著者
根本 浩行
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 = Studies of Language and Culture (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.19, pp.1-19, 2015-03-30

As is the case with face-to-face communication in L2 learning, computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been increasingly investigated from the sociocultural perspectives of second language acquisition (SLA), which enable us to attend to rather than remove the broader social and discursive contexts from research data (cf. Warschauer, 2005). This approach has led CMC researchers to reconsider e-learning not only as a means of assisting individual language learning but as a source of providing language learners with authentic sociocultural activities and has also made such researchers more aware of intricate relationships between CMC and its sociocultural factors, including cultures, contexts, communities where learners participate, their social positionings in the communities, power relations with others, L2 identities and L2 learning motivations.This paper reviews various previous CMC studies and then argues the applicability of several sociocultural and pedagogical concepts to CMC research, including the Vygotskian notion of scaffolding, task-based language teaching, intercultural interactions, and language socialization. The sociocultural analyses of CMC in this paper suggest that CMC enhances students’ goal-driven social actions to promote grammatical, sociolinguistic and sociocultural competence in L2 and provides affordances that help students to apply an analytical lens on their own L2 production.
著者
根本 浩行
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 = Studies of language and culture (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.19-38, 2012-03-31

When research on second language acquisition (SLA) began to prevail in the 1970s and 1980s, the SLA process was primarily deemed as the cognitive process which occurs in the mind. While acknowledging the importance of this traditional approach, due to the increasing awareness of the socially constructed nature of cognitive development, many researchers currently claim that cognition is not the sole SLA paradigm and consider the cognitive and sociocultural processes as two parallel constituents of SLA. Such a perspective has contributed to the emergence of various sociocultural theories in the area of applied linguistics, such as Vygotskian sociocultural theory, language socialization, situated learning, critical theory, identity approach, socio-constructionist genre theory, and so on. This paper delineates the historical background of the paradigm shift from the dominance of cognitivism to sociocultural perspectives of SLA, and discusses how to apply sociocultural theories in empirical SLA studies, focussing on the socio-constructionist genre theory, the concept of situated learning, and an identity approach to SLA.
著者
ケンダル ジュディ
出版者
金沢大学
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.151-165, 2000-03

少なくとも私の知る限りでは「文荷」の英訳には前例がないと思われます。私たちの翻訳は以下の方法で行なわれました。日本文学研究者のイリス.エルガリシとの共同作業により,彼女が翻訳の現本となるものを作成し,私が「文荷」特有の文体に留意しながらそれに手を加えていきました。しかし,この作品特有の文体を英語で表現するのは容易ではありませんでしたが,この作品が何処かサミュエル・ベケットの文学に通ずるところがあると思い,彼の作品を改めて読み直しました。翻訳を完成するにあたり「文荷」のユーモアに富んだ複雑な文体を英語で正確に表すことができたのは,ベケットの作品に負っているところがあります。
著者
大藪 加奈
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.14, pp.121-143, 2010-03

本論は、英国のイスラム系児童文学作品に描かれている登場人物間の関係を論じたものである。イスラム家庭では、近年イスラム的なライフスタイルや価値観を反映した児童書やおもちゃが商業的成功をおさめている。そこで、これらの商品が代替品としての機能をどのように果たしているかを、主にThe Islamic Foundation 出版の本に焦点を当てて分析した。その結果、これらの作品には現代多文化社会であるイギリスの現状が取り上げられており、イスラム教徒と非イスラム教徒の関係がよく主題となっていることがわかった。しかし、イスラム・非イスラムという二項対立的概念は、聖典クルアーンや預言者ムハンマドの言葉に表れるイスラム的世界観とは相容れない。そこで、本論ではイスラム系児童書の登場人物の描き方を「関係の不在」「無知な者への対処」「対立」「中立」の4 つに分類して考察している。
著者
趙 菁
出版者
金沢大学
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.169-186, 2008-03-31
著者
矢淵 孝良
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.3, pp.343-370, 1999-03-01

金沢大学外国語教育研究センター
著者
林 香奈
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.278-261, 2001-03-01

金沢大学外国語教育研究センター
著者
小林 恵美子 福島 深雪
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.14, pp.165-188, 2010-03

General strain theory, in its most genetic form, argues that three sources of strain, including failure to achieve positively valued goals, removal of positively valued stimuli, and confrontation with negative stimuli, lead to crime and other forms of deviance. Failure to achieve positively valued goals, which has been addressed in part in traditional strain theory, consists of three subtypes that describe various ways in which goal blockage might become manifest. The first type is a disjuncture between aspirations and expectations, which results when individuals hold aspirations for a positively valued goal but do not expect to achieve it. The second type is a disjuncture between expectations and outcomes, which results when individuals expect to achieve a certain goal but do not actually achieve it. Lastly, the third type is a disjuncture between perceived just or fair outcomes and actual outcomes, which results when what actually occurs is perceived by the individual as an unfair utcome. The other two major sources of strain, which include removal of positively valued stimuli and confrontation with negative stimuli, result when individuals experience stressful life events, especially during adolescence. All three sources of strain predispose individuals to engage in crime and other forms of deviance. In the research reported here, measures of strain that closely correspond to the theoretical definitions are developed, while taking into account two recent refinements (a distinction between global and goal-specific strain and an assessment of subjective responses to stressful life events). The effects of these strains on academiccheating are then examined in a sample of Japanese college students. Results offer partial support for general strain theory. While both removal of positively valued stimuli and confrontation with negative stimuli increase the inclination to cheat, failure to achieve positively valued goals does not seem to affect the inclination to cheat among the sample of Japanese young adults.
著者
小林 恵美子
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.15, pp.159-181[含 英語文要旨], 2011-03

