著者
佐藤 守 阿部 和博 菊永 英寿 高田 大輔 田野井 慶太朗 大槻 勤 村松 康行
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.295-304, 2015 (Released:2015-10-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
3 13

モモ[Prunus persica(L.)Batsch]とカキ(Diospyros kaki Thunb.)を供試し,福島第一原子力発電所事故の放射性降下物により休眠期汚染された落葉果樹に対する高圧洗浄機を用いた樹皮洗浄による放射性セシウムの除染効果を検証した.夏季洗浄処理として 18 年生モモ‘あかつき’を供試し,2011 年 7 月 5 日と 27 日の 2 回にわたり,樹皮洗浄処理を実施した.休眠期洗浄処理として 2011 年 12 月 21 日に 30 年生カキ‘蜂屋’,2012 年 1 月 24 日に 7 年生モモ‘川中島白桃’を供試し,樹皮洗浄処理を加えた.高圧洗浄処理によりカキではほぼ全ての粗皮がはく離したが,モモの表皮はほとんどはく離しなかった.2011 年夏季に洗浄処理されたモモ‘あかつき’の果実中 137Cs 濃度は洗浄による有意差は認められなかった.2011 年から 2012 年の冬季に洗浄処理されたモモ‘川中島白桃’の葉および果実中 137Cs 濃度は洗浄により有意に減少した.同様にカキ‘蜂屋’でも洗浄処理翌年の葉および果実中 137Cs 濃度は洗浄により有意に減少した.これらの対照的な結果と矛盾しない現象として,汚染された樹皮洗浄液による二次汚染および樹皮からの追加的汚染の可能性について考察を加えた.
著者
Md. Fuad Mondal Md. Asaduzzaman Makoto Ueno Mikiko Kawaguchi Shozo Yano Takuya Ban Hideyuki Tanaka Toshiki Asao
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-113, (Released:2016-04-23)
被引用文献数
6

The consumption of vegetables and fruits rich in potassium (K), such as melons and strawberries, is restricted in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, we attempted to produce low-K strawberry fruits through management of a KNO3 fertilizer in nutrient solution from anthesis to the harvest period. A general trend of decreasing K content in fruit was observed with the decrease of KNO3 concentration in the nutrient solution. Among four strawberry cultivars, the fruit of the ‘Toyonoka’ exhibited a K reduction of about 64% when plants were grown in nutrient solution with KNO3 at 1/16 of the normal level. Citric acid and ascorbic acid contents of ‘Toyonoka’ fruit were reduced with decreasing KNO3 concentrations in the nutrient solution. Although the reduced NO3− of the nutrient solution was adjusted by using Ca(NO3)2 to obtain low-K strawberries, growth, yield and quality did not vary with this adjustment. Compared with the typical level of K in strawberry fruit of 170 mg/100 g FW (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, 2011), a 23.5% decrease (130 mg/100 g FW) in K was found in 1/32 level of KNO3. The K contents of plant parts suggested that the low KNO3 level was responsible for the low K absorption, which may have affected the translocation and accumulation of K into fruit. Therefore, 1/32 level of KNO3 in nutrient solution lowers the fruit K content considerably.
著者
草塲 新之助 松岡 かおり 阿部 和博 味戸 裕幸 安部 充 佐久間 宣昭 斎藤 祐一 志村 浩雄 木方 展治 平岡 潔志
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.1, pp.30-36, 2016 (Released:2016-01-23)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
2

