著者
佐藤 守 阿部 和博 菊永 英寿 高田 大輔 田野井 慶太朗 大槻 勤 村松 康行
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.295-304, 2015 (Released:2015-10-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
3 18

モモ[Prunus persica(L.)Batsch]とカキ(Diospyros kaki Thunb.)を供試し,福島第一原子力発電所事故の放射性降下物により休眠期汚染された落葉果樹に対する高圧洗浄機を用いた樹皮洗浄による放射性セシウムの除染効果を検証した.夏季洗浄処理として 18 年生モモ‘あかつき’を供試し,2011 年 7 月 5 日と 27 日の 2 回にわたり,樹皮洗浄処理を実施した.休眠期洗浄処理として 2011 年 12 月 21 日に 30 年生カキ‘蜂屋’,2012 年 1 月 24 日に 7 年生モモ‘川中島白桃’を供試し,樹皮洗浄処理を加えた.高圧洗浄処理によりカキではほぼ全ての粗皮がはく離したが,モモの表皮はほとんどはく離しなかった.2011 年夏季に洗浄処理されたモモ‘あかつき’の果実中 137Cs 濃度は洗浄による有意差は認められなかった.2011 年から 2012 年の冬季に洗浄処理されたモモ‘川中島白桃’の葉および果実中 137Cs 濃度は洗浄により有意に減少した.同様にカキ‘蜂屋’でも洗浄処理翌年の葉および果実中 137Cs 濃度は洗浄により有意に減少した.これらの対照的な結果と矛盾しない現象として,汚染された樹皮洗浄液による二次汚染および樹皮からの追加的汚染の可能性について考察を加えた.
著者
Md. Fuad Mondal Md. Asaduzzaman Makoto Ueno Mikiko Kawaguchi Shozo Yano Takuya Ban Hideyuki Tanaka Toshiki Asao
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-113, (Released:2016-04-23)
被引用文献数
19

The consumption of vegetables and fruits rich in potassium (K), such as melons and strawberries, is restricted in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, we attempted to produce low-K strawberry fruits through management of a KNO3 fertilizer in nutrient solution from anthesis to the harvest period. A general trend of decreasing K content in fruit was observed with the decrease of KNO3 concentration in the nutrient solution. Among four strawberry cultivars, the fruit of the ‘Toyonoka’ exhibited a K reduction of about 64% when plants were grown in nutrient solution with KNO3 at 1/16 of the normal level. Citric acid and ascorbic acid contents of ‘Toyonoka’ fruit were reduced with decreasing KNO3 concentrations in the nutrient solution. Although the reduced NO3− of the nutrient solution was adjusted by using Ca(NO3)2 to obtain low-K strawberries, growth, yield and quality did not vary with this adjustment. Compared with the typical level of K in strawberry fruit of 170 mg/100 g FW (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, 2011), a 23.5% decrease (130 mg/100 g FW) in K was found in 1/32 level of KNO3. The K contents of plant parts suggested that the low KNO3 level was responsible for the low K absorption, which may have affected the translocation and accumulation of K into fruit. Therefore, 1/32 level of KNO3 in nutrient solution lowers the fruit K content considerably.
著者
Kyoko Yamane Yasuaki Sugiyama Yuan-Xue Lu Na Lű Kenichi Tanno Eri Kimura Hirofumi Yamaguchi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-065, (Released:2015-07-30)
被引用文献数
4 8

