著者
勝野 正章
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.42-50, 2019-09-21 (Released:2020-09-21)
参考文献数
13

In Japan, the administrative system used for initial teacher education courses’ approval was introduced in 1953. The related laws and regulations were revised recently and state that all courses should be reapproved by the Minister of Education before the beginning of the academic year of 2019. The author investigates the issues that surfaced during the reapproval process and criticises the lack of fairness and transparency in the approval system. Among the problems, the author examines the use of the core curriculum of initial teacher training, set as a legal requirement in order to obtain approval from the Minister of Education. The author argues that this can lead to legal problems, and that the curriculum should be regarded as a non-binding instrument instead of a criterion for approval, an instrument universities can draw upon to improve their initial teacher education. The author concludes with suggestions for reforms in the approval system.
著者
髙野 貴大
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.98-108, 2018-09-29 (Released:2020-07-06)
参考文献数
34

Since the 1990s, the theory of “reflective practitioner” by Schön, D. A. has been widely recognized in Japan as the contemporary theory of teaching profession. However, as teacher education reform concurrently ongoing emphasized the implementation of immediate practical skills, there was not much space for interpreting the concept of teachers’ “reflection”. It was particularly so since Schön’s “reflective practitioner” theory was primarily to show how professionals think in action. Therefore, by simply revealing Schön’s arguments, it is difficult to examine the application of the concept of “reflection” in the contemporary theory of teaching profession.   This study aims to reconsider the concept of “reflection” in the contemporary theory of teaching profession in Japan, using the lens of “reflective teaching” presented by Zeichner, K. and Liston, D. in 1980s to 1990s. They doubted the simple application of Schön’s theory to a theory of teaching profession and developed the concept of “reflective teaching,” explaining the characteristic of teaching profession based on their own empirical research. The core of their “reflective teaching” concept is that the teaching profession is practiced on the basis of “problem setting” in an uncertain situation, all the while grasping their own role as “social actors” based on “moral deliberation”. “Moral deliberation” consists of the two points, “ethic of virtue” and “ethic of duty”. They argued that expertise in the teaching profession means that decision making should be based on the social condition of schooling and by caring and compassion for their students at the same time. They positioned the concept of “reflection” as the key concept in the theory of teaching profession. For that purpose, they emphasized dealing with both clinical experience and academic skills in a teacher training program for building a “foundation” of teaching.   Their concept of “reflective teaching” highlights the professionalism in the teaching profession in the light of it having a public mission. In order to respond to the problems of diverse schooling in recent years, the essential requirement of the teachers’ “reflection” concept is that the teachers are to position themselves as not symptomatic treatment workers but “social actors” based on “moral deliberation”.
著者
當山 清実
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.101-111, 2010

<p>  The purpose of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of INSET(In-Service Education and Training), a system that has been operating since 2006 for the professional development of "excellent teachers" who have received an annual recommendation at prefectural level and commendation from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.</p><p>  In this study, it is assumed that data collected from questionnaires completed by excellent teachers reflect successful models of professional development in the teaching profession. This paper particularly analyzes the effect of self-development on professional development, one of the main targets of INSET.</p><p>  How could these excellent teachers come to achieve a level of professional development which deserves commendation? Their life courses, in terms of college of education, selection, placement and transfers, INSET and so forth, can serve as model cases for the personnel management of successful teachers. Although there are many factors involved in professional development, INSET is especially important, because it is directly connected with educational practice.</p><p>  Results of the questionnaire analysis show the responses of excellent teachers are as follows. First, the effect of self-development on professional development is higher than other effects of INSET. Second, there are four main concepts of self-development which can influence their professional development and experience. Third, excellent teachers are likely to sacrifice their time for and spend considerable money on self-development. Finally, self-development is a base for professional development, and because various training supplements itself, a marked synergy effect is created.</p><p>  For the future, it is necessary to expand the scope of this study to encompass the effects of "On-the-Job Training" and "Off-the-Job Training", and to conduct a comprehensive analysis by additionally conducting interview studies.</p>
著者
紺野 祐 丹藤 進
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.77-87, 2007-09-28 (Released:2020-12-22)
参考文献数
40

