著者
Hirotsugu Ueshima
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0712140006, (Released:2007-12-17)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
192 217

Japan's age-adjusted rate for mortality from stroke increased after the Second World War until 1965 and then showed a significant decline until 1990; however, the age-adjusted rate for mortality from all heart disease and coronary heart disease (CHD) increased until 1970 and then declined slowly. A puzzling question is why the rate of mortality from CHD declined in spite of an increase in serum total cholesterol level following an increase in fat consumption.It was confirmed that CHD incidence was far lower in several Japanese populations compared to Western countries in the “ Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease ” (MONICA) project; therefore, the lower CHD mortality in Japan stems from the lower CHD incidence. CHD risk factors based on epidemiologic cohort studies in Japan were no different from those of other industrialized countries: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM). So, how can we explain this phenomenon?There are three possible explanations. One is the decline in population blood pressure level and the prevalence of hypertension during the years 1965-1990; the second is the decline in smoking rate in men and women; the third is that the serum total cholesterol level for middle-aged and elderly populations remains 5-15 mg/dL lower than that of the US elderly counterpart, although men aged 40-49 in Japan and the US had similar serum total cholesterol levels. It was also noted that elderly people in Japan, as observed in the Seven Countries Study, had far lower serum total cholesterol levels in midlife, i.e., around 160 mg/dL in the 1960s. This was not the case for elderly in the US where a higher serum total cholesterol level was observed in midlife.In conclusion, the lower serum cholesterol level in the past of Japanese middle-aged and elderly people compared to Western counterparts helps to maintain the low CHD incidence and mortality supported by the declining trend in blood pressure level and smoking rate for both men and women.
著者
Yunlu Liu Peng Chen Muradil Mutar Man Hung Zengwu Shao Yanjiu Han Wei Tong Yong Liu
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.57950, (Released:2020-08-29)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
9

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. Elderly patients or those with underlying diseases are more seriously affected. We report a case of COVID-19 infection in a geriatric patient with arteriovenous thrombosis of the right lower limb. Despite persistent anticoagulant therapy, the patient's arterial thrombosis continued to progress and presented with ischemic necrosis of the lower extremity. After amputation in this case, the levels of D-dimer and inflammatory cytokine increased progressively, and he presented with acute myocardial infarction, which progressed rapidly to multisystem organ failure. However, whether coronavirus can directly cause the damage of the cardiovascular system and thrombosis needs further investigation.
著者
Mariko Harada-Shiba Takao Ohta Akira Ohtake Masatsune Ogura Kazushige Dobashi Atsushi Nohara Shizuya Yamashita Koutaro Yokote Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.CR002, (Released:2018-02-06)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
50

This paper describes consensus statement by Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) in order to improve prognosis of FH.FH is a common genetic disease caused by mutations in genes related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway. Because patients with FH have high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from the birth, atherosclerosis begins and develops during childhood which determines the prognosis. Therefore, in order to reduce their lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease, patients with FH need to be diagnosed as early as possible and appropriate treatment should be started.Diagnosis of pediatric heterozygous FH patients is made by LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL, and family history of FH or premature CAD. When the diagnosis is made, they need to improve their lifestyle including diet and exercise which sometimes are not enough to reduce LDL-C levels. For pediatric FH aged ≥10 years, pharmacotherapy needs to be considered if the LDL-C level is persistently above 180 mg/dL. Statins are the first line drugs starting from the lowest dose and are increased if necessary. The target LDL-C level should ideally be <140 mg/dL. Assessment of atherosclerosis is mainly performed by noninvasive methods such as ultrasound.For homozygous FH patients, the diagnosis is made by existence of skin xanthomas or tendon xanthomas from infancy, and untreated LDL-C levels are approximately twice those of heterozygous FH parents. The responsiveness to pharmacotherapy should be ascertained promptly and if the effect of treatment is not enough, LDL apheresis needs to be immediately initiated.
著者
Elena Zapata-Arriaza Manuel Medina-Rodriguez Joaquin Ortega-Quintanilla Asier De Albóniga-Chindurza Leire Ainz-Gómez Blanca Pardo-Galiana Juan Antonio Cabezas-Rodriguez Lucía Lebrato-Herández Ana Barragán-Prieto Soledad Pérez-Sánchez Aynara Zamora Joan Montaner Alejandro González García Francisco Moniche
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.63560, (Released:2022-08-21)
参考文献数
27