東日本大震災に伴う東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故により放出され樹園地に降下した放射性セシウムについて,リンゴ園における地表面管理の違いが土壌および果実における放射性セシウムの蓄積に与える影響を,福島県において 2011 年から 4 年間にわたり調査した.地表面管理は,清耕区,中耕区,中耕+堆肥施用区,草生区,ゼオライト散布区とした.土壌の放射性セシウム濃度は上層ほど高く,表層土(0~5 cm)では,有意差は認められないものの草生区のみが 2011 年と比較して 2014 年に濃度が上昇した.中層土(5~15 cm)では,中耕を伴う処理区の濃度が他の処理区よりも高くなった.樹冠下地表面の雑草,落ち葉等の有機物に含まれる単位面積あたりの放射性セシウム量は草生区で最も高く,中耕を伴う処理区で低かった.果実の放射性セシウム濃度は,いずれの処理区においても 4 年間にわたり指数関数的に減少した.また,果実の濃度に堆肥施用の影響は認められなかった.果実と土壌の放射性セシウム濃度が連動していないことから,試験地に降下した放射性セシウムのレベルでは,少なくとも事故発生後 4 年間は,中耕,草生管理,堆肥施用などの地表面管理は,リンゴ果実の放射性セシウム濃度に影響を与えないことが示唆された.
著者
Kyoko Yamane Yasuaki Sugiyama Yuan-Xue Lu Na Lű Kenichi Tanno Eri Kimura Hirofumi Yamaguchi
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-065, (Released:2015-07-30)
被引用文献数
3

This paper reports the level of genetic differentiation between two Japanese and one Chinese species of Eutrema: E. japonicum, “wasabi”; its wild relative in Japan, E. tenue; and their wild relative in China, E. yunnanense. Phylogenetic analyses were based on the DNA sequence of the chloroplast trnK/matK region of 16 Brassicaceae and an outgroup species. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) trees were constructed, revealing that the three Eutrema species form a single clade clearly separated from other Brassicaceae species. The two Japanese Eutrema species are highly differentiated from Chinese E. yunnanense, and it is estimated that they diverged from E. yunnanense approximately 5 million years ago. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among ethnic Chinese in Yunnan Province, and the results indicate that E. yunnanense is not perceived as “hot” in taste, while a pungent flavor is associated with wasabi; in addition, no evidence was found for the domestication of E. yunnanense. On the basis of the present molecular phylogenetic study and the ethnobotanical survey, we conclude that wasabi acquired its specific pungent flavor during its long botanical history in Japan, and that its subsequent domestication in Japan was because of this acquired pungent flavor. The culinary habit of using wasabi with raw fish has since become an important feature of Japanese cuisine and culture.
著者
小玉 雅晴 田邊 雄太 中山 真義
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.4, pp.372-379, 2016 (Released:2016-10-27)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
3 3

アジサイの多くの品種は土壌条件によって花色が変化する.このアジサイの花色変化は,土壌からのアルミニウム吸収と発色器官であるがく片の液胞へのその蓄積量の違いによって生じる現象であると考えられている.本研究では,花色を安定に発色する技術を発展させるために,花色発現の安定性および可変性をもたらす要素を明らかにすることを試みた.今回は,酸性土壌およびアルカリ性土壌の異なる土壌条件下において,赤色あるいは青色を安定的に発色する品種,および土壌条件によって色が赤色と紫色に変化する品種を 10 品種用いて,がく片の pH,アントシアニン,アルミニウム,5-O-caffeoylquinic acid,3-O-caffeoylquinic acid について,土壌条件と花色の安定性および花の色彩の関係を解析した.花色安定品種の変化は可変品種の変化よりも小さかったものの,いずれの品種もアルカリ性土壌で栽培した場合に比べて,酸性土壌で栽培した場合に青色の色調が強くなった.花色安定品種と可変品種では,同じ要素の変化が土壌条件に対応して生じることで,花色の変化が発現すると考えられる.2 種類の土壌条件で比較した場合,可変品種の一つである‘HH2’の delphinidin 3-glucoside および赤色安定品種の一つである‘HH19’の 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid 以外,アルミニウムイオンの量を含むいずれの要素についても統計的に有意な差が認められた要素はなかった.アルミニウムイオンの着色細胞の液胞への局在性が変化した可能性が残っているものの,我々はリン酸などのアルミニウムイオンとキレートする化合物量の土壌条件に対応した変化が,発色に影響を与えている可能性を考えている.花色に基づいて比較した場合,青色安定品種においてアルミニウムイオンと 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid の含有量が,他の品種に比べて高い傾向が認められたものの,統計的に有意な違いは認められなかった.一方で,過去の報告と同様に,3-O-caffeoylquinic acid の含有量が低いことが,アジサイにおける青色発色の必要条件になっている可能性が示された.
著者
Takamitsu Waki Masaharu Kodama Midori Akutsu Kiyoshi Namai Masayuki Iigo Takeshi Kurokura Toshiya Yamamoto Kenji Nashima Masayoshi Nakayama Masafumi Yagi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-096, (Released:2017-09-29)
被引用文献数
1 5