Faced with a difficult situation, some teachers are overwhelmed but others can survive. What makes the difference? In an attempt to answer to this question, this paper investigates the structure and function of "teacher resilience". Resilience is the ability to adapt oneself to a difficult situation which could, in the absence of sufficient resilience, produce maladaptation. Teacher resilience in this paper refers to the development of a teacher's ability to adapt in their stressful everyday life.  This study attempts to explain teacher resilience as a phenomenon with avoiding "burnout" and maintaining "teacher efficacy" and "job satisfaction" as the outcome variables because teacher resilience may prevent teachers from becoming burnt out or help to prevent reduction of efficacy and satisfaction, despite negative experiences in their lives that can be risk factors. The present study also investigates the effects of positive events in their lives, since positive experiences help to prevent teachers from burning out and strengthen their efficacy and satisfaction.  In order to examine teacher resilience, a questionnaire survey of 386 in-service teachers was conducted. The authors developed a questionnaire based on a "Teacher Resilience Scale", a "Burnout Inventory", and a "Teacher Life Event Scale". The data was analyzed using factor analysis, analysis of variance, and covariance structure analysis.  From the results, it can be said that the phenomenon of teacher resilience reflects the relation between teacher resilience as a personal quality and daily experiences in the teacher's particular environment, and it can function to protect him/her against becoming burnt out or feelings of helplessness. Moreover the results may suggest some useful insights into stress management strategies and teacher supports.
著者
須藤 康介
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.166-169, 2015-09-19 (Released:2020-08-18)
参考文献数
2

The purpose of this report is to compare the crime rate of teachers with people of the same age in the general population and clarify the recent change. We usually see and hear disgraceful affairs of teachers in news. And, by those media discourse, not few people may have the image that the crime rate of teachers is high. Then, is the crime rate of teachers higher than general people in fact? By using macro statistics of NPA, MEXT and MIC, I calculate the crime rate of teachers.  Taking data from the past five year we can clearly see that the crime rate for teachers in the age bracket 25-59 was clearly lower than the general population. The Crime rate of teachers is less than a one-fifth of that of the general population for all categories of crime. The brutal crime rate of teachers is less than one-fifth of the general population. and sexual crime rate of teachers is less than half of the general population. In other words, the teachers is the occupation group who rarely cause a crime.  Secondly, by examining the change of the crime rate of teachers, we understood that the crime rate of teachers had changed at the standard that was extremely lower than the general population. Though the sexual crime rate of teachers is increasing, that of other people in the 25-59 year old age bracket is also increasing in a similar way. Therefore, we can know that the teachers are included in the increase of sexual crime arrests in society.  The impact of the study on teacher education may be to announce this knowledge widely. The image that teachers have many disgraceful affairs becomes the unfair label for the incumbent teachers, and, for the students who want to be a teacher, it may be a factor to reduce the motivation. It is said that we are in “Education Distrust and Dependent Times”. It is thought that the disgraceful affairs of teachers attract attention and are sometimes reported in an exaggerated way because we are in such times.
著者
山根 俊喜
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.41-49, 2018-09-29 (Released:2020-07-06)
参考文献数
9
著者
浅井 幸子 黒田 友紀 金田 裕子 北田 佳子 柴田 万里子 申 智媛 玉城 久美子 望月 一枝
出版者
日本教師教育学会
雑誌
日本教師教育学会年報 (ISSN:13437186)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.110-121, 2018-09-29 (Released:2020-07-06)
参考文献数
33

This study introduces a case of school reform in a public elementary school, hereon named “A-school”, in the city of O, Japan, in which all teachers engaged in the challenge to share their responsibility for all students in the school. The study analyzes how the teacher-community at A-school developed through the school reform. It is noteworthy that the teacher-community at A-school was uniquely developed by teachers’ sharing about their “inabilities” rather than “abilities”. The study, then, focuses on this unique sharing culture to analyze how individual teachers in A-school had experienced their school reform by using a narrative inquiry approach. Considering A-school as a narrative community, we interviewed several teachers and school staff, and analyzed their narratives from three viewpoints; “personal story”, “community narrative”, and “dominant cultural narrative”. As a result, we found out the following: (1) The narrative based on the dominant culture in ordinary elementary schools tends to emphasize individual classroom teacher’s responsibility for students in his/her own class. Such narrative makes it difficult for ordinary elementary schools to achieve the goal “All teachers should be responsible for all students in a school.” (2) Counter to the dominant narrative emphasizing individual responsibility, teachers in A-school positively disclosed their “inability” to share their responsibility for their students. The principal took the initiative to disclose her own “inabilities”, which then provided veteran teachers in A-school a safety to share their own “inabilities”. Those principal’s and veterans’ narratives then encouraged young teachers in A-school to also disclose their “inabilities”. (3) The teachers in A-school realized that being aware of one’s own “inability” and asking for others’ help do not mean giving up one’s own responsibility. Instead, the teachers found that they pursued their own responsibility through continuous questioning of their “abilities” needed for their students’ education.