Aims: Carotid reocclusion (CRO) after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to tandem lesion (TL) or isolated internal carotid occlusion (ICO) is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to analyze the predictors and clinical impact of CRO. Methods: A retrospective single-center analysis of all patients with anterior circulation strokes who underwent MT prospectively included in a registry between 2017 and 2020 was performed. ICO and TL as stroke causes were included. Stent deployment was left to the discretion of the interventionist. All patients received at least intravenous aspirin during MT. CRO was assessed using ultrasound within the first 24 h after MT. Efficacy and safety of stenting were assessed. Results: Among 1304 AIS cases, 218 (16.7%) were related to TL or ICO. Of them, 5% (n=11) were associated with internal CRO 24 h after the endovascular procedure. After adjusting per confounders, multivariate analysis showed that the independent variables associated with CRO were the TICI recanalization grade [TICI 2b-3; OR 0.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.89, p=0.040], pial collateral circulation presence (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.45, p=0.03), stent deployment during MT (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03-0.84, p=0.030), and general anesthesia use (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.13-7.90, p=0.034). CRO showed a trend toward worst outcomes (modified Rankin scale 3-6) at 3 months (OR 3.4, 95% CI 0.96-12, p=0.057). After multivariate analysis, variables independently associated with worse outcomes at 90 days were intrastent platelet aggregation phenomena during endovascular therapy, admission National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and age. Conversely, intravenous thrombolysis and TICI 2b-3 recanalization grade were identified as independent predictors of good outcomes at 90 days. Conclusions: CRO has a relevant clinical impact in our study, associating lower rates of good functional outcomes at 3 months. Independent factors of CRO were the recanalization degree, presence of pial collateral circulation, use of a stent as a protective factor, and use of general anesthesia during thrombectomy.
著者
Takanori Honda Sanmei Chen Jun Hata Daigo Yoshida Yoichiro Hirakawa Yoshihiko Furuta Mao Shibata Satoko Sakata Takanari Kitazono Toshiharu Ninomiya
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.61960, (Released:2021-01-22)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
7

Aim: To develop and validate a new risk prediction model for predicting the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in Japanese adults. Methods: A total of 2,454 participants aged 40–84 years without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were prospectively followed up for 24 years. An incident ASCVD event was defined as the first occurrence of coronary heart disease or atherothrombotic brain infarction. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to construct the prediction model. In addition, a simplified scoring system was translated from the developed prediction model. The model performance was evaluated using Harrell's C statistics, a calibration plot with the Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino test, and a bootstrap validation procedure. Results: During a median of a 24-year follow-up, 270 participants experienced the first ASCVD event. The predictors of the ASCVD events in the multivariable Cox model included age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, proteinuria, smoking habits, and regular exercise. The developed models exhibited good discrimination with negligible evidence of overfitting (Harrell's C statistics: 0.786 for the multivariable model and 0.789 for the simplified score) and good calibrations (the Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino test: P=0.29 for the multivariable model, 0.52 for the simplified score). Conclusion: We constructed a risk prediction model for the development of ASCVD in Japanese adults. This prediction model exhibits great potential as a tool for predicting the risk of ASCVD in clinical practice by enabling the identification of specific risk factors for ASCVD in individual patients.
著者
Toshihide Izumida Yosikazu Nakamura Yumika Hino Shizukiyo Ishikawa
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.49528, (Released:2019-08-29)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
14

Aims: Small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are the novel atherosclerotic risk factors and might be strongly associated with inflammation. The basic evidence supports that sdLDL and RLP have some different mechanisms inducing an inflammatory response. Many studies have focused on the mechanism of inflammation of sdLDL-C or RLP-C per se, with limited data on the association between sdLDL-C and RLP-C in the real-world, population-based setting. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between sdLDL-C and RLP-C with inflammation. Methods: We examined the baseline cross-sectional data of participants from the Jichi Medical School-II Cohort Study. In total, 5,305 participants (2,439 men and 2,866 women) were included in this study. Results: Of all quartiles of sdLDL-C, the fourth had the highest high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level. Once adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic medication use, and RLP-C, sdLDL-C was significantly and positively associated with hs-CRP (geometric mean, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36 mg/L (0.34–0.38 mg/L), 0.37 mg/L (0.35–0.39 mg/L), 0.40 mg/L (0.37–0.42 mg/L) versus 0.44 mg/L (0.42–0.47 mg/L), P<0.001 for trend). After stratifying the participants into four sdLDL-C×four RLP-C categories, the group in the fourth sdLDL-C quartile and the forth RLP-C quartile had the highest hs-CRP level (geometric mean, 95% CI, 0.52 mg/L, 0.48–0.57 mg/L, interaction P=0.75). Conclusions: SdLDL-C and RLP-C had different associations with inflammation. Our results support sdLDL-C as the potential novel factor of cardiovascular disease, independently of RLP-C.
著者
Wei-Ting Wang Pai-Feng Hsu Chung-Chi Lin Yuan-Jen Wang Yaw-Zon Ding Teh-Ling Liou Ying-Wen Wang Shao-Sung Huang Tse-Min Lu Po-Hsun Huang Jaw-Wen Chen Wan-Leong Chan Shing-Jong Lin Hsin-Bang Leu
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.51425, (Released:2019-12-27)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
5

Aim: Coronary atherosclerotic plaques can be detected in asymptomatic subjects and are related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels in patients with coronary artery disease. However, researchers have not yet determined the associations between various plaque characteristics and other lipid parameters, such as HDL-C and TG levels, in low-risk populations. Methods: One thousand sixty-four non-diabetic subjects (age, 57.86±9.73 years; 752 males) who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were enrolled and the severity and patterns of atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed. Results: Statin use was reported by 25% of the study population, and subjects with greater coronary plaque involvement (segment involvement score, SIS) were older and had a higher body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, unfavorable lipid profiles and comorbidities. After adjusting for comorbidities, only age (β=0.085, p<0.001), the male gender (β=1.384, p<0.001), BMI (β=0.055, p=0.019) and HbA1C levels (β=0.894, p<0.001) were independent factors predicting the greater coronary plaque involvement in non-diabetic subjects. In the analysis of significantly different (>50%) stenosis plaque patterns, age (OR: 1.082, 95% CI: 10.47-1.118) and a former smoking status (OR: 2.061, 95% CI: 1.013-4.193) were independently associated with calcified plaques. For partial calcified (mixed type) plaques, only age (OR: 1.085, 95% CI: 1.052-1.119), the male gender (OR: 7.082, 95% CI: 2.638-19.018), HbA1C levels (OR: 2.074, 95% CI: 1.036-4.151), and current smoking status (OR: 1.848, 95% CI: 1.089-3.138) were independently associated with the risk of the presence of significant stenosis in mixed plaques. Conclusions: A higher HbA1c levels is independently associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis in non-diabetic subjects, even when LDL-C levels are tightly controlled.
著者
Yoshihiro Miyake Keiko Tanaka Chisato Nagata Hidenori Senba Yasuko Hasebe Toyohisa Miyata Takashi Higaki Eizen Kimura Bunzo Matsuura Ryuichi Kawamoto
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.63781, (Released:2022-09-30)
参考文献数
29

Aim: Epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between fish and fatty acid intake and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been limited and inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study investigated this issue using baseline data from the Aidai Cohort Study. Methods: Study subjects were 2024 Japanese men and women aged 34-88 years. Right and left CIMT were measured at the common carotid artery using an automated carotid ultrasonography device. Maximum CIMT was defined as the largest CIMT value in either the left or right common carotid artery. Carotid wall thickening was defined as a maximum CIMT value >1.0 mm. Results: The prevalence of carotid wall thickening was 13.0%. In men, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was independently positively related to the prevalence of carotid wall thickening, while no associations were found between intake of fish and the other fatty acids and carotid wall thickening or maximum CIMT. In women, intake levels of fish, n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were independently inversely associated with carotid wall thickening and intake levels of fish, n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid were independently inversely associated with the maximum CIMT. No significant relationships were found between intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, or monounsaturated fatty acids and carotid wall thickening or maximum CIMT regardless of sex. Conclusions: In women, higher intake of fish and n-3 and n-6 PUFA may be associated with a lower prevalence of carotid wall thickening and a decrease in maximum CIMT.
著者
Yutaka Igarashi Nobuhiko Akazawa Seiji Maeda
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.45864, (Released:2018-10-31)
参考文献数
63
被引用文献数
18