This paper reports the level of genetic differentiation between two Japanese and one Chinese species of Eutrema: E. japonicum, “wasabi”; its wild relative in Japan, E. tenue; and their wild relative in China, E. yunnanense. Phylogenetic analyses were based on the DNA sequence of the chloroplast trnK/matK region of 16 Brassicaceae and an outgroup species. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) trees were constructed, revealing that the three Eutrema species form a single clade clearly separated from other Brassicaceae species. The two Japanese Eutrema species are highly differentiated from Chinese E. yunnanense, and it is estimated that they diverged from E. yunnanense approximately 5 million years ago. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among ethnic Chinese in Yunnan Province, and the results indicate that E. yunnanense is not perceived as “hot” in taste, while a pungent flavor is associated with wasabi; in addition, no evidence was found for the domestication of E. yunnanense. On the basis of the present molecular phylogenetic study and the ethnobotanical survey, we conclude that wasabi acquired its specific pungent flavor during its long botanical history in Japan, and that its subsequent domestication in Japan was because of this acquired pungent flavor. The culinary habit of using wasabi with raw fish has since become an important feature of Japanese cuisine and culture.
著者
小玉 雅晴 田邊 雄太 中山 真義
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.4, pp.372-379, 2016 (Released:2016-10-27)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
6 12

アジサイの多くの品種は土壌条件によって花色が変化する.このアジサイの花色変化は,土壌からのアルミニウム吸収と発色器官であるがく片の液胞へのその蓄積量の違いによって生じる現象であると考えられている.本研究では,花色を安定に発色する技術を発展させるために,花色発現の安定性および可変性をもたらす要素を明らかにすることを試みた.今回は,酸性土壌およびアルカリ性土壌の異なる土壌条件下において,赤色あるいは青色を安定的に発色する品種,および土壌条件によって色が赤色と紫色に変化する品種を 10 品種用いて,がく片の pH,アントシアニン,アルミニウム,5-O-caffeoylquinic acid,3-O-caffeoylquinic acid について,土壌条件と花色の安定性および花の色彩の関係を解析した.花色安定品種の変化は可変品種の変化よりも小さかったものの,いずれの品種もアルカリ性土壌で栽培した場合に比べて,酸性土壌で栽培した場合に青色の色調が強くなった.花色安定品種と可変品種では,同じ要素の変化が土壌条件に対応して生じることで,花色の変化が発現すると考えられる.2 種類の土壌条件で比較した場合,可変品種の一つである‘HH2’の delphinidin 3-glucoside および赤色安定品種の一つである‘HH19’の 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid 以外,アルミニウムイオンの量を含むいずれの要素についても統計的に有意な差が認められた要素はなかった.アルミニウムイオンの着色細胞の液胞への局在性が変化した可能性が残っているものの,我々はリン酸などのアルミニウムイオンとキレートする化合物量の土壌条件に対応した変化が,発色に影響を与えている可能性を考えている.花色に基づいて比較した場合,青色安定品種においてアルミニウムイオンと 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid の含有量が,他の品種に比べて高い傾向が認められたものの,統計的に有意な違いは認められなかった.一方で,過去の報告と同様に,3-O-caffeoylquinic acid の含有量が低いことが,アジサイにおける青色発色の必要条件になっている可能性が示された.
著者
草塲 新之助 松岡 かおり 阿部 和博 味戸 裕幸 安部 充 佐久間 宣昭 斎藤 祐一 志村 浩雄 木方 展治 平岡 潔志
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.1, pp.30-36, 2016 (Released:2016-01-23)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
3

東日本大震災に伴う東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故により放出され樹園地に降下した放射性セシウムについて,リンゴ園における地表面管理の違いが土壌および果実における放射性セシウムの蓄積に与える影響を,福島県において 2011 年から 4 年間にわたり調査した.地表面管理は,清耕区,中耕区,中耕+堆肥施用区,草生区,ゼオライト散布区とした.土壌の放射性セシウム濃度は上層ほど高く,表層土(0~5 cm)では,有意差は認められないものの草生区のみが 2011 年と比較して 2014 年に濃度が上昇した.中層土(5~15 cm)では,中耕を伴う処理区の濃度が他の処理区よりも高くなった.樹冠下地表面の雑草,落ち葉等の有機物に含まれる単位面積あたりの放射性セシウム量は草生区で最も高く,中耕を伴う処理区で低かった.果実の放射性セシウム濃度は,いずれの処理区においても 4 年間にわたり指数関数的に減少した.また,果実の濃度に堆肥施用の影響は認められなかった.果実と土壌の放射性セシウム濃度が連動していないことから,試験地に降下した放射性セシウムのレベルでは,少なくとも事故発生後 4 年間は,中耕,草生管理,堆肥施用などの地表面管理は,リンゴ果実の放射性セシウム濃度に影響を与えないことが示唆された.
著者
Hiroshi Matsuda Hiroo Takaragawa
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-060, (Released:2023-06-17)

Passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) vines, mostly indigenous to tropical highlands, although some species can be cultivated in tropical lowlands, are susceptible to high temperatures. To increase the resilience of passion fruit to the warming climate, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing genetic resources for traits suited to high temperatures and to efficiently select the superior genotypes. We investigated the genotypic variation in leaf photosynthetic reduction at high temperatures (> 30°C) as a base target trait for warming climates. Leaf photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured at 30–45°C leaf temperatures for 13 genotypes from various Passiflora spp. using a portable gas exchange system. Temperature-net and -gross photosynthetic rate curves were plotted, and the relationships between the photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were analyzed. The net photosynthetic rate decreased with reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration rate as the leaf temperature increased from 30°C to 40°C. Up to 45°C, the net photosynthetic rate continued decreasing with increasing dark respiration rate, whereas the gross photosynthetic rate tended to stop decreasing as the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate stopped decreasing. The respiration load of photosynthesis varied among genotypes: Alata seedling #1 (P. alata) and ‘MaQuatro’ (P. edulis f. flavicarpa) showed the lowest load, together with the smallest reduction in photosynthetic rate at high temperatures, while the Iriomote strain (P. laurifolia) showed the largest load despite the smallest reduction in photosynthetic rate. Although the trend in the physiological response to high temperatures was similar among genotypes, the rate of leaf photosynthetic reduction at high temperatures varied among passion fruit genotypes both inter- and intra-specifically. Reduction of the photosynthetic rate at high temperatures was significantly correlated with stomatal activity under non-stress conditions at 30°C leaf temperature. Stomatal length was closely correlated with photosynthetic and transpiration rates at higher leaf temperatures in the P. edulis group, whereas no correlation was detected when including the lowland relatives. We concluded that genotypes showing higher stomatal conductance and transpiration rates at 30°C leaf temperature maintained a higher leaf photosynthetic rate at temperatures > 40°C, providing potential indicators for screening.
著者
Yuya Mochizuki Ryuta Ninohei Manato Ohishi Yukio Yonezu Tsuyoshi Okayama Eiichi Inoue
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-095, (Released:2023-10-18)

Strawberries can be categorized into June-bearing and ever-bearing depending on the environmental conditions that determine flower bud initiation. In Japan, the harvest yield and distribution of strawberry fruits during summer and autumn are low because of high temperatures and heavy fruit load. Therefore, cultivation of ever-bearing strawberries is limited to areas with cool summers such as Hokkaido and Tohoku. In this study, we investigated whether air treatment before liquefied carbon dioxide (CO2) application within the strawberry plant canopy could improve CO2 absorption efficiency and increase dry matter production. Four treatments were investigated: application of air within the plant canopy, application of CO2, application of CO2 after air application, and a control. We investigated the CO2 concentration, dry matter production, yield characteristics, individual leaf photosynthesis characteristics, projected leaf area, cumulative light interception, light use efficiency, and fruit quality. The results showed that the local application of only CO2 or Air and, application of CO2 after air application (Air/CO2) treatment within the plant canopy considerably increased the dry matter production. Total fruit yield of Air/CO2 was the highest among all treatments. This is probably because the application of CO2 and air expanded the leaf area, increased cumulative light interception, and improved light use efficiency. In addition, the photosynthetic rate of Air, CO2 and Air/CO2 treatments was higher than that of the control because of higher stomatal conductance. This suggests that local application of liquefied CO2 after air application can effectively increase fruit yield, and that air treatment will improve plant vigor, further increasing strawberry production in summer and autumn.
著者
Samak Kaewsuksaeng Masahiro Nomura Masayoshi Shigyo Naoki Yamauchi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.4, pp.541-547, 2019 (Released:2019-10-26)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
2 2

Hot water treatment (HWT) was applied to a new Thai lime cultivar fruit, ‘Pichit 1’ (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) to investigate its effect on chlorophyll (Chl) degradation and postharvest quality during storage. Fruit were treated with HWT with temperatures of 45, 48 or 50°C for 3, 5, and 10 min and then kept in the dark at 25°C and 90 ± 5% RH. Lime peels retained a greener color after HWT at 48°C for 5 min compared to the fruit given any other treatment. HWT at 48°C for 5 min efficiently delayed the decrease in the hue angle value acquired during storage. Chlorophyllide a, pheophorbide a, pyropheophorbide a, 132-hydroxychlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and an unknown catabolite, which may be a chlorophyllide a derivative, were detected as Chl derivatives in the fresh limes. The levels of chlorophyllide a, pheophytin a, and 132-hydroxychlorophyll a gradually decreased during the progression of peel degreening. Those derivative levels were higher in the fruit treated with HWT than the control. Moreover, the organic acid content was maintained at higher levels in the fruit treated with HWT than the control during storage at 25°C. During storage, the sugar content was seen to decrease with or without HWT; however, sugar reduction in the control was more rapid. It appeared that HWT reduced the degradation of Chl by controlling its catabolites. Therefore, HWT affected the fruit quality of green ‘Pichit 1’ limes in storage.
著者
Md. Habibur Rahman Md. Hassanur Rahman Bidhan Chandra Halder Maruf Ahmed Nusrat Jahan Nishi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-061, (Released:2023-05-12)

Postharvest loss of mango often occurs due to the short harvesting period. An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of paclobutrazol (PBZ) and flower bud pruning (FBP) on regulating flowering, fruiting time and fruit quality of ‘Amrapali’ mango. Different doses of PBZ at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 g per meter canopy diameter and water application along with FBP or without FBP were used, as well as water application without FBP (control). The application of PBZ caused earlier flowering by 22 days and harvesting was also done earlier by 18 days compared to the control. Plants subjected to FBP with PBZ reflowered 36 days later and harvesting was delayed by 16 days compared to the control. Moreover, the combination of PBZ 1.5 g with FBP showed significantly higher flowering percentages, number of panicles, total flowers, total fruits and weight of fruit compared to the control. In addition, the application of PBZ 1.5 g with FBP increased the total soluble solids, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, total sugar and β-carotene, while it decreased the vitamin C content. The present findings imply that applying PBZ 1.5 g with FBP to mango can extend the flowering and fruiting time, while the fruit quality was also influenced positively.
著者
Chairat Techavuthiporn Amnat Jarerat Hataitip Nimitkeatkai
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-058, (Released:2023-04-12)

The effect of short-term anoxic treatment prior to storage at ambient and cool temperatures on pericarp browning, fruit quality, secondary metabolites, antioxidant activity, and the browning enzyme of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cv. Hong Huey were investigated. Litchi fruit were exposed to anoxic conditions for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h before storage at 28 ± 2°C for 5 days, or at 7 ± 2°C for 14 days. Anoxic treatment resulted in significantly decreases in electrical conductivity, weight loss, browning index, while maintaining the total soluble solids (TSS) and delaying increases in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities compared with control fruit. Furthermore, anoxic treatment increased litchi pericarp methanol extract antioxidant capacity, as measured by free-radical scavenging activity. This is associated with greater amounts of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, and phenolic/flavonoid components as compared with control fruit. Additionally, anoxic treatment considerably delayed litchi fruit pericarp browning. This suggests that with adequate short-term anoxia duration, an enhanced non-enzymatic antioxidant process may directly or indirectly delay litchi pericarp browning. Thus, a short anoxic treatment enables harvested litchi quality to be sustained at ambient and cool temperatures. This non-chemical and inexpensive treatment deserves further development and application, especially in commercial distribution systems where cooling is insufficient.
著者
Takamitsu Waki Masaharu Kodama Midori Akutsu Kiyoshi Namai Masayuki Iigo Takeshi Kurokura Toshiya Yamamoto Kenji Nashima Masayoshi Nakayama Masafumi Yagi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-096, (Released:2017-09-29)
被引用文献数
1 11

