著者
Yuki Tamura Hideo Hatta
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.3, pp.151-158, 2017-05-25 (Released:2017-05-17)
参考文献数
50

Heat stress treatment is a classic physical therapy, which is employed in the orthopedic field. In the field of physical fitness/sports science, morphological changes of skeletal muscle by heat stress have been well studied. In recent years, energy metabolic adaptations by heat stress have also been actively studied. In this review, we provide an overview of recent findings on heat stress-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscles, and further discuss our unpublished data and recent findings in related research fields. First, we summarized heat stress-induced positive regulation of mitochondrial content and its underlying molecular mechanisms from perspectives of mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation. Consequently, we reviewed beneficial effects of heat stress on mitochondrial health in disused and aged muscles, focusing on mitochondrial stress response at the organelle level (mitochondrial selective autophagy; mitophagy) and molecular level (mitochondrial unfolded protein response). Finally, we overviewed future directions to better understand heat stress-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle.
著者
田中 喜代次 中田 由夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.209-212, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-05-17)
参考文献数
7

Most people who go to fitness clubs or sports gyms for weight control, and many co-medicals and physicians believe that an increase in muscle mass and/or basal metabolic rate (BMR) is possible through a combination of regular exercise and optimal protein intake during weight loss. This seems a myth, and the reasons are discussed in this article. First, muscle mass is quite difficult to quantify. The limitations of body composition measurement should be well understood. Second, increasing muscle mass during weight loss is difficult. This might be attained through strict implementation of a protein-rich, low-carbohydrate diet; high-intensity resistance training; and aerobic exercise for a long duration. However, such a strict regimen is not feasible for most people. Finally, a 1-kg increase in muscle mass corresponds to an increase of only 13 kcal of BMR per day. Thus, an increase in muscle mass of 1 kg is difficult to achieve, while the gained BMR is approximately equivalent to a decrease of 13.5 kcal of BMR according to a 3-kg decrease of adipose tissue. Weight loss, unless through an extremely sophisticated weight control program, contributes to a decrease in BMR. However, it is an accomplished fact that women with significantly less muscle mass and lower BMR live longer than men with more muscle mass and higher BMR, regardless of ethnicity. Maintaining activities of daily living and daily activity function might be more essential.
著者
Shigenobu Shibata Yu Tahara
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.65-72, 2014-03-25 (Released:2014-03-20)
参考文献数
99

In mammals, the circadian clock organizes physiological processes, including sleep/wake patterns, hormonal secretion, and metabolism, and regulates athletic performance. The circadian system is responsive to environmental changes such as light/dark cycles, food intake, and exercise. In this review, we will focus on the central and peripheral circadian molecular clock system, discussing how circadian rhythm affects athletic performance and muscle metabolism, and how exercise entrains the circadian rhythm. Importance of exercise training in rescuing circadian deficit–induced metabolic disorder is also discussed. The interaction of the circadian clock and exercise, called “chrono-exercise,” is poised to become an important research field of chronobiology.
著者
Hirofumi Zempo Mitsuaki Isobe Hisashi Naito
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.25-31, 2017-01-25 (Released:2017-01-21)
参考文献数
91