Social control theory, which was first presented by Travis Hirschi in 1969 inCauses of Delinquency and is one of the most widely cited theories in criminology, argues that humans by nature are hedonistic and, thus, inclined to engage in any acts, including crime and other forms of deviance,in pursuit of their self-interest. The present study proposes that the fourgeneral elements identified in the theory comprise a social bond that, whenpresent, serves as a constraint against academic cheating: attachment,commitment, involvement, and belief. First,attachment refers to anemotional bond to conventional others. Students who are so attached areless inclined to commit academic cheating for fear of hurting those to whomthey are attached and/or jeopardizing their relationships with them. Forstudents, relevant attachments are those to parents, peers, and school.Attachment to, or caring about the feelings of parents has also threesubcomponents: identification with and affection toward parents, intimatecommunication, and parental supervision. Second, commitment refers tothe stakes in conformity the student has developed, such as investments ineducation and preparation for labor force participation. Students whohave made such investments, the present study argues, are inclined to avoid violation of school rules because they have more to lose by taking therisk of getting into trouble. Third, involvement is a student's investment oftime in conventional activities, time that makes the student unavailable foracademic cheating or exposure to opportunities for such misconduct. Thetheory assumes a finite amount of time available to an individual, so timespent in conventional activities reduces time available for academiccheating. Finally, belief refers to belief in the moral legitimacy of the law –the view that the law is binding on one's own behavior and has legitimacy inprohibiting one's pursuit of one's self-interest through acts of force and fraud.Students who acquire such a belief while growing up are more bonded toconventional society and, thus, less free to engage in academic cheating. Inthe research reported here, measures of social bond variables that resemble,and in many cases are identical to measures used by Hirschi, are developed.The effects of these four elements on people's experience to commitacademic cheating are then examined in a sample of Japanese collegestudents. The analysis provides rather limited support for the theory.Parental supervision and belief function as constraints that preventstudents, more or less, from engaging in acts of fraud (i.e., academiccheating) in pursuit of their self-interest, but the findings for the otherelements of social bond appear less compatible with the theory.
著者
大藪 加奈 塚原 久美 大藪 千穂
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.15, pp.127-138, 2011-03

本論は現代アーミッシュ児童文学を扱う。産業化する以前の伝統的ライフスタイルを保っているアーミッシュの人々は、自分たちの理念と照らし合わせて必要だとみなされるものや考え方、情報のみアーミッシュ社会に取り入れるしくみを持っている。子ども向け読み物に関しては、ほとんどの家庭で月刊誌Family Life の子ども用ページと学校の教科書が主な情報となっている。本論では、2003 年から2008 年の5 年間に発行されたFamily Life の子ども用ページ掲載の物語310 篇について、登場人物の年齢、描写されている行為、教訓を特定し、頻繁に現れる主題がどのようなものか調べた。その結果、登場人物の年齢は10 歳以下が半数で、5 歳以下の登場人物の物語では、同年齢の読者が英語を習っていない現状を反映して読み聞かせ用物語となっていた。また、13 歳で独自の学校教育を終えるアーミッシュの子どもたちを反映して10 歳以上の登場人物の話は、ほぼ(97%)13 歳以下となっていた。描写される行為は、社会的活動と労働(地域での仕事・家事・農作業など)が遊びや学校での活動にくらべて高く、子ども時代から社会にかかわり労働しているアーミッシュ児童の現実を反映していると同時に、そのような存在としての子ども観を読み物が肯定・促進しているといえる。明示的・暗示的に教訓が示されるこれらの読み物では、人間的な弱さや不注意から失敗を犯す主人公が、後悔・反省を経て神への感謝や赦しの大切さなどのアーミッシュ的価値観へと目覚めて行く、いわゆるキリスト教的「放蕩息子(Prodigal Son)」の主題が顕著である。その他特徴的な主題としては、読み物でありながら本や読書を問題視する(健全な労働や生活から子どもを惑わす存在とみる)傾向があり、またモスレム児童文学に比べると宗教的行為・言説の多用という類似点と、宗教から逸脱する主人公の存在という相違点が認められた。
著者
根本 浩行
出版者
金沢大学外国語教育研究センター = Foreign Language Institute Kanazawa University
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
no.19, pp.1-17,19, 2015-03

As is the case with face-to-face communication in L2 learning, computer-mediatedcommunication (CMC) has been increasingly investigated from the socioculturalperspectives of second language acquisition (SLA), which enable us to attend torather than remove the broader social and discursive contexts from research data (cf.Warschauer, 2005). This approach has led CMC researchers to reconsidere-learning not only as a means of assisting individual language learning but as asource of providing language learners with authentic sociocultural activities and hasalso made such researchers more aware of intricate relationships between CMC andits sociocultural factors, including cultures, contexts, communities where learnersparticipate, their social positionings in the communities, power relations with others,L2 identities and L2 learning motivations.This paper reviews various previousCMC studies and then argues the applicability of several sociocultural andpedagogical concepts to CMC research, including the Vygotskian notion ofscaffolding, task-based language teaching, intercultural interactions, and languagesocialization. The sociocultural analyses of CMC in this paper suggest that CMCenhances students' goal-driven social actions to promote grammatical,sociolinguistic and sociocultural competence in L2 and provides affordances thathelp students to apply an analytical lens on their own L2 production.
著者
杉村 安幾子
出版者
金沢大学
雑誌
言語文化論叢 (ISSN:13427172)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.37-58, 2006-03-31