Double flower and hortensia (mophead) hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.) traits are recessively inherited. Cross breeding of these traits in hydrangea is difficult because it takes about two years from crossing to flowering. In this study, we aimed to obtain DNA linkage markers that would allow accelerated selection of these traits. We used next-generation sequencing to comprehensively collect DNA sequences from the ‘Kirakiraboshi’ with a double flower and lacecap inflorescence and the ‘Frau Yoshimi’ with a single flower and hortensia inflorescence, and designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs for map construction. We screened 768 SSR primer pairs in 93 F2 progeny derived from ‘Kirakiraboshi’ and ‘Frau Yoshimi’. We identified 147 loci, which were expanded to 18 linkage groups with a total map length of 980 cM. Linkage analysis identified that both the double flower trait from ‘Kirakiraboshi’ (dKira) and the hortensia trait from ‘Frau Yoshimi’ (hFrau) were located on linkage group KF_4. Detailed linkage analysis using 351 F2 progeny revealed a 34.8 cM map length between the two loci and identified two tightly linked SSR markers, STAB045 for dKira and HS071 for hFrau. Genetic analysis suggested that double flower and hortensia traits are each controlled by a single recessive gene. Together, the linkage map, SSR markers, and genetic information obtained in this study will be useful for future hydrangea breeding.
著者
Fraidoon Karimi Moeko Igata Takashi Baba Satoshi Noma Daiki Mizuta Jin Gook Kim Takuya Ban
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-158, (Released:2016-11-02)
被引用文献数
4

Pruning is a recommended cultural practice in blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) to maintain the balance between vegetative growth and reproductive development. Winter pruning is common and well-documented practice. Summer pruning, however, has been less studied. In this study, 5 primaryshoots (PSs) were selected per treatment (pruning date) on 5 different bushes (replications) of the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Ait.) ‘Tifblue’ and half-length headed back during its active growth period from June through Nov. The hypothesis tested in this study was that summer pruning induces flower buds at the basal area of PSs, controls the plant canopy and makes it possible to harvest fruits in the next summer season from the same shoots. In this study, there were no significant differences observed among any treatments with respect to yield and fruit quality. Early summer pruning (June) stimulated secondaryshoots (SSs) and later in autumn, terminal flower buds of these SSs produced fruits in the following year. However, no SSs were produced after summer pruning in Sept., and only vegetative buds that were at the basal area of PSs differentiated to flower buds and produced fruits in the following year. In conclusion, summer pruning can be practiced to complement or replace winter pruning and growers could decide the date of summer pruning in accordance with the size of plants’ canopies. Plants with smaller canopies can be pruned in June and those with bigger canopies can be pruned in Sept.
著者
Hyun Jin Kim Jongyun Kim Do Lee Yun Ki Sun Kim Yoon Jin Kim
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-133, (Released:2016-03-31)
被引用文献数
5