The mechanism which causes sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass and strength with aging, remains unclear. Muscle mass is controlled by the net balance between protein synthesis and breakdown; however, net balance differences in the basal state do not contribute to sarcopenia. On the other hand, anabolic resistance, a reduction in muscle protein synthesis in response to protein intake, does seem to be involved in sarcopenia. Muscles which are subject to anabolic resistance do not show incremental blood flow volume during the fed-state. Because the vascular system transports amino acids and other nutrients that are essential for muscle protein synthesis, blood flow volume may be a regulator of anabolic resistance. There is some evidence of a link between blood flow and muscle protein metabolism. In addition, a combination of resistance training and amino acid supplementation promotes a positive net protein balance. Resistance training improves, and detraining reduces blood flow volume; therefore, blood flow volume may be involved as a background mechanism for sarcopenia. Moreover, previous studies have shown that sodium nitroprusside, a vasodilatory nitric oxide donor, enhances muscle protein synthesis. Conversely, angiotensin II, a major vasoconstrictive peptide, induces skeletal muscle protein breakdown. In this review, we discuss a possible role for blood flow in skeletal muscle protein metabolism in elderly adults. The regulation of blood flow may prove to be a beneficial treatment for sarcopenia.
著者
向本 敬洋 韓 一栄 大野 誠
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.3, pp.349-364, 2008-06-01 (Released:2008-08-13)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
0 or 1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of low intensity and slow-movement repetitive resistance exercise in moderately trained young men. Seven healthy trained young men (age=22±3 yr ; height=172.5±4.0 cm ; weight=69.5±8.3 kg ; VO2max=47.3±6.0 ml/kg/min) performed the following three exercise patterns on separate days : 1) high-intensity (80% one-repetition maximum : 1RM) and regular-movement repetitive exercise (1 second each of concentric and eccentric action, termed high and regular exercise (HRE) ; 2) low-intensity (50%1RM), regular-movement repetitive exercise (same movement speed as for HRE but termed low and regular exercise (LRE); and 3) low-intensity (50%1RM), slow-movement repetitive exercise (4 sec each of concentric and eccentric action, termed low and slow exercise (LSE). These three exercise patterns consisted of three sets of four exercises performed to maximum repetition. All subjects completed the three exercise sessions in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored during the exercise sessions and for 90 min afterwards. EPOC over 90 min was thus observed after completing the three exercise patterns. However, there were no significant differences in EPOC among the three exercise patterns. The results of this study suggest that low-intensity and slow-movement repetitive resistance exercise with maintaining muscular tension (LSE) is likely to increase EPOC to the same extent as HRE and LRE exercise patterns.
著者
菊地 潤 中村 泉 樫村 修生
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.353-364, 2009-06-01 (Released:2009-07-28)
参考文献数
24

The present study examined the relationship between rate of abnormal menstrual cycles in women who participated in competitive sports and long-term fertility. Longitudinal menstrual data were collected over 25 years from 33 women who graduated from physical education collegesThe results were as follows:1)Among the 33 women surveyed, the number of pregnancies for each woman ranged from zero to eight; the total number of pregnancies was 85 (mean 2.6). Sixty-five (76.5%) of the 85 pregnancies were carried out to delivery times.2)The rate of spontaneous abortion was 15.3%. Four (12.1%) of the 33 women were infertile.3)In women with fertility-related problems such as infertility, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillbirth, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles tended to be higher with increase of the fertility-related problems.4)In women with a high rate of abnormal menstrual cycles during college, the rate continued to be high after graduation.5)In women without fertility-related problems, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles during college varied widely. Also, the rate of abnormal menstruation decreased less than 30% after graduation, excluding one woman. Conversely, in women with fertility-related problems, the rate of abnormal menstrual cycles was higher than in women without fertility problems both during college and after graduation.6)Changes in menstrual cycle length with age were more different than an individual. In women with fertility-related problems, abnormal menstrual cycles were observed between the ages of 18 and 42, and abnormal cycles were both longer and shorter than normal cycles.The results indicated that, in women who participated in competitive sports during their youth, abnormal menstrual cycles may remain long after retirement from sports. In addition, problems such as infertility and spontaneous abortion were observed to be associated with higher rates of abnormal menstrual cycles.
著者
Ryoichi Ema Ryota Akagi Taku Wakahara Yasuo Kawakami
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.37-46, 2016-03-25 (Released:2016-03-18)
参考文献数
97

The present review summarizes current evidence and unresolved issues regarding training-induced changes in the architecture of human skeletal muscles. As architectural parameters, we focused on the fascicle length and pennation angle, which are related to force-generating capability of pennate muscles. Cross-sectional studies in sport athletes suggested changes in both the parameters following chronic sport-specific activities. Longitudinal training intervention experiments indicated direct evidence of the plasticity of the two parameters induced by resistance training, but no consensus has been reached regarding the factors influencing those changes. Considering the importance of fascicle arrangement on muscle function, future studies are required to explain the underpinning mechanisms of the adaptation.
著者
Taichi Yamaguchi Kojiro Ishii
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.121-129, 2014-03-25 (Released:2014-03-20)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Previous studies have indicated that dynamic stretching acutely improves explosive performance, and dynamic stretching is now incorporated into warm-up protocols prior to sports activities that require explosive performance. The optimal protocol for dynamic stretching, however, has not been clarified. The purpose of this review is to clarify the optimal protocols for velocity and volume (i.e., repetition or distance x set) in dynamic stretching to improve explosive performance by systematic investigation. For velocity, the rate of change in explosive performance when dynamic stretching was performed “as fast as possible” (7.6 ± 3.8%) was significantly (P < 0.01) greater compared to when dynamic stretching was performed “without setting the velocity” (1.1 ± 5.3%). This finding suggested that dynamic stretching should be performed “as fast as possible”. As for volume, the repetition of dynamic stretching was significantly (P < 0.01) negatively correlated with the rate of change in explosive performance only when dynamic stretching was performed without setting the velocity. The distance of dynamic stretching was also significantly (P < 0.05) negatively correlated with the rate of change in explosive performance. These findings suggest that explosive performance might become impaired as the volume of dynamic stretching increases. By combining simple regression analysis of the repetition or the distance of dynamic stretching and the rate of change in explosive performance with a systematic investigation, it was found that the optimal “repetition” or “distance” x “set” of dynamic stretching was “10-15 repetitions” or “10 yards-20 meters” x “1-2 sets”, respectively.
著者
Tetsuya Izawa Jun-etsu Ogasawara Takuya Sakurai Sachiko Nomura Takako Kizaki Hideki Ohno
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.3, pp.381-387, 2012-09-25 (Released:2012-10-23)
参考文献数
64