Double flower and hortensia (mophead) hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.) traits are recessively inherited. Cross breeding of these traits in hydrangea is difficult because it takes about two years from crossing to flowering. In this study, we aimed to obtain DNA linkage markers that would allow accelerated selection of these traits. We used next-generation sequencing to comprehensively collect DNA sequences from the ‘Kirakiraboshi’ with a double flower and lacecap inflorescence and the ‘Frau Yoshimi’ with a single flower and hortensia inflorescence, and designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs for map construction. We screened 768 SSR primer pairs in 93 F2 progeny derived from ‘Kirakiraboshi’ and ‘Frau Yoshimi’. We identified 147 loci, which were expanded to 18 linkage groups with a total map length of 980 cM. Linkage analysis identified that both the double flower trait from ‘Kirakiraboshi’ (dKira) and the hortensia trait from ‘Frau Yoshimi’ (hFrau) were located on linkage group KF_4. Detailed linkage analysis using 351 F2 progeny revealed a 34.8 cM map length between the two loci and identified two tightly linked SSR markers, STAB045 for dKira and HS071 for hFrau. Genetic analysis suggested that double flower and hortensia traits are each controlled by a single recessive gene. Together, the linkage map, SSR markers, and genetic information obtained in this study will be useful for future hydrangea breeding.
著者
Fraidoon Karimi Moeko Igata Takashi Baba Satoshi Noma Daiki Mizuta Jin Gook Kim Takuya Ban
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-158, (Released:2016-11-02)
被引用文献数
2

Pruning is a recommended cultural practice in blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) to maintain the balance between vegetative growth and reproductive development. Winter pruning is common and well-documented practice. Summer pruning, however, has been less studied. In this study, 5 primaryshoots (PSs) were selected per treatment (pruning date) on 5 different bushes (replications) of the rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Ait.) ‘Tifblue’ and half-length headed back during its active growth period from June through Nov. The hypothesis tested in this study was that summer pruning induces flower buds at the basal area of PSs, controls the plant canopy and makes it possible to harvest fruits in the next summer season from the same shoots. In this study, there were no significant differences observed among any treatments with respect to yield and fruit quality. Early summer pruning (June) stimulated secondaryshoots (SSs) and later in autumn, terminal flower buds of these SSs produced fruits in the following year. However, no SSs were produced after summer pruning in Sept., and only vegetative buds that were at the basal area of PSs differentiated to flower buds and produced fruits in the following year. In conclusion, summer pruning can be practiced to complement or replace winter pruning and growers could decide the date of summer pruning in accordance with the size of plants’ canopies. Plants with smaller canopies can be pruned in June and those with bigger canopies can be pruned in Sept.
著者
Hyun Jin Kim Jongyun Kim Do Lee Yun Ki Sun Kim Yoon Jin Kim
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-133, (Released:2016-03-31)
被引用文献数
1

To assess the growth and flowering of the Doritaenopsis orchid in alternative substrates, Doritaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ was grown for 15 months in four different substrates; a commercial 100% Chilean sphagnum moss (S), peat moss (P), medium-grade Douglas fir bark mixed with P with a 3:7 ratio (v/v) (BP), and S and P mixes (SP) with a 4:6 ratio (v/v). Physical (porosity and water holding capacity) and chemical (pH and EC) properties of the four substrates were investigated. SP substrate had significantly higher substrate volumetric water content (VWC) than the other three substrates only for the first 3 days after fertigation, and only the BP substrate maintained lower air space than the other substrates. Although there was no relevant growth responses to VWC and air space changes, a better growth in shoots and fastened flowering of Doritaenopsis ‘Mantefon’ occurred in plants grown in the P substrate, which could be attributed to providing better contact of terrestrial roots to the substrate enabling enough water and nutrient supply, along with a proper pH range of 6.15. At 15 months after transplanting, plants grown in the P and BP substrates had larger leaves and a greater shoot dry weight than the plants grown in the S and SP substrates. Plants grown in the P substrate produced 2.75 flower spikes, whereas the plants grown in the S, BP, and SP substrates produced 2.00 to 2.33 flower spikes. Plants grown in the P, BP, S, and SP substrates produced a third flower spike, being 67%, 33%, 17%, and 8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the total number of flowers, while the total numbers of buds were 32.3, 23.4, 23.0, and 19.7 in plants grown in the P, S, BP, and SP substrates, respectively. Time to visible flower spike was shortened in plants grown in the P substrate compared to the plants grown in other substrates. With these results, using alternative substrates including peat moss for Doritaenopsis cultivation, growers may be able to promote leaf growth and flower spike induction with lower expenses on substrate costs, resulting in a high quality production of Doritaenopsis ‘Mantefon’ with more profit.
著者
Atsuko Uragami Reiichirou Ueno Atsushi Yamasaki Kentaro Matsuo Takayuki Yamaguchi Hideo Tokiwa Tamio Takizawa Hiroaki Sakai Takao Ikeuchi Shin-ichi Watanabe Kuninori Matsunaga Miyuki Kunihisa Hiroaki Kitazawa Satoru Motoki
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.MI-115, (Released:2016-03-30)
被引用文献数
8

This study analyzes the first large-scale asparagus experiment in Japan to examine the productive differences between male and female plants using the rootstock-planting forcing culture technique. This technique has recently been developed in Japan and uses dug-up rootstocks for one-season harvests during the off-crop season. As larger spears and early sprouting are especially favored in this culture for higher yield, it is important to clarify and evaluate the productive traits of the male and female plants. We conducted collaborative research among eight institutes from Hokkaido to Kyushu to examine plants grown at different cultivation sites. There were two digging-up months and different low-temperature backgrounds. Plant rootstocks sourced from the eight different sites used in the experiment were cultured in an abandoned tunnel in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in a large area with uniform temperature and high humidity throughout the year, and their white spears were harvested. The results of this study show that the female plants had a significantly higher rootstock weight, weight per spear per plant, and weight per early spear per plant, whereas the male plants had a significantly higher total spear number per plant, early spear number per plant, and significantly fewer days to first harvest. No significant differences were observed in soluble solid contents of roots, total spear weight per plant, or early spear weight per plant. It seems that male plants have a tendency to sprout earlier than female plants in response to reduced accumulated low temperature hours, and also to produce a higher total spear number per rootstock weight and total spear weight per rootstock weight. The ranges of most of the productive traits analyzed in this study completely overlapped between the sexes. However, female plants showed higher variation in weight per spear per plant and weight per early spear per plant.
著者
門田 有希 田原 誠
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.283-294, 2015 (Released:2015-10-22)
参考文献数
100
被引用文献数
6