Aim: The purpose of the current work was to review the effects of regular aerobic exercise on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in East Asians using meta-analysis. Methods: The randomized controlled trials analyzed involved healthy adults who were East Asians with a mean age ≥40 years, an exercise group that only performed regular aerobic exercise, and a control group that did not carry out exercise-related intervention; the trials indicated mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), or triglyceride (TG). The mean difference (MD) was defined as the difference (mean value at post-intervention in the exercise group-mean value at baseline in the exercise group)-(mean value at post-intervention in the control group-mean value at baseline in the control group) in HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG and was calculated for each trial. The weighted MD was calculated with a random-effects model. Results: The meta-analysis examined 994 subjects in 25 studies. The weighted MD in HDL-C, TC, and TG improved significantly (HDL-C, 2.2 mg/dL; TC, -5.8 mg/dL; TG, -13.7 mg/dL). The weighted MD in HDL-C and TC contained significant heterogeneity (HDL-C, I2=45.1%; TC, I2=56.2%). When trials were limited to those involving moderate-intensity exercise (55%–69% of the maximum heart rate) or an exercise volume ≥150 min/week, the weighted MD in HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG improved significantly and did not contain significant heterogeneity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the ideal form of exercise to improve lipid and lipoprotein levels in East Asians is exercise of moderate-intensity and in a volume ≥150 min/week.
著者
Hisanori Horiuchi Eriko Morishita Tetsumei Urano Kenji Yokoyama the Questionnaire-survey Joint Team on The COVID-19-related thrombosis
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.4, pp.406-416, 2021-04-01 (Released:2021-04-01)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
30

A questionnaire on COVID-19-related thrombosis in patients hospitalized before Aug 31, 2020, was sent to 399 hospitals throughout Japan. Responses were received from 111 (27.8%) with information on 6,202 COVID-19 patients. Of these, 333 and 56 required ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), respectively, and 212 died (3.4%). D-dimer levels were measured in 75.0% of the patients, revealing that 9.2% and 7.6% exhibited D-dimer increases of 3-8-fold and ≥8-fold the reference value, respectively. Thrombotic events occurred in 108 patients (1.86% of the 5,807 patients with available data) including symptomatic cerebral infarction in 24, myocardial infarction in 7, deep vein thrombosis in 41, pulmonary thromboembolism in 30, and other thrombotic events in 22. Some patients developed multiple thrombotic events. Thrombosis occurred in 32 patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 severity (0.59% of those with data available) and in 52 patients on ventilation or ECMO (13.5% of severe patients for whom data were available). Thrombosis occurred in 67 patients during worsening clinical condition and in 26 during recovery. Anticoagulant therapy was provided to 893 patients (14.6% of the 6,119 patients with available data), the main reasons being provided as elevated D-dimer levels and worsening clinical condition.
著者
Mayu Higashioka Satoko Sakata Takanori Honda Jun Hata Daigo Yoshida Yoichiro Hirakawa Mao Shibata Kenichi Goto Takanari Kitazono Haruhiko Osawa Toshiharu Ninomiya
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.51961, (Released:2019-11-11)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
31

Aims: This study aims to investigate the association between serum small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) cholesterol level and the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Japanese community. Methods: A total of 3,080 participants without prior cardiovascular disease, aged 40 years or older, were followed up for 8 years. The participants were divided into the quartiles of serum sdLDL cholesterol levels. The risk estimates were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: During the follow-up period, 79 subjects developed CHD. Subjects in the highest quartile had a 5.41- fold (95% confidence interval, 2.12–13.82) higher risk of CHD than those in the lowest quartile after controlling for confounders. In the analysis classifying the participants into four groups according to the levels of serum sdLDL cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, the risk of CHD almost doubled in subjects with sdLDL cholesterol of ≥ 32.9 mg/dL (median), regardless of serum LDL cholesterol levels, as compared with subjects with serum sdLDL cholesterol of <32.9 mg/dL and serum LDL cholesterol of <120.1 mg/dL (median). When serum sdLDL cholesterol levels were incorporated into a model with known cardiovascular risk factors, c-statistics was significantly increased (from 0.77 to 0.79; p=0.02), and the net reclassification improvement was also significant (0.40; p<0.001). Conclusions: The present findings suggest that the serum sdLDL cholesterol level is a relevant biomarker for the future development of CHD that offers benefit beyond the serum LDL cholesterol level and a possible therapeutic target to reduce the burden of CHD in a Japanese community.
著者
Yutaka Igarashi Yoshie Nogami
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.42937, (Released:2018-05-08)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
13