White adipose tissue (WAT) is located beneath the skin as subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), around internal organs as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue, and inside muscles in human beings. Recent studies indicate that developmental and patterning genes are differentially expressed in SAT and VAT, and some of these genes exhibit changes in expression that closely correlate with the extent of obesity and pattern of fat distribution. Furthermore, the development of adipocytes from mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells is thought to be mediated by developmental signaling molecules including nodal, Wnt/wingless (Wg), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), and others. Of these, BMPs and the FGF family have been suggested to play a role in maintaining energy homeostasis. However, it remains unclear whether these developmental and patterning genes are associated with morphological changes in WAT in response to exercise training (TR). On the other hand, when TR reduces the number of adipocytes in WAT, it increases preadipocyte factor 1 mRNA expression but down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA expression in stromal-vascular fraction cells, including adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, via the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, which may also up-regulate the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its receptor. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on the morphology of WAT and adipose tissue cellularity in exercise adaptation.
著者
Yudai Takarada
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.123-130, 2016-03-25 (Released:2016-05-14)
参考文献数
29

Low-to-moderate intensity resistance exercise with vascular occlusion induces increased muscle mass and strength, comparable to that after conventional heavy resistance training. Also, participants feel as if they require greater force (effort) to lift a weight when undergoing resistance exercise following vascular occlusion. Vascular occlusion of the proximal upper arm increased perceived magnitude of exerted hand-grip force without causing any accompanying changes either in electromyographic or efferent/afferent activity of the median nerve. There was also no effect on motor evoked potentials in the hand following resting-state transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1). Moreover, low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (lf-rTMS) over the left primary somatosensory cortex did not significantly affect estimations of right-hand grip force exertion. Thus, the primary factor responsible for the overestimation of force exertion with increased voluntary effort (“sense of effort”) during occlusion was the central signal related to motor command size. Brain imaging studies show that vascular occlusion increases M1 activity during force exertion, which may be related to functions of motor-related cortical areas, e.g., supplementary motor area, as sources of excitatory input to M1. M1 suppression by lf-rTMS during force exertion causes participants’ sense of effort and force perception to increase. This mechanism may also operate during muscular contraction with vascular occlusion. It is easy to imagine perceiving maximal effort when we consciously try to produce maximal force; however, does M1 activity become maximal at that point in time? In this study, the liberation of potential muscular strength, focusing on the motor system state before awareness of motor intention, is looked at.
著者
Yoshihisa Umemura
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.7-12, 2016-03-25 (Released:2016-03-18)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Mechanical loads on the skeleton imposed by exercise increase bone mass and strength. The sensor in the osteocyte that detects mechanical stress, the mechano-sensor, responds to bone strain caused by mechanical loading. Greater magnitude and rate of strain increases osteogenic response, making high-impact exercise, which imposes large and dynamic strain on the skeleton, an effective mode of exercise. However, the sensitivity of the mechano-sensor (mechano-sensitivity) drops after a large number of repetitions performed within an exercise session, which has diminishing returns. It takes several hours or several days to reestablish mechano-sensitivity after the last loading session. It is important to consider the time to recovery of mechano-sensitivity when determining optimal exercise frequency.
著者
Yumiko Takahashi Yutaka Matsunaga Yuki Tamura Eiki Urushibata Shin Terada Hideo Hatta
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.5, pp.531-537, 2014-11-25 (Released:2014-12-05)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Previous studies suggested that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) administration enhances glucose uptake, one of the rate-limiting factors for glycogen synthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of post-exercise taurine administration on glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle in ICR mice. In experiment 1, we orally administered either taurine (0.5 mg/g body weight) solution or physiological saline immediately after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min. The serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentration at 60 min after the exercise was significantly higher in the taurine-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). At 120 min after the exercise, the tibialis anterior muscle glycogen concentration in the taurine-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, we orally administered either glucose (1 mg/g body weight) solution or glucose solution containing taurine immediately after and at 60 min after the exercise. The area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose concentration from 0 to 60 min after the exercise was significantly smaller in the taurine-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Our results show that post-exercise taurine administration enhances glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle. Higher skeletal muscle glycogen concentration by taurine administration may be partly due to the acceleration of glucose uptake. In addition, as the elevation of blood FFA level leads to an increase in fat oxidation, it is possible that a higher serum FFA concentration by taurine treatment is related to the sparing of carbohydrate for glycogen repletion.
著者
Kaito Iwayama Kumpei Tokuyama
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.2, pp.307-316, 2012-07-25 (Released:2012-09-11)
参考文献数
56