To assess the growth and flowering of the Doritaenopsis orchid in alternative substrates, Doritaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ was grown for 15 months in four different substrates; a commercial 100% Chilean sphagnum moss (S), peat moss (P), medium-grade Douglas fir bark mixed with P with a 3:7 ratio (v/v) (BP), and S and P mixes (SP) with a 4:6 ratio (v/v). Physical (porosity and water holding capacity) and chemical (pH and EC) properties of the four substrates were investigated. SP substrate had significantly higher substrate volumetric water content (VWC) than the other three substrates only for the first 3 days after fertigation, and only the BP substrate maintained lower air space than the other substrates. Although there was no relevant growth responses to VWC and air space changes, a better growth in shoots and fastened flowering of Doritaenopsis ‘Mantefon’ occurred in plants grown in the P substrate, which could be attributed to providing better contact of terrestrial roots to the substrate enabling enough water and nutrient supply, along with a proper pH range of 6.15. At 15 months after transplanting, plants grown in the P and BP substrates had larger leaves and a greater shoot dry weight than the plants grown in the S and SP substrates. Plants grown in the P substrate produced 2.75 flower spikes, whereas the plants grown in the S, BP, and SP substrates produced 2.00 to 2.33 flower spikes. Plants grown in the P, BP, S, and SP substrates produced a third flower spike, being 67%, 33%, 17%, and 8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the total number of flowers, while the total numbers of buds were 32.3, 23.4, 23.0, and 19.7 in plants grown in the P, S, BP, and SP substrates, respectively. Time to visible flower spike was shortened in plants grown in the P substrate compared to the plants grown in other substrates. With these results, using alternative substrates including peat moss for Doritaenopsis cultivation, growers may be able to promote leaf growth and flower spike induction with lower expenses on substrate costs, resulting in a high quality production of Doritaenopsis ‘Mantefon’ with more profit.
著者
Atsuko Uragami Reiichirou Ueno Atsushi Yamasaki Kentaro Matsuo Takayuki Yamaguchi Hideo Tokiwa Tamio Takizawa Hiroaki Sakai Takao Ikeuchi Shin-ichi Watanabe Kuninori Matsunaga Miyuki Kunihisa Hiroaki Kitazawa Satoru Motoki
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-115, (Released:2016-03-30)
被引用文献数
11

This study analyzes the first large-scale asparagus experiment in Japan to examine the productive differences between male and female plants using the rootstock-planting forcing culture technique. This technique has recently been developed in Japan and uses dug-up rootstocks for one-season harvests during the off-crop season. As larger spears and early sprouting are especially favored in this culture for higher yield, it is important to clarify and evaluate the productive traits of the male and female plants. We conducted collaborative research among eight institutes from Hokkaido to Kyushu to examine plants grown at different cultivation sites. There were two digging-up months and different low-temperature backgrounds. Plant rootstocks sourced from the eight different sites used in the experiment were cultured in an abandoned tunnel in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in a large area with uniform temperature and high humidity throughout the year, and their white spears were harvested. The results of this study show that the female plants had a significantly higher rootstock weight, weight per spear per plant, and weight per early spear per plant, whereas the male plants had a significantly higher total spear number per plant, early spear number per plant, and significantly fewer days to first harvest. No significant differences were observed in soluble solid contents of roots, total spear weight per plant, or early spear weight per plant. It seems that male plants have a tendency to sprout earlier than female plants in response to reduced accumulated low temperature hours, and also to produce a higher total spear number per rootstock weight and total spear weight per rootstock weight. The ranges of most of the productive traits analyzed in this study completely overlapped between the sexes. However, female plants showed higher variation in weight per spear per plant and weight per early spear per plant.
著者
門田 有希 田原 誠
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.283-294, 2015 (Released:2015-10-22)
参考文献数
100
被引用文献数
10