Aim: No meta-analysis has examined the effect of regular aquatic endurance exercise on lipid and lipoprotein levels. The purpose of the current work was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of regular aquatic endurance exercise on lipid and lipoprotein levels.Methods: The inclusion criteria of the randomized controlled trials were healthy adults in an exercise group performing regular aquatic exercise and a control group not exercising, with a description of the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, or triglyceride levels provided. The net change in the lipid and lipoprotein levels was calculated from each trial, and the changes in the lipid and lipoprotein levels were pooled using a random effects model.Results: The meta-analysis examined 10 trials involving aquatic endurance exercise and 327 subjects. The pooled net changes in HDL-C, LDL-C, and total cholesterol improved significantly (HDL-C, 4.6 mg/dL; LDL-C, -10.1 mg/dL; total cholesterol, -8.5 mg/dL). When trials were limited to those involving only women, the pooled net changes in HDL-C, LDL-C, and total cholesterol improved significantly. When trials were limited to those involving subjects with a mean age <60 years, the pooled net changes in HDL-C, total cholesterol, and triglyceride improved significantly. When trials were limited to those with dyslipidemia, the pooled net changes in HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, and triglyceride improved significantly.Conclusions: Aquatic endurance exercise improved the lipid and lipoprotein levels and benefited women, middle-aged subjects, and patients with dyslipidemia in particular.
著者
Yasuyuki Nakanishi Yoshihiko Furuta Jun Hata Tomohiro Yubi Emi Oishi Satoko Sakata Yoichiro Hirakawa Yoshinobu Wakisaka Tetsuro Ago Takanari Kitazono Toshiharu Ninomiya
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.63344, (Released:2022-02-19)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
2

Aim: Secular trends in the risk of recurrent stroke have been reported in several epidemiological studies worldwide, but this issue has not been investigated in general Japanese populations. We examined the trends in the 5-year risk of recurrent stroke over a half century using community-based prospective data in Japan. Methods: We established 4 cohort studies in 1961, 1974, 1988, and 2002. To examine the risk of recurrent stroke, participants who developed stroke during a 10-year follow-up period in each cohort were followed-up for 5 years from the date of first onset. A total of 154 (first sub-cohort: 1961-1971), 144 (second sub-cohort: 1974-1984), 172 (third sub-cohort: 1988-1998), and 146 (fourth sub-cohort: 2002-2012) participants from each cohort were enrolled in the present study. The 5-year cumulative risk of recurrent stroke was compared among the sub-cohorts using the Kaplan-Meier method and the age- and sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The risks of recurrent stroke after any stroke and ischemic stroke decreased significantly from the first to the third sub-cohort, but they did not clearly change from the third to the fourth sub-cohort. The risk of recurrent stroke after hemorrhagic stroke decreased mainly from the first to the second sub-cohort and there was no apparent decrease from the second to the fourth sub-cohort. These trends were substantially unchanged after adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions: In the Japanese community, the risk of recurrent stroke decreased mainly from the 1960s to 1990s, but there was no apparent decrease in recent years.
著者
Chizuko Maruyama Kayoko Imamura Tamio Teramoto
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.3, pp.186-191, 2003 (Released:2004-02-18)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
97 112

Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an atherogenic lipoprotein because of its susceptibility to oxidative modification. However, evaluating LDL size requires highly sophisticated techniques. We investigated potentially convenient biochemical parameters for assessing the presence of small, dense LDL. Thirty-nine male subjects, who had been involved in a work-site health promotion program, were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups: normal LDL size (> 25.5 nm, Normal LDL group) and small LDL (≤ 25.5 nm, Small LDL group). Significant negative correlations were observed between LDL size and both triglyceride (TG) (p < 0.001) and remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.01), while there was a significant positive correlation between LDL size and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration (p < 0.01). The TG concentration was a negative and the HDL-C concentration a positive independent variable predicting LDL size in multiple regression analysis (p < 0.0001). Seventy-five percent of the Small LDL group had TG/HDL-C ratios higher than 0.9 using mmol/L or 2.0 using mg/dL, while only 25% of the normal LDL group had ratios above the levels (p = 0.0013). A combined parameter, the TG/HDL-C ratio, is beneficial for assessing the presence of small LDL.
著者
Jonathan Golledge Aaron Drovandi
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.62778, (Released:2021-03-21)
参考文献数
77
被引用文献数
8

Patients with lower limb artery stenosis or occlusion (peripheral artery disease; PAD) have been determined to be at very high risk of both major adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, and major adverse limb events, such as amputation and requirement for artery surgery.Effective medical management has been identified as key in reducing this risk; however, this is often poorly implemented in clinical practice. Thus, the aim of this narrative review was to summarize the current evidence on the medical management of PAD in order to inform clinicians and highlight recommendations for clinical practice. International guidelines, randomized controlled trials, and relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been included in this study. The focus was the management of the key modifiable risk factors to mitigate possible adverse events through prescription of anti-platelet and anticoagulation drugs and medications to control low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and diabetes and aid smoking cessation. The available evidence from randomized clinical trials provide a strong rationale for the need for holistic medical management programs that are effective in achieving uptake of these medical therapies in patients with PAD. In conclusion, people with PAD have some of the highest adverse event rates among those with cardiovascular diseases. Secondary preventive measures have been proven effective in reducing these adverse events; however, they remain to be adequately implemented. Thus, the need for an effective implementation program has emerged to reduce adverse events in this patient group.
著者
Masaki Hayakawa Keisuke Takano Michinori Kayashima Kei Kasahara Hidetada Fukushima Masanori Matsumoto
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.58362, (Released:2020-10-28)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
15

Patients with severe COVID-19 often experience complications including coagulopathy and fatal thrombosis. COVID-19 pneumonia sometimes leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), during which thrombosis and bleeding are major causes of death. Anticoagulation such as heparin is essential for COVID-19 patients on ECMO; however, bleeding might be caused by not only heparin, but also acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). To date, no study has examined ECMO-related bleeding and AVWS in COVID-19 patients.We report a COVID-19 patient who experienced bleeding from AVWS in addition to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during ECMO. The level of high–molecular weight VWF multimers decreased during ECMO therapy, and these findings promptly improved after discontinuation of ECMO. Plasma levels of VWF antigen were extremely high, probably due to endothelial cell damage caused by COVID-19. On the other hand, plasma levels of ADAMTS13 activity were moderately reduced, to 20–30% of normal. The patient was successfully treated with cryoprecipitate in bleeding during ECMO without a reduction in heparin, which might have induced thromboembolism. Bleeding found in this patient might be caused by AVWS and DIC.Severe COVID-19 patients are in a thrombotic state and need to receive anticoagulant therapy. However, once they receive ECMO therapy, bleeding symptoms could be observed. In such cases, physicians should think of AVWS in addition to the side effect of heparin and DIC.
著者
Tetsuro Miyazaki Kazunori Shimada Yoshitaka Iwama Atsumi Kume Katsuhiko Sumiyoshi Yayoi Sato Hirotoshi Ohmura Yoshiro Watanabe Hiroshi Mokuno Hiroyuki Daida
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.6-12, 2008 (Released:2008-03-04)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
9 10

Aim: The critical role of hyperinsulinemia, independent of hyperglycemia, in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has not been fully determined. We investigated the association between secretion patterns of insulin after oral glucose load and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).Methods: We enrolled 116 subjects with NGT from 243 patients who had undergone coronary angiography and a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. The patients were divided into 0-vessel, single-vessel and multi-vessel disease groups on the basis of the severity of CAD.Results: The 2-h insulin levels in the multi-vessel disease group (p=0.005) and the single-vessel disease group (p<0.05) were significantly higher than those in the 0-vessel disease group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the levels of 2-h insulin were an independent variable for the presence of CAD (p=0.02) after adjustment for gender and the presence of each criterion of metabolic syndrome using the definition of the International Diabetes Federation.Conclusion: A slight but significant increase in prolonged insulin secretion, which is associated with the early stage of insulin resistance, in subjects with NGT, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
著者
Michio Shimabukuro Yoshimasa Hasegawa Moritake Higa Rie Amano Hirotsugu Yamada Shunsaku Mizushima Hiroaki Masuzaki Masataka Sata
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.8, pp.854-868, 2015-08-26 (Released:2015-08-26)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
10 8

Aim: The prevalence of overweight and a change in atherosclerotic lipid profiles may be linked to region-specific differences in atherosclerotic diseases. We evaluated whether the lipid phenotype could be linked to region- and sex-specific differences in the degree of atherosclerosis.Methods: Non-diabetic subjects included Okinawa (n=1674) and Nagano (n=1392) residents aged 30–75 years who underwent carotid ultrasonography for the measurement of maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT).Results: Average max IMT was higher in Okinawa men and women, and the increase in max IMT with age was enhanced in men. Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to age and systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were IMT determinants only in men for both Okinawa and Nagano. Meanwhile, HDL-cholesterol was a determinant for Okinawa men and women, but not for Nagano men and women.Conclusions: This is the first report to show region- and sex-specific differences in the determinants for max IMT in a Japanese population. The evaluation of the relationship between lipid profile patterns and region- and sex-specific differences in carotid atherosclerosis burden may be required.
著者
Shinya Goto Darren K. McGuire Shinichi Goto
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.RV17062, (Released:2021-10-02)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Advances in High-performance computing (HPC) technology have reached the capacity to inform cardiovascular (CV) science in the realm of both inductive and constructive approaches. Clinical trials allow for the comparison of the effect of an intervention without the need to understand the mechanism. This is a typical example of an inductive approach. In the HPC field, training an artificial intelligence (AI) model, constructed by neural networks, to predict future CV events with the use of large scale multi-dimensional datasets is the counterpart that may rely on as well as inform understanding of mechanistic underpinnings for optimization. However, in contrast to clinical trials, AI can calculate event risk at the individual level and has the potential to inform and refine the application of personalized medicine.Despite this clear strength, results from AI analyses may identify otherwise unidentified/unexpected (i.e. non-intuitive) relationships between multi-dimensional data and clinical outcomes that may further unravel potential mechanistic pathways and identify potential therapeutic targets, therebycontributing to the parsing of observational associations from causal links. The constructive approach will remain critical to overcome limitations of existing knowledge and anchored biases to actualize a more sophisticated understanding of the complex pathobiology of CV diseases.HPC technology has the potential to underpin this constructive approach in CV basic and clinical science. In general, even complex biological phenomena can be reduced to combinations of simple biological/chemical/physical laws. In the deductive approach, the focus/intent is to explain complex CV diseases by combinations of simple principles.
著者
Senta Gewalt Shqipdona Lahu Gjin Ndrepepa Costanza Pellegrini Isabell Bernlochner Franz-Josef Neumann Maurizio Menichelli Tanja Morath Bernhard Witzenbichler Jochen Wöhrle Katharina Hoppe Gert Richardt Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz Heribert Schunkert Adnan Kastrati Stefanie Schüpke Katharina Mayer
出版者
Japan Atherosclerosis Society
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.62776, (Released:2021-04-16)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
2

Aim: Sex-specific analyses of direct head-to-head comparisons between newer P2Y12 inhibitors are limited. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in women and men with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) planned for an invasive strategy. Methods: This pre-specified analysis of the ISAR-REACT 5 trial included 956 women and 3,062 men with ACS randomly assigned to either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary endpoint was the 12-month incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; the safety endpoint was the 12-month incidence of bleeding (type 3–5 according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC]). Results: The primary endpoint occurred in 42 women (8.9%) in the ticagrelor group and 39 women (8.3%) in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio [HR]=1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.70, P=0.657) and in 142 men (9.4%) in the ticagrelor group and 98 men (6.5%) in the prasugrel group (HR=1.47 [1.13–1.90], P=0.004; P for interaction [Pint]=0.275). BARC type 3–5 bleeding occurred in 36 women (9.7%) in the ticagrelor group and 34 women (9.7%) in the prasugrel group (HR=1.04 [0.65–1.67], P=0.856) and in 59 men in the ticagrelor group (4.4%) and 46 men (3.6%) in the prasugrel group (HR=1.24 [0.85–1.83], P=0.266; Pint=0.571). Conclusions: Although there was no significant interaction between sex and treatment effect of study drugs, the superior efficacy of prasugrel was more evident among men. No difference in bleeding between the two study groups was seen for both women and men.