Indirect calorimetry with a room-size respiratory chamber provides an ideal setting to monitor energy metabolism for a prolonged period. During the last 10 years, experiments with this method have raised interesting observations such as: 1) exercise intensity has no effect on 24 h fat oxidation, 2) exercise has little, if any, effect on 24 h fat oxidation, and 3) exercise before breakfast increases 24 h fat oxidation. To some of the scientific community and general public, the first two statements may be unacceptable. But it can be factually explained that the impact of exercise on energy metabolism is not confined to the period of physical activity itself, and that fat oxidation remains elevated during the post-exercise period. The third observation seems to be insignificant, but contradicts the second one. It is premature to conclude that exercise has no effect on 24 h fat oxidation.
著者
Keishi Soga Keita Kamijo Hiroaki Masaki
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.1, pp.57-67, 2016-03-25 (Released:2016-03-18)
参考文献数
78

An increasing number of studies have examined the effects of acute aerobic exercise on executive function (i.e., higher-order cognitive abilities involved in goal-directed behaviors) in healthy children. More recently, studies have begun to extend these empirical findings to children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we review what is known about the effects of acute exercise on executive function in children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. Overall, moderate acute aerobic exercise can transiently improve executive function in children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. Further, these effects of acute exercise may differ depending on type of exercise, participant characteristics (e.g., fitness levels, executive function capacity, type of neurodevelopmental disorder), and timing of cognitive task administration (i.e., after versus during exercise). Despite the increasing number of findings, it is still premature to suggest effective exercise types and/or intensity levels to produce improvements in executive function in children. Further studies are needed to address this issue. Finally, future research directions are discussed in more detail.
著者
Keiji Hayashi
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.143-149, 2015-05-25 (Released:2015-05-28)
参考文献数
59

More than a hundred years ago, it was first reported that increases in body temperature stimulate minute ventilation. Since then, the characteristics, mechanisms and physiological meaning of this ventilatory response to increasing body temperature, so-called hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation, have gradually been uncovered. For example, it is now known that hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation has a core temperature threshold, like heat-dissipating responses (sweating and cutaneous vasodilation); but several factors affecting heat-dissipating responses do not influence the ventilatory response to increasing body temperature. On the other hand, evidence from several studies suggests there may be some relation between hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and heat-dissipating responses. In addition, more recent evidence indicates that hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation may be related to central fatigue, which is considered to be one of the reasons exercise performance is diminished in heat. In fact, it has been suggested that hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation causes cerebral blood perfusion to be reduced, which decreases cerebral oxygenation and heat removal. This review presents an overview of the characteristics of the ventilatory response to increasing body temperature and its effect on central fatigue.
著者
Yuhei Makanae Riki Ogasawara Satoshi Fujita
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, no.2, pp.217-221, 2015-05-25 (Released:2015-05-28)
参考文献数
48

Concurrent training, which is a combination of resistance exercise (RE) and endurance exercise (EE) performed in succession, is used to improve both muscle strength and cardiovascular function. Although numerous studies have investigated the effects of concurrent training on muscle adaptation, no consensus has been reached. Skeletal muscle adaptation is induced by the cumulative effects of the repeated cellular and molecular responses to an acute bout of exercise. Divergent exercise modes induce different molecular signaling responses depending on the muscle contraction type. It is well known that RE induces the mammalian target of the rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway while EE activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, and the signaling pathways stimulated by each exercise could interfere with each other. Thus, the inconsistencies in the effects of concurrent training on muscle adaptation may be explained by the different signaling interactions occurring in response to RE and EE. This review article describes the signaling pathways induced by RE, EE, and concurrent training.