トランスポゾンは真核生物のゲノム中に存在する可動性因子である.その構造および転移機構により二種類(class I;レトロトランスポゾン,class II;DNA 型トランスポゾン)に分けられる.トランスポゾンは真核生物ゲノムの主要な構成要素であり,特にレトロトランスポゾンは植物ゲノムの大部分を占める.多数のレトロトランスポゾン挿入配列はゲノム全体に散在しており,また安定して遺伝する.そのため,農作物品種間における挿入多型は DNA マーカーとして利用されている.最近,私たちは次世代シーケンス(NGS)技術を利用することにより,品種間で高い挿入多型を示す LTR 型レトロトランスポゾンファミリーを効率的に同定する手法を確立した.この手法は,5'LTR 配列に近接し,異なる LTR 型レトロトランスポゾンファミリー間でも保存性の高い PBS(Primer Binding Site)配列に注目している.この PBS 配列を利用した NGS ライブラリーの構築により,ゲノム中に存在する多数の LTR 配列およびそれら挿入配列を同定した.これら配列を用いたデータ解析により,近縁品種間でも高い挿入多型を示す LTR 配列を抽出した.また,NGS を利用することで,これらレトロトランスポゾンファミリーのゲノムワイドな挿入箇所を多数の品種に関して同定した.これら挿入箇所の情報は,品種間の類縁関係の解明および品種判定用 DNA マーカーの開発に有用であった.私たちの研究結果は,これらレトロトランスポゾン挿入部位のターゲットシーケンスにより,全ゲノム配列情報が無い生物種においても,効率的に遺伝子型解析およびマーカー開発が可能であることを示した.本記事では,トランスポゾンのゲノム構造および進化的側面に関して解説,またレトロトランスポゾンの挿入多型に基づいたマーカー開発に関しても紹介する.
著者
Rie Kurata Yoshihiro Okada Takeo Sakaigaichi Yumi Kai Akira Kobayashi Keisuke Suematsu
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-103, (Released:2023-12-28)

We investigated the anthocyanin composition of the purple sweet potato cultivar ‘Churakanasa’. The color tone of the paste was compared by L*, a*, and b* values and ‘Churakanasa’ exhibited a lower b* value, which indicates a bluish tint, than ‘Churakoibeni’, a popular cultivar for paste processing in Okinawa. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the pigment extract showed that the anthocyanin composition of ‘Churakanasa’ was quite different from that of ‘Ayamurasaki’ and ‘Churakoibeni’. The analysis of the aglycone composition revealed that the cyanidin content (%) of ‘Ayamurasaki’ and ‘Churakoibeni’ contained 19.2% and 22.6% of cyanidins and 80.8% and 77.4% of peonidins, respectively. These findings indicate that these cultivars belong to the peonidin type. In contrast, ‘Churakanasa’ contained 86.4% cyanidin, indicating it to be a cyanidin-type cultivar. The steamed sweet potato paste made from ‘Churakanasa’ (cyanidin type cultivar) exhibited a bluer color compared to the peonidin-type cultivars. This observation suggests a direct correlation between the higher cyanidin content and the blue color intensity of the paste. HPLC-MS analysis of the two major HPLC peaks (peak I and II) of ‘Churakanasa’ suggested that the substance in peak I was YGM-0c; cyanidin-3-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside by mass, whereas peak II was YGM-1a; cyanidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. ‘Churakanasa’ exhibits unique color and pigment characteristics as it is the only purple sweet potato cultivar that has YGM-0c and -1a as its primary pigments.
著者
Minori Hikawa-Endo Takao Ikeuchi Shuji Kozai Tomoya Nakamura Masanori Yamaji Ryosuke Yamanaka Hisashi Yoshikoshi Hiroki Kawashima
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-106, (Released:2023-12-20)

In general, either high or low branching may contribute to the yield potential of a cultivated crop. In this study, we evaluated the varietal differences in branching characteristics in asparagus crowns and examined the relationship between branching types and harvest characteristics among six varieties tested by careful observation. ‘UC 157’ developed numerous tillers and shoot apical meristems 6 months after sowing; thus, it was considered to be a high-branching type variety. In contrast, ‘All-male Gulliver’ and ‘Ryuryoku’ developed few tillers or shoot apical meristems and, were therefore considered to be low-branching type varieties. The final order of sympodial shoots and composition of sympodial shoots by order were similar between the varieties. ‘UC 157’ had fewer scale leaves attached to the underground shoots than other varieties, which may have been advantageous for developing underground shoots more rapidly. The total spear yield of ‘UC 157’ was high, but the marketable spear yield was similar to that of other varieties owing to the large number of thin spears. Although further studies are needed to determine whether high-branching or low-branching type asparagus varieties are more high-yielding, we determined that high-branching type varieties have lower labor productivity under unimproved growing conditions such as non-sparsely planted growing conditions.
著者
Nurainee Salaemae Nutthachai Pongprasert Surisa Phornvillay Samak Kaewsuksaeng Masayoshi Shigyo Shinichi Ito Naoki Yamauchi Varit Srilaong
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-096, (Released:2023-11-28)

Electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWPs) treatment was applied to investigate its effect on chlorophyll (Chl) degradation and ripening delay in ‘Namwa’ bananas. Banana fruits were pretreated with EAWPs generated from a device (Panasonic F-GMK01) for 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 h in a closed 50 L container, and then kept in perforated polypropylene plastic bags and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 2°C) under dark conditions. The results showed that 1.0 h-EAWPs treatment best retained peel greenness with a significantly higher hue angle and lower L* value than other treatments on day 6. Also, the 1.0 h-EAWPs treatment maintained the total Chl content, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and delayed the ripening index (RI) of fruit accompanied by a delayed climacteric rise in ethylene and respiration rate compared to the control. It was found that the 1.0 h-EAWP treatment induced accumulations of nitric oxide (NO) in peel tissues and suppressed the activities of Chl-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, Mg-dechelatase, Chl-degrading peroxidase, and pheophytinase) in the peel. Furthermore, Chl derivatives levels (chlorophyllide a, pheophobide a, 132-hydroxychlorophyll a, and pheophytin a) were higher in fruits treated with EAWPs than the control fruits. The results suggest that EAWPs technology could be an alternative approach to delay Chl degradation and ripening in ‘Namwa’ bananas.
著者
Miyu Yamaguchi Amane Yamazaki Masako Akutsu
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-097, (Released:2023-11-28)

Strawberries, the most economically well-known berry crop, are known for their taste, nutritional value, and antioxidant compounds. Various spatiotemporal or seasonal factors are known to affect the strawberry pollen germination rate; however, determinating which factor most influences the variation in the pollen germination rate remains challenging. This study aimed to determine the optimal pollen germination media and pollen short-term storage methods in the Japanese strawberry cultivars ‘Shindai SUS-1’ and ‘Shindai BS8-9’. Each strawberry pollen was incubated for 3 h in the dark on a solid medium with 1.5% agar and different sucrose and boric acid concentrations. The pollen germination rate was then investigated. The optimal pollen germination medium for both cultivars was 1.5% agar, 10% sucrose, and 0.1% boric acid. The small amount of strawberry pollen used in this study was collected immediately after flowering in the morning. Therefore, we also investigated a method for collecting a large amount of pollen while maintaining pollen activity. For both cultivars, the pollen germination rate for dry pollen, incubated for 24 h with silica gel after the petals and calyx were removed, was the same as that of the fresh pollen collected immediately after flower collection. In addition, dry pollen was more efficient in terms of short-term storage than fresh pollen. For ‘Shindai BS8-9’, the germination rate for dry pollen was also higher than that of the fresh pollen when stored in vacuum at −25, 4, 15, 20, and 25°C for 3 and 7 days.
著者
Chairat Techavuthiporn Amnat Jarerat Chonlada Singhkai Hataitip Nimitkeatkai
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.QH-092, (Released:2023-11-02)

The effects of UV-C treatment on physicochemical quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) during storage were investigated. Okra pods were exposed to UV-C irradiation dose at 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 kJ·m−2 before storage at 10 ± 2°C for 12 days. The results showed that UV-C treatment had a significant effect on okra bioactive compounds, such as ascorbic acid, total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. The highest values of these compounds were observed in okra treated with 6.0 kJ·m−2 UV-C irradiation. A statistical analysis of the data demonstrated that mucilage had a favorable association with antioxidant capabilities and bioactive substances in response to UV-C treatment. Moreover, UV-C treatment also effectively maintained the quality of okra during storage, as evidenced by lower weight loss and higher firmness without incidence of decay. Therefore, postharvest UV-C treatment can be a potential approach to enhance bioactive compounds and maintain the quality of okra during storage.