著者
淺尾 仁彦
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科言語学研究室
雑誌
京都大学言語学研究 (ISSN:13497804)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.59-75, 2007

This paper deals with the formation of Japanese compound verbs and claims that possible combination of verbs, as well as their argument structures, can be predicted by assuming the mechanism of superimposition of meaning. It has been pointed out that lexical verbs in natural languages, whether simplex or complex, are subject to inherent semantic constraints, which can be captured by the following schema in the framework of Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS): (i) [x ACT(-ON y)] CAUSE [BECOME [y BE-AT z]] In previous studies, however, it has been often assumed that the LCSs of compound verbs have more complex structures, in which the LCSs of their constituent verbs are combined with additional predicates such as BY and WHILE. This paper takes another approach. It is assumed that every compound verb strictly follows the structure shown in (i), and its content is obtained by superimposing the LCSs of the two constituent verbs. It is shown that this assumption accords well with basic properties of Japanese compound verbs, and some of their peculiar behaviors can also be seen as direct consequences of the assumption. This paper further argues that possible combinations of verbs can be properly constrained by taking into account three additional constraints: the temporal iconicity condition, the subject identity, and the theme identity. The transitivity identity condition, another constraint proposed in the literature, automatically follows from the conditions proposed in this paper.
著者
田村 早苗
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科言語学研究室
雑誌
京都大学言語学研究 (ISSN:13497804)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.159-184, 2009-12-25

In this paper, we discuss the connective tameni in Japanese, which expresses that the antecedent event is either a ‘purpose’ or a ‘cause’ of the consequent event. Each use is illustrated by (1a) and (1b), respectively. (1) a. Atarasii new kuruma-o car-acc kau buy tameni okane-o money-acc tameteiru. is.saving b. Yuki-ga snow-nom futta fell tameni samuku cold natta. became The aim of this paper is to give the basic semantics of tameni which can explain both of the interpretations. Our analysis is based on Kratzer’s (1981,1991) modal logic. According to her system, modalized expressions are interpreted relative to two kinds of conversational background: the modal base (=f ) and the ordering source (=g). Formally, both are defined as a function from worlds to sets of propositions, but the output sets f (w) and g(w) have different roles. Roughly speaking, f (w) includes the presupposed proposition about the fact/circumstance, while g(w) refers to an ‘ideal’. We propose that the two uses of tameni differ only in the type of modal base used in interpreting the sentences. When the antecedent of tameni is interpreted as the purpose, the proposition referred to by the antecedent is put in the teleological MB. On the other hand, when the antecedent refers to the cause, the proposition is included in the circumstantial MB. Most of the previous analyses assume that purposes serve as an ordering source, namely, the teleological ordering source. We show that purposes should be treated as a modal base, as far as the ambiguity between purposes and causes concerns.
著者
藤原 敬介
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科言語学研究室
雑誌
京都大学言語学研究 (ISSN:13497804)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.1-34, 2016

