plaque volume (r=−0.186, p=0.045), whereas calcified plaque volume was not associated with FFRCT. In the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the plaque volume of each component was associated with FFRCT.Conclusions: Plaque volume, PAV, and %DS were significant determinants of FFRCT. Plaque morphology, particularly in LAD, was associated with FFRCT in diabetic patients with intermediate coronary artery stenosis.