4 0 0 0 OA 演奏の現象学

著者
宮内 勝
出版者
東京藝術大学音楽学部
雑誌
東京藝術大学音楽学部紀要 (ISSN:09148787)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, pp.157-172, 2008
著者
服部 洋一
出版者
東京芸術大学
雑誌
東京藝術大学音楽学部紀要 (ISSN:09148787)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.63-91, 1995

Composer Frederic (Federico) Mompou (1893-1987) searched throughout his life for ways to express his own musical ideals and sensibilities. This paper examines his attitude toward this search, and also analyzes changes in his means of musical expression as shown in his songs. From 1914 to 1915, Mompou was greatly concerned with the problem of finding his own means of musical expression. He wrote a report entitled "Estudi del sentiment per a l'interpretacio al piano," in which he reconsidered and reanalyzed traditional musical terms. From this, we can see that his search for his own musical language began while he was still young; this search continued throughout Mompou's career, not only in his piano works, but also in his vocal works. In order to analyze the changes in musical language in Mompou's vocal works, the following songs were selected: L'hora grisa (1915) from his early period; Cortina de fullatge (1925) and Canconeta incerta (1926) from his middle period; Damunt de tu nemes les flors and Aquesta nit un mateix vent (from the suite Combat del Somni; 1942-51) for his mature period; and finally La fausse morte (from the suite Cine chansons sur les poemes de Paul Valery; 1973) for his later years. Through this analysis the following characteristics have been shown: In his early and middle periods: (1) Mompou avoided conventional stability by using an "ambiguous tonality" which although diatonic is neither major nor minor (even when a mode is used, cadences do not have traditional chords); (2) he tended to avoid definiteness through using parallel dominant chord progressions; (3) he used the major second interval as a standard device to express anguish or pain in the song text. In his middle and mature periods, in addition to the above techniques: (4) Mompou used "two-storied chords" (an invented term meaning a kind of compound chord made from two adjoining chords) with increasing frequency and effectiveness; (5) his work came to show a characteristic sense of cadence through the use of 3rd inversion chords. All of these characteristics give a particular color to Mompou's songs, distinguishing him from other Spanish composers in the 20th century. In his later years, Mompou adopted Messiaen's "2nd mode" in his vocal work La fausse morte. But this fact is closely related to his use of parallel dominant chord progressions in his earlier works. Mompou's adoption of this mode for his own expressive purposes should be seen to reflect his interest in the use of diminished chords for their dominant function, and the fact that the combination of tones in Messiaen's 2nd mode give a richness in melody which satisfied Mompou's sense of sound in his later years.
著者
宮内 勝
出版者
東京芸術大学
雑誌
東京藝術大学音楽学部紀要 (ISSN:09148787)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.A25-A50, 1990

Few problems in the music world seem to have been, of late, more frequently discussed than those of contemporary music. Although the radical changes and the resulting unprecedented styles of contemporary music often cause us bewilderment and dismay, they do have something to disclose in their own way. Meanwhile we have already come down to the last decade of this century, which begins to enable us to stop and think about what has happened to music and understand it as it is. To have a clearer insight into this problem, we need to look back to the history of western music as a whole. H. Zenck and H. H. Eggebrecht insist that there are two mutually exclusive principles involved: numerus or the Pythagorean principle, on the one hand and affectus or the Muses', on the other. These dual principles imply that a crack runs through the very heart of western music and its history, which has manifested itself in the long-discussed problem of "form and content", and which has now proved to be of secondary importance. It is secondary because the "numerus and affectus" themselves are not so much principles now as what is to come later. The very principle of these old "principles" is the metaphysics of music: the belief that what is impenetrable to us, what cannot be heard, really exists behind what is heard. The beginning of this metaphysics, as we all know, goes back to the Pytagorean idea of music. It may not be too much to say that it was born from music. A retrospective research will show us that they, philosophical and musical metaphysics, come hand in hand down to us through history, only to find themselves about to collapse in our century. The strange way in which contemporary music presents itself comes from its desperate attempts to break through the frame of musical metaphysics. It no longer allows anything to be "behind its back"; there is nothing at all but can be heard in the music. This music, according to J. Cage, has become only something to be heard. This is a turning away not only from the metaphysics of music but from the traditional concept of truth, as well. In the old metaphysics only reason is believed to lead us to the truth, while the senses nowhere; the latter is thought to be unreliable, giving us nothing but illusions. But no longer do we have to doubt our senses so long as the truth comes to lie not in what hides itself but in what manifests itself. This is, so to speak, the phenomenological turn of music from metaphysics. However, this phenomenological turn of music should not be regarded as merely getting rid of the old metaphysics; it appears that it is throwing open the door to another kind of metaphysics to come: the pre-transcendental metaphysics of music. The music we hear has already been constituted as a sound-object by the intentional acts of consciousness, which leads us to the inevitable question: what is music before being constituted as an object? To this question we approach by way of the communication of music. The music in this sense is of course not what can be heard or perceived, but what should make it possible for us to hear. It might be thought to be a silent calling or a over-whelming force that no one could resist nor turn away from, which we call here "pre-transcendental affectus". This "affectus" is not a psychological phenomenon we experience every day nor even an aesthetical one, but a preceding ethical demand from "the outside" that disguises itself and emerges in the light of consciousness in the shape of pleasing and touching sounds of music. In every way of the communication in music lies hidden the fundamental silent demand of "music" and "our" silent response.
著者
小岩 信治
出版者
東京芸術大学
雑誌
東京藝術大学音楽学部紀要 (ISSN:09148787)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.A1-A16, 2003

The Piano Concerto in A-Minor opus 85 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837) belongs to the most successful works of this early romantic pianist. Composed in the late 1810s, performed throughout in Europe by Hummel himself, it soon became acknowledged as a masterpiece in this genre, which every young pianist should learn not only as one of their first performing pieces, but also as a guide for composition of their own piano concertos. Given this background it is understandable why the piano concertos of Frederic Chopin (1810-1849), for instance, sound remarkably similar to Hummel's A-Minor Concerto. Post mid-19th century, however, Hummel's opus 85 played an increasingly marginal role in the history of the piano concerto, particularly at public orchestral concerts, where new and symphonic piano concertos began to enjoy popularity. On the other hand, the value of this work as teaching model was never forgotten. At the conservatory in Leipzig, at that time one of the most influential institutions in Europe, it was still in great demand as one of the piano concertos that students should play at their first public performance. Koda Nobu (幸田延), who studied in Vienna from 1890-95, observed the obvious role of Hummel's piece in musical life: piano concerto for debut pianists. And afterwards, as professor of the Tokyo Academy of Music (東京音楽学校), sne introduced it as such. She selected it for the first documented performance of a piano concerto at the institution in 1901, with a second piano as accompaniment. For her first piano concerto performance with a full orchestra (1908) it was again selected. Furthermore it became tradition at the Tokyo academy for her students and their students to play it during (and particularly at the end of) their study. This lasted into the 1920s. It stands to reason that the custom of making students play Hummel's concerto resulted from the efforts of Koda and other European (particular German) guest professors at the academy in this period, who took it upon themselves to import European music culture as a whole. The establishment of this custom was evidence that their attempt succeeded. However, their endeavour and success was overlooked in the following decades, as Hummel's work was gradually perceived as out of date and old-fashioned, even among conservatories in Europe and Tokyo. This signified an end to the historical role of Hummel's Concerto in musical life. Although today's concertgoers do not know this piece, or even the name of Hummel, the performance history of his Concerto in A-Minor reflects the history of piano education. It is a piano concerto for debut performance, which transcended its time and geographical boundaries.