本稿では、Brown[1911]に記録された75項目のタマン語語彙資料を再検討する。さらに、ほぼ最後とみられる話者から採集した数語の語彙資料も活用し、チベット・ビルマ語派におけるタマン語の位置について考察する。調査の結果、以下の諸点があきらかとなった。1.タマン語の音素としては/a, e, E, i, 1, 5, o[O, A], u, @;p, ph, t, th, c[ts, tS], k, m, n, N, r, l, s(sh), S, x, h, w(v), y/が推定される。2.PTBからの改新としては、低母音の上昇(*-a>*-O)、軟口蓋閉鎖音の語頭における摩擦音化(*k->x-)、語末における消失(*-ak>-a)、高母音のあとでの付加(*-i>*-ik>-ek, *-u>*-uk>-ouk)、*gry-の破擦音化(*gry->c-)が特徴的である。3.ルイ語群に特徴的な語彙として否定接頭辞、「置く」、「行く」などがみられる。また、「太陽」の構成要素に「目」をもつ点もルイ語群的改新である。ただし、ルイ語群であると決定づける証拠はない。4.東北インドからビルマにかけて分布するさまざまなTB系諸言語と共有する語彙が散見される。各語群をむすびつける「繋聯言語」とかんがえられる。Taman is a Tibeto-Burman language once spoken in and around Htamanthi, Upper Burma. Taman materials are limited to only a list of 75 words recorded in Brown [1911]. On the basis of these vocabularies, Taman is usually believed to be a language closely related to Jingpho or Luish languages [Benedict 1972, Shafer 1974]. It is true that now almost all the Taman people speak only Burmese and Tai Naing (a variety of Shan spoken in Upper Burma, also known as Red Shan). However, in my last visit to Htamanthi in 2015, I met a Taman old woman who still remembered some words in Taman. Although she has forgotten almost everything about the Taman language, she has managed to recall some basic expressions as well as one short song in Taman. In this paper, I have examined these new materials as well as old ones recorded in Brown [1911] to decide the genetic position of Taman within Tibeto-Burman. The findings in this research can be summarised as follows. 1. Following phonemes can be postulated in Taman: /a, e, E, i, 1, 5, o [O, A], u, @; p, ph, t, th, c [ts, tS], k, m, n, N, r, l, s (sh), S, x, h, w (v), y/ 2. There are five striking innovations from PTB to Taman: (a) raising of low vowels (PTB *-a > Taman -O), (b) fricativization of velar stops in word-initial positions (PTB *k- > Taman x-), (c) loss of velar stops in word-final positions (PTB *-ak > Taman -a), (d) addition of velar stops after high vowels (PTB *-i/-u > Taman -ek/-ouk), and (e) affrication of *gry- (PTB *gry- > Taman c-). 3. It is possible to point out some characteristic words which can be found almost only in Luish and Taman such as a negative prefix (Proto-Luish *a-, Taman P@-), PUT (Proto-Luish *p´ey, Taman pe) and GO WALK (Proto-Luish *ha, Taman hO) as well as the lexical innovation of 'sun' in which 'eye' is included. Still, it is hard to tell whether Taman is Luish or not. 4. Taman can be labelled as a "link language" as it contains various types of vocabularies found in different branches of TB languages in and around Northeastern India and Upper Burma.
著者
別所 裕介 海老原 志穂
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科言語学研究室
雑誌
京都大学言語学研究 (ISSN:13497804)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.77-91, 2007-12-25

dPa' ris Dialect of Tibetan is spoken in Tianzhu county, Gansu Province, China. Tibetan spoken in China can be divided into three major dialects: Central, Kham and Amdo. dPa' ris dialect belongs to Amdo Tibetan. Tianzhu county is situated at the east end of the Qinghai-Tibet highlands, which is why people in Tianzhu county have been subjected to the cultural contact with Han Chinese. People living at low altitudes in particular are subject to the influence of the sinosphere. In this situation, the number of dPa' ris dialect speakers is on a declining trend. In this note, we will report on the social background which surrounds dPa' ris dialect (1. history and geography of Tianzhu county, 2. ethnic distribution, 3. language use of dPa' ris dialect), and some data on language itself (4. previous work on dPa' ris dialect, 5. phonological description).
著者
Osterkamp Sven
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科言語学研究室
雑誌
京都大学言語学研究 (ISSN:13497804)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.77-151, 2010-12-25

本稿では、欧米における日本語の研究史において重要な意義をもっているにもかかわらず、これまでほとんど注目されてこなかった資料として東洋学者Andreas Muler (1630~1694)のSyllabarium Japanicum (日本の音節文字)を取り上げる。特に、同書のラテン語原文を英訳した上で、彼の研究に利用された資料が何であるかを明らかにすることを目的とする。Peter Komicki氏によって『七ッいろは』の写本の一つが同書の出典として夙に突き止められていたが、本研究によってMulerは『七ッいろは』以外にもColadoによる『日本文典』および『羅西日辞典』、さらに「海篇』類の字書によく登場する「いろは」と琉球語の語葉集を利用していたことが明らかになった。つづいて、Syllabarium Japanicumのみならず、あまたあるMullerの著作から日本語に関する記述について議論する。彼の著作には日本語とトルコ語が類型論的に似ているといった興味深い指摘を見ることができる。初期中国学者として知られているMu11erの研究とSyllabarium Japanicumの成立には、1661年にプランデンブツレク選手持侯によって開設された図書館(現ベルリン国立図書館)とその漢籍コレクションが大きく関わっている。Mullerの作成した目録によると、『字海』と呼ばれる字書が1683年に漢籍コレクションに加えられたという。本研究では、欧州に所在する『海篇』類字書群の歴史を17世紀から現在に至るまで辿り、このベルリン所蔵の『字海』の具体的な候補として、『音韻字海』と呼ばれる字書が最も有力であるという結論に達した。Syllabarium Japanicumの成立年は遺憾ながら厳密には不詳とするほかはないが、『宇海Jが初めて使われるようになった年代やMullerの活躍時期などを考慮に入れれば、1683~1685年の聞と推定できる。もしそうであれば、この著作こそがドイツ語圏における日本文字の紹介・研究書として最初のものということになる。