トランスポゾンは真核生物のゲノム中に存在する可動性因子である.その構造および転移機構により二種類(class I;レトロトランスポゾン,class II;DNA 型トランスポゾン)に分けられる.トランスポゾンは真核生物ゲノムの主要な構成要素であり,特にレトロトランスポゾンは植物ゲノムの大部分を占める.多数のレトロトランスポゾン挿入配列はゲノム全体に散在しており,また安定して遺伝する.そのため,農作物品種間における挿入多型は DNA マーカーとして利用されている.最近,私たちは次世代シーケンス(NGS)技術を利用することにより,品種間で高い挿入多型を示す LTR 型レトロトランスポゾンファミリーを効率的に同定する手法を確立した.この手法は,5'LTR 配列に近接し,異なる LTR 型レトロトランスポゾンファミリー間でも保存性の高い PBS(Primer Binding Site)配列に注目している.この PBS 配列を利用した NGS ライブラリーの構築により,ゲノム中に存在する多数の LTR 配列およびそれら挿入配列を同定した.これら配列を用いたデータ解析により,近縁品種間でも高い挿入多型を示す LTR 配列を抽出した.また,NGS を利用することで,これらレトロトランスポゾンファミリーのゲノムワイドな挿入箇所を多数の品種に関して同定した.これら挿入箇所の情報は,品種間の類縁関係の解明および品種判定用 DNA マーカーの開発に有用であった.私たちの研究結果は,これらレトロトランスポゾン挿入部位のターゲットシーケンスにより,全ゲノム配列情報が無い生物種においても,効率的に遺伝子型解析およびマーカー開発が可能であることを示した.本記事では,トランスポゾンのゲノム構造および進化的側面に関して解説,またレトロトランスポゾンの挿入多型に基づいたマーカー開発に関しても紹介する.
著者
Yasushi Kawasaki Yuki Yoneda
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.UTD-R004, (Released:2019-04-05)
被引用文献数
2

Uniform temperature throughout a greenhouse is recommended, as the present climate control method and many other studies have shown that the temperature gradient decreases vertically and horizontally in a greenhouse. However, recent research revealed that roots, fruits, flowers, and shoot-tips are more sensitive to temperature changes than leaves and stems, indicating that uniform temperature control may not be necessary. In addition, energy-saving techniques that do not lead to yield loss are desirable to reduce energy costs and ensure sustainable greenhouse production. In this paper, we review current studies on local temperature control methods in greenhouse vegetable production, primarily focusing on the tomato, and compare them with novel climate-control techniques. Roots, fruits, shoot-tips and flowers are sensitive to temperature changes, showing negative symptoms under extreme temperature conditions. Therefore, the temperature of these plant organs should be controlled locally. Root zone temperature control enhances root growth and its associated physiological activities, promoting uptake of water and mineral nutrients. This subsequently leads to enhanced growth of shoots. Fruit temperature control may not be effective for tomato plants, but it promotes fruit growth and fruit sugar accumulation in melons and watermelons. Shoot-tip temperature control promotes the differentiation of leaf and flower buds. Flower temperature control enhances pollen viability and promotes fruit set. The combination of shoot-tip and flower heating enables low energy consumption compared with conventional heating, without loss of yield. Local temperature control techniques (except roots) have been studied in recent years; however, there is a distinct lack of research on the physiological mechanisms and practical approaches to develop a better local temperature control system. Thus, further studies are required on this area in the future.
著者
Yuya Mochizuki Tiejun Zhao Wataru Kanematsu Takashi Kawasaki Takeshi Saito Akio Ohyama Akimasa Nakano Tadahisa Higashide
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.UTD-055, (Released:2019-04-11)
被引用文献数
1

To clarify the effect of ultrafine bubbles (UFBs) on the growth of tomato seedlings, we investigated elongation growth and dry matter production by analysing growth under different assimilation conditions and by modelling. The leaf area enlargement rate of plants grown with UFB nutrient solution increased and the specific leaf area (SLA) decreased at 18 days after sowing (DAS) relative to those grown without UFB solution. Thus, UFBs increased both leaf area and leaf thickness. UFB significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) at 18 DAS, but there was no significant difference in SLA, RGR, and NAR between treatments at 25 DAS. These results were used to model plant growth with and without UFB treatment. In a second experiment, UFB treatment increased aboveground dry weight under a low-assimilation condition, but had no significant effect under a high-assimilation condition. Our model supported these results. It was also implied that UFB treatment affected leaf area expansion, but not dry matter production. Although the values predicted by the model were slightly lower than observed, it was possible to predict the effect of UFB treatment on plant growth with high accuracy.
著者
Hadiseh Haghi Vali Rabiei Ahmad Ershadi Farhang Razavi
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.UTD-056, (Released:2019-04-13)

