著者
藤村 久美子 伊藤 めぐみ フジムラ クミコ イトウ メグミ Kumiko FUJIMURA (FANSELOW) Megumi ITO
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.127-153, 2004-03

The establishment of a society based on gender equality requires that from the time of birth children be brought up and educated in such a way that they are not bound by traditional attitudes based on gender. This realization was at the basis of the call on the part of the Japanese Ministry of Education in 2001 to promote gender-sensitive education from age zero. Televised animation programs ("anime") constitute a major source of daily entertainment for young children, and indeed, programs such as "Pokemon" have gained a worldwide audience. It is important to understand what, if any, influence such popular programs might have on the formation of attitudes regarding gender on the part of children from a very young age. The next step is to make children as well parents and other caregivers sensitive to gender-based biases and stereotypes contained in these programs and encourage them to view the programs in a critical way, so that their impact can be mitigated. This paper is based on the results of a two-year research study undertaken between 2000 and 2002 by the Education Committee of the Japanese Association of University Women, of which the two authors of this paper are members. The purpose of the study is to shed light on the issue of the influence of mass media, in this case televised animation programs, on the formation of gender attitudes among young children. We initially conducted a survey among 168 first-graders and also 300 parents of pre-school children to find out which anime were most popularly viewed by 2 to 7-year-olds. In the questionnaire directed at parents, we also sought to find out whether they exercised discretion in terms of the content of anime programs and the amount of time spent in viewing such programs and also whether they were alert to the depictions of gender in these programs and their possible influence on their children. Next we undertook a detailed analysis of the content of two episodes from three programs : "Pokemon, " ranked number one in popularity among both girls and boys in our survey, "Ojamajo doremi#, " one of the most popular programs among the girls we surveyed, 152 and "Yugio dueru monsutazu" ("YU-GI-OH! Duel Monsters"), a favorite among young boys. The three programs are in fact aired in numerous countries throughout the world. We looked at gender differences in terms of, e. g., number of lead characters, frequency and order of utterances, occupation of adult characters, physical characteristics and dress of main characters, their personalities and behavior patterns, and the relationships depicted between male and female characters. Among the most striking findings is that while at first glance depictions of the lead female characters contradict some of the stereotypical images of Japanese women (passive, silent, subservient), a more detailed analysis reveals a number of subtle ways in which gender comes into play in the construction of female and male roles and behavior. Thus, in scenes of fighting or combat, female characters are frequently shown either running away or watching in silence and being rescued by male characters. In order to find out how children themselves perceived, interpreted, and responded to images, speech, and actions which we had found to reflect gender stereotyping, in the next phase of our research we had 38 girls and 35 boys between the ages of 5 and 7 view one or more of the three anime in groups of 3 to 5 while we recorded their reactions to various scenes and actions. The interviews that followed revealed distinctive differences between girls and boys in terms of character preferences and criteria applied in evaluating characters. While the interviews were limited in scope, we should emphasize that few studies have actually involved face-to-face interviews of young children to try to understand through their own words, their reactions to gendered images and messages contained in animation programs. Children are not simply passive viewers : they can, to a greater or lesser degree, mediate what they see and hear on television. They can be educated from a very early age to be conscious of and sensitive to images and messages pertaining to gender and to identify instances of stereotyping-or lack of stereotyping-when they view not only anime but other television programs as well. The first step toward enabling children to become critical viewers is to have adults involved in the day-to-day care, upbringing, and education of small children to acquire the skills of media literacy. The final part of the paper describes workshops we have conducted over the past few years in various parts of the country, among parents of young children, child care support groups, caregivers in day care centers, and elementary and junior high school teachers, to try to promote media literacy. The emphasis in these workshop is not to present our findings or conclusions but rather to have the participants themselves undergo the process of uncovering gendered messages that may be embedded in media, and perhaps in their own subconscious, by actually viewing anime, with each group focussing on a specific task, such as counting and writing down the utterances of a particular character, then together analyzing and reflecting on the data.
著者
中村 捷
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
no.27, pp.53-67, 2009

This paper discusses the significance in contemporary linguistics of Sanki Ichikawa'sbook Studies in English Grammar, which was published about one hundredyears ago. In this paper are taken up such topics as such an one, the usage of noneand each, split infinitives, and so on. These topics are examined in detail from thegenerative point of view and revised or extended alternatives of his analyses are provided.The final section summarizes the significance of his study in the field of contemporarylinguistics.
著者
中林 隆明
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.141-153, 2008-03

The National Diet Library has legal deposit of all kinds of published materials, including publications printed by government and local public entities and other publishers. This function is based on the National Diet Library act (Law no. 5, Feb. 9, 1948. Amendment, Law no. 194, June 6, 1949). However, the stability of these activities has entailed much effort, because of the unhappy history of censorship in the era of the World War Г. In this paper, the writer focused on the National Diet Library's activities to build up the legal deposit library, acquiring the effective cooperation of influential publishers. Frankly speaking, it was Yamashita Nobutsune, Section Chief (1949-54) and Division Chief (1959-66) of Acquisitions who stood in the center of these activities.
著者
横倉 聡
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.137-157, 2018-03

In Japan, the mental health and medical welfare measures started in 1900. About 100 years have already passed. In recent years, various client-centered measures have been promoted based on the philosophy of “from hospital-based care to community-based support.” Today in the relevant areas of mental health and medical welfare, the cooperation among medical care, health care, welfare, employment, housing support are strengthened.In this paper, I will first summarize the historical changes in the past 100 years of mental health and medical welfare measures. Second, I will discuss the main issues in the field of mental health and medical welfare that is undergoing a rapid transformation these days.
著者
藤村 久美子 伊藤 めぐみ
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.127-153, 2004-03

The establishment of a society based on gender equality requires that from the time of birth children be brought up and educated in such a way that they are not bound by traditional attitudes based on gender. This realization was at the basis of the call on the part of the Japanese Ministry of Education in 2001 to promote gender-sensitive education from age zero. