著者
須藤 康介
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.166-169, 2015-09-19 (Released:2020-08-18)
参考文献数
2

The purpose of this report is to compare the crime rate of teachers with people of the same age in the general population and clarify the recent change. We usually see and hear disgraceful affairs of teachers in news. And, by those media discourse, not few people may have the image that the crime rate of teachers is high. Then, is the crime rate of teachers higher than general people in fact? By using macro statistics of NPA, MEXT and MIC, I calculate the crime rate of teachers.  Taking data from the past five year we can clearly see that the crime rate for teachers in the age bracket 25-59 was clearly lower than the general population. The Crime rate of teachers is less than a one-fifth of that of the general population for all categories of crime. The brutal crime rate of teachers is less than one-fifth of the general population. and sexual crime rate of teachers is less than half of the general population. In other words, the teachers is the occupation group who rarely cause a crime.  Secondly, by examining the change of the crime rate of teachers, we understood that the crime rate of teachers had changed at the standard that was extremely lower than the general population. Though the sexual crime rate of teachers is increasing, that of other people in the 25-59 year old age bracket is also increasing in a similar way. Therefore, we can know that the teachers are included in the increase of sexual crime arrests in society.  The impact of the study on teacher education may be to announce this knowledge widely. The image that teachers have many disgraceful affairs becomes the unfair label for the incumbent teachers, and, for the students who want to be a teacher, it may be a factor to reduce the motivation. It is said that we are in “Education Distrust and Dependent Times”. It is thought that the disgraceful affairs of teachers attract attention and are sometimes reported in an exaggerated way because we are in such times.
著者
隼瀬 悠里
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.123-132, 2010-09-25 (Released:2020-12-22)
参考文献数
12

In Japan, an expansion of teacher education from Bachelor's level to Master's level is planned. Finland has around 30 years of experience providing Master's level teacher education and thus it is meaningful to examine the country's curriculum. Moreover, Finnish teacher education is “research-based” education. The aim of this study is to examine the theoretical landscape of Finnish teacher education and to analyze the curriculum. Since 1979, both primary and secondary school teachers in Finland have been educated at universities, attaining the qualification of a Master's degree.  Since then, the research activity of teachers has been emphasized in the curriculum. The aim of Finnish teacher education is to educate future teachers who have an inquiring attitude and can develop their work independently. Such education is characterized as “research-based teacher education” by some Finnish researchers. This paper identifies some features of research-based teacher education through examining the researchers' papers. The biggest feature is the close integration of theory and practice. To connect theory and practice, the notion of two levels of teacher education(basic level and general level)and the notion of two-fold practice(practice of teaching and practice of research)in teacher education are introduced. Pedagogical thinking is required of the student teachers, as is their ability to use and produce research to develop their work on the curriculum. How is the curriculum of research-based teacher education constructed? This paper analyzes the curriculum of the Department of Teacher Education in the Faculty of Education of Jyväskylä University as an example of research-based teacher education.
著者
髙野 貴大
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.98-108, 2018-09-29 (Released:2020-07-06)
参考文献数
34

Since the 1990s, the theory of “reflective practitioner” by Schön, D. A. has been widely recognized in Japan as the contemporary theory of teaching profession. However, as teacher education reform concurrently ongoing emphasized the implementation of immediate practical skills, there was not much space for interpreting the concept of teachers’ “reflection”. It was particularly so since Schön’s “reflective practitioner” theory was primarily to show how professionals think in action. Therefore, by simply revealing Schön’s arguments, it is difficult to examine the application of the concept of “reflection” in the contemporary theory of teaching profession.   This study aims to reconsider the concept of “reflection” in the contemporary theory of teaching profession in Japan, using the lens of “reflective teaching” presented by Zeichner, K. and Liston, D. in 1980s to 1990s. They doubted the simple application of Schön’s theory to a theory of teaching profession and developed the concept of “reflective teaching,” explaining the characteristic of teaching profession based on their own empirical research. The core of their “reflective teaching” concept is that the teaching profession is practiced on the basis of “problem setting” in an uncertain situation, all the while grasping their own role as “social actors” based on “moral deliberation”. “Moral deliberation” consists of the two points, “ethic of virtue” and “ethic of duty”. They argued that expertise in the teaching profession means that decision making should be based on the social condition of schooling and by caring and compassion for their students at the same time. They positioned the concept of “reflection” as the key concept in the theory of teaching profession. For that purpose, they emphasized dealing with both clinical experience and academic skills in a teacher training program for building a “foundation” of teaching.   Their concept of “reflective teaching” highlights the professionalism in the teaching profession in the light of it having a public mission. In order to respond to the problems of diverse schooling in recent years, the essential requirement of the teachers’ “reflection” concept is that the teachers are to position themselves as not symptomatic treatment workers but “social actors” based on “moral deliberation”.
著者
勝野 正章
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.42-50, 2019-09-21 (Released:2020-09-21)
参考文献数
13

In Japan, the administrative system used for initial teacher education courses’ approval was introduced in 1953. The related laws and regulations were revised recently and state that all courses should be reapproved by the Minister of Education before the beginning of the academic year of 2019. The author investigates the issues that surfaced during the reapproval process and criticises the lack of fairness and transparency in the approval system. Among the problems, the author examines the use of the core curriculum of initial teacher training, set as a legal requirement in order to obtain approval from the Minister of Education. The author argues that this can lead to legal problems, and that the curriculum should be regarded as a non-binding instrument instead of a criterion for approval, an instrument universities can draw upon to improve their initial teacher education. The author concludes with suggestions for reforms in the approval system.
著者
山崎 奈々絵
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.86-95, 2009-10-03 (Released:2020-12-15)
参考文献数
46

This study seeks to clarify the process of faculty establishment during the foundation period of a liberal arts college (a gakugei university) through an investigation of the teacher screening process conducted by the university chartering committees within Osaka Gakugei University and Fukuoka Gakugei University in fiscal year 1948. From this analysis, the following conclusions were drawn.  First, liberal arts colleges intended to enable as many teachers as possible from normal schools and youth normal schools to become teachers at liberal arts colleges. Therefore, they created an independent hiring criterion that involved experience in educational administration and breadth of liberal arts the applicants underwent teacher screening by the university chartering committee.  Second, the screening by the university chartering committee was unexpectedly severe, and thus most teachers were not able to pass the screening. For that reason, the liberal arts colleges could not help but place teachers in a special subject disregarding the new curriculum to some degree before the university chartering committee rescreened them.  Third, this meant that the liberal arts colleges had to postpone the postwar notion of teacher training through the liberal arts.  Lastly, the university chartering committee took the view that the teaching methods of teachers in charge of subjects were inferior to those of teachers in charge of teaching special subjects with regard to subject knowledge in natural science courses.
著者
前川 喜平
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.18-28, 2019-09-21 (Released:2020-09-21)

This paper aims to trace the changes and development of teacher preparation systems in Japan from the civil service perspective inside the (then) Ministry of Education, as well as in the (presently) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).   There are perspectives of academics (intellectuals) and of educators to consider when discussing about teacher preparation and its systems. The author takes a position that teachers need to be intellectuals themselves in order to adequately and effectively guide their students to pursue their intellectual curiosities. Ensuring intellectual freedom of universities where Japan sets its teacher preparation is, therefore, critical to allow space for future teachers to mature their intellectual caliber.   Taking on above mentioned perspective, previous and still ongoing reforms on teacher preparation policy have carried the following issues :   1)In Japan, school-teacher is an inclusive term referring to those carrying the occupation of teaching from preschool to high school in national, municipal and private schools. However, it is often assumed within MEXT, as well as the Central Education Council, that the term refers, primarily, to those teaching in publicly operated primary schools. Furthermore, whilest preparing primary school teachers in university with open system curriculum has been the fundamental principle, nonetheless, the pre-war tradition of normal school preparation strongly persists still today.   2)Under the open system, the providers of teacher preparation were not held responsible to bridge between preparation and hiring / placement of teachers. Hence, teacher preparation curriculum and contents have been largely disconnected to what is needed in the practice. Today, however, there is a growing pressure for longer preparation process and tougher certification requirements. The introduction of “teaching practice exercises” was a response to such pressure, but university providers failed to implement it as a gatekeeper. The introduction of the professional graduate school of teacher education in 2008 was to bridge between the preparation and the practice, but it is still in developmental stage today.   3)In the 2015 reform, university’s autonomy over teacher preparation curriculum was weakened despite the rhetoric of encouraging universities for innovative practice. The introduction of “core curriculum” was another blow to university’s curricular autonomy, and much of teacher preparation curriculum was put under the state control.   These issues noted here are the evidence that the fundamental principle of Japan’s postwar teacher preparation—university-based and open system preparation—is at risk today.
著者
山崎 奈々絵
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.86-95, 2009

<p>  This study seeks to clarify the process of faculty establishment during the foundation period of a liberal arts college (a gakugei university) through an investigation of the teacher screening process conducted by the university chartering committees within Osaka Gakugei University and Fukuoka Gakugei University in fiscal year 1948. From this analysis, the following conclusions were drawn.</p><p>  First, liberal arts colleges intended to enable as many teachers as possible from normal schools and youth normal schools to become teachers at liberal arts colleges. Therefore, they created an independent hiring criterion that involved experience in educational administration and breadth of liberal arts the applicants underwent teacher screening by the university chartering committee.</p><p>  Second, the screening by the university chartering committee was unexpectedly severe, and thus most teachers were not able to pass the screening. For that reason, the liberal arts colleges could not help but place teachers in a special subject disregarding the new curriculum to some degree before the university chartering committee rescreened them.</p><p>  Third, this meant that the liberal arts colleges had to postpone the postwar notion of teacher training through the liberal arts.</p><p>  Lastly, the university chartering committee took the view that the teaching methods of teachers in charge of subjects were inferior to those of teachers in charge of teaching special subjects with regard to subject knowledge in natural science courses.</p>