As a major growth limitation, low temperature-induced injuries may adversely affect grape production in many areas. Ten-year-old grapevines ‘Thompson Seedless’ were sprayed with calcium chloride (CaCl2) three times at 10-day intervals from 19th September to 8th October 2015 and again in 2016 in a commercial vineyard. Bud samples were collected in December 2015 and 2016, January 2015 and 2016 and February 2016 and 2017. The buds were exposed to freezing treatments: −12, −16, −20, −24, and −28°C for 3 hours, to assess their low temperature tolerance. Moreover, the relationships among freezing tolerance and changes in antioxidant enzyme activity, soluble carbohydrates, proline and total proteins were investigated. Irrespective of foliar spray treatments, the freezing tolerance of buds increased from December to January and decreased in February. Application of CaCl2 at a 1% concentration resulted in increased bud freezing tolerance compared to the control plants. Application of 1% CaCl2 considerably increased the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and total proteins in buds, but had subtle and inconsistent effects on proline. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were increased in response to foliar application of CaCl2; however, inconsistent changes were found in the activities of catalase and peroxidase following CaCl2 application. The results showed that application of 1% CaCl2 increased freezing tolerance of grapevines predominantly via upregulating soluble carbohydrates and total proteins.
著者
Sachiko Isobe Kenta Shirasawa Hideki Hirakawa
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, no.2, pp.108-114, 2020 (Released:2020-04-06)
参考文献数
37

Next generation sequencing (NGS) is one of the most impactful technologies to appear in the 21st century, and has already brought important changes to agriculture, especially in the field of breeding. Construction of a reference genome is key to the advancement of genomic studies, and therefore, de novo whole genome assembly has been performed in various plants, including strawberry. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an allo-octoploid species (2n = 8x = 56), which has four discriminable subgenomes. Because of its complex genome structure, de novo whole genome assembly in strawberry has been considered a difficult challenge. However, recent advances of NGS technologies have allowed the construction of chromosome-scale de novo whole genome assembly. In this manuscript, we review the recent advances in de novo whole genome sequencing in strawberry and other Fragaria species. The genome structure and domestication history in strawberry is one of the largest questions in genetic and genomic studies in strawberry. Therefore, the domestication history in strawberry is also be reviewed based on comparisons of genes and genome sequences across Fragaria species.
著者
Kimitoshi Sakaguchi Chisato Isobe Kazuyoshi Fujita Yoshihiro Ozeki Taira Miyahara
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.UTD-100, (Released:2019-07-17)
被引用文献数
1

Modern molecular biology techniques have enabled the generation of novel flower colors. Standard cultivated varieties of delphinium have blue flowers as a result of the biosynthesis and accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins. Some cultivars have pink flowers due to the biosynthesis and accumulation of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. The biosynthetic pathway of the latter becomes active due to the inactivation of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase. Cyanidin-based red-purple flowers have not been identified to date in delphiniums because these species do not express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene. However, in our previous work, we identified expression of the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene in a wild delphinium (Delphinium zalil) that accumulates quercetin 3-glycoside. D. zalil lacks the anthocyanidin synthase, the key enzyme to produce anthocyanins, so the flowers do not contain any anthocyanins. Here, we report the use of conventional breeding to introduce cyanidin biosynthesis into delphiniums. We introduced the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene of D. zalil into D. cardinale by hybridization breeding, causing accumulation of cyanidin-based anthocyanin. In the hybrid plants, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase was transcribed and a cyanidin-based anthocyanin was biosynthesized, generating novel purple-red flowers. Greater understanding of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes expressed in wild species will benefit the development of breeding strategies to generate novel flower colors in cultivars of high horticultural value.
著者
Mirai Azuma Takashi Onozaki Kazuo Ichimura
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-176, (Released:2018-09-27)
被引用文献数
1

Cut dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) flowers have recently become popular in Japan, but have the disadvantage of only having a short vase life. Here, we sought to clarify which factors are responsible for this by investigating the effects of an antibacterial (CMIT/MIT) treatment and a combined glucose plus antibacterial (Glc + CMIT/MIT) treatment on the vase life of the cut flowers of 10 dahlia cultivars, as well as the bacterial growth kinetics in their vase solutions and the soluble carbohydrate contents of their petals. We found that the CMIT/MIT treatment extended the vase life of ‘Kamakura’, ‘Magic Pink’ and ‘Purple Stone’, all of which had relatively high numbers of bacteria in their vase solutions. By contrast, the Glc + CMIT/MIT treatment significantly extended the vase life of three cultivars and also increased the fresh weight of nine cultivars. A comparison of two cultivars with relatively long and short vase lives (‘Moon Waltz’ and ‘Port Light Pair Beauty’, respectively) showed that a longer vase life was related to a higher carbohydrate content in the petals. Together, these findings suggest that maintaining the carbohydrate level is important for extending the vase life of cut dahlia flowers.
著者
Marcelo Martínez-Muñoz Óscar J. Ayala-Garay V. Heber Aguilar-Rincón Víctor Conde-Martínez Tarsicio Corona-Torres
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.UTD-044, (Released:2018-12-28)

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fruit maturity and postharvest storage on the physiological qualities of chili seeds during development. Two types of chili were used (ancho and guajillo). Fruits were harvested at 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 days after anthesis (daa) and stored for 0, 7 and 14 days after harvest (dah). The moisture content of guajillo seeds throughout development decreased from 86 to 17%, while ancho maintained moisture at 47% at 80 dda. It was confirmed that precocious harvest (40 daa) was not beneficial to the physiological quality of chili seeds, even when it was associated with 14 dah. Germinability was correlated with electrical conductivity (R = −0.76): Ancho seeds germinated starting from 472.5 μS·cm−1·g−1 and guajillo seeds from 679.3 μS·cm−1·g−1. In fruits harvested 80 daa, 14 dah was essential to ensure the physiological quality of seeds in both types of chilies: mean germination was above 93%, and seed vigor was higher (germination after accelerated aging and mean germination speed were more than 90% and 5.6 radicle d−1, respectively). Seeds harvested 120 daa were of high quality, and post-harvest storage of fruits was not necessary. Expression of two late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins was detected in both types of chilies: the first synthesis (65 kDa) occurred 80 daa, and the second (50 kDa) occurred 120 daa and this was directly related to the maximal physiological quality of chili seeds.
著者
Sho Ohno Wakako Hori Munetaka Hosokawa Fumi Tatsuzawa Motoaki Doi
出版者
一般社団法人 園芸学会
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-099, (Released:2017-08-04)
被引用文献数
1

Bicolor flowering dahlias are a group of cultivars that produce inflorescences with bicolored petals characterized by a colored basal part and a white tip. However, they frequently produce single-colored petals, even if they are vegetatively propagated. In a previous study, strong relationships between inflorescence color and leaf phenotype were observed in a red–white bicolor flowering dahlia ‘Yuino’; red petal-producing individuals accumulate flavonoids in leaves, whereas only bicolor petal-producing individuals tend not to accumulate them in leaves. Flavonoids in leaves are assumed to be chalcones. In this study, we investigated flavonoids in the leaves of ‘Yuino’ by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and identified six caffeoyl esters, four flavonol derivatives, and three novel butein derivatives in the flavonoid-rich leaves of ‘Yuino’. The three novel compounds were butein 4',4-O-di-[2-O-(β-glucopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside], butein 4'-O-[2-O-(β-glucopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-4-O-β-glucopyranoside, and butein 4'-[6-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-β-glucopyranoside]-4-O-β-glucopyranoside. On the other hand, only caffeoyl esters were detected in flavonoid-poor leaves. These data demonstrated that flavonoid-rich leaves accumulated the flavonoids of butein and flavonol derivatives. The common enzyme for the biosynthesis of butein and flavonol derivatives is chalcone synthase; thus, the importance of chalcone synthase for phenotypic lability in ‘Yuino’ was confirmed.
著者
Megumu Takahashi Yuka Nakano Hidekazu Sasaki
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-143, (Released:2018-07-07)
被引用文献数
2

Lateral heads, which generate after the harvest of an apical head of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), are generally small and have a low market value. Our purpose in this study was to increase the yield of broccoli from April to May, when domestic broccoli production is low, by removing excess branches (dubbed the “L-shaping” process) and growing one or two large and marketable lateral heads with the cultivar ‘Yumehibiki’. First, we demonstrated that transplanting seedlings in late-January and early-February to a field covered by plastic mulch and tunnels enabled apical heads and marketable lateral heads to be harvested in April and May, respectively. The number of marketable lateral heads reached a maximum 81% of that of apical heads. Next, we derived the base temperature (BT; °C), effective heat unit summation (EHUS; °C·day) from transplanting to apical head harvest, and additional EHUS from apical head harvest to lateral head harvest. They were 1.76°C, 747°C·day, and 254°C·day in 2016, and 1.74°C, 675°C·day and 204°C·day in 2017, respectively. The favorable timing for transplanting to result in the highest marketable yield was estimated as when the average temperature reached 4.0°C, but was less than 7.1°C. Finally, we characterized the lateral branches that were most likely to produce marketable lateral heads. The branches that produced marketable heads showed significantly higher values for thickness of branch, length of branch, and number of leaves on branch than those that produced nonmarketable heads, although the diameters of the developing heads on the branches were not significantly higher. Further analysis revealed that the leaf area was also significantly higher in marketable lateral heads than in nonmarketable heads. Taken together, the possibility of a substantial increase in yield during the broccoli off-crop season by using L-shaped ‘Yumehibiki’ was demonstrated in this study.
著者
Tatsuo Sato Harufumi Saito Keisuke Maejima Keiko Kuba Ani Widiastuti Mioko Yoshino
出版者
The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
雑誌
The Horticulture Journal (ISSN:21890102)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.OKD-085, (Released:2017-09-08)
被引用文献数
1

This study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of periodic hot water spraying against powdery mildew in strawberry as an alternative to chemical application as a protection method. Young upper leaves of ‘Sachinoka’ were dipped in hot water at 50°C for 20 s. Conidia of powdery mildew were inoculated 24 h after the treatment. The occurrence and growth rates of powdery mildew were apparently lower on leaves dipped in hot water than on those left untreated. Thus, resistance against powdery mildew was thought to be successfully induced by heat shock. Change in leaf temperature was tested using a prototype of a hot water sprayer at 57 ± 2°C. The resultant rise in temperature and temperature attained varied widely across the leaves. Nonetheless, the minimum requirement of a leaf temperature of 50°C in 10 s for inducing systemic resistance against crown rot could be attained in the treated plants. In this study, weekly hot water spraying treatments were conducted in ‘Sachinoka’ in 2008 and in ‘Tochiotome’ and ‘Hitachi-hime’ in 2009. In 2008, powdery mildew occurred explosively in the non-treated plants. However, its occurrence in plants treated with hot water spraying was less than that in the controls, but more than that after chemical application. In 2009, the occurrence rate was lower than that in the non-treated group of 2008 and extremely low after hot water spray treatment and chemical protection in both the varieties. Whether the difference in the occurrence of powdery mildew in both the years was because of the difference in environmental conditions or the difference between the varieties is not known. The plant height of ‘Hitachi-hime’ tended to become short after hot water spraying; however, no serious effects were noted on the growth and yield of strawberry plants. In conclusion, heat shock treatment by using hot water spraying can be considered an alternative method to chemical protection against mild powdery mildew incidence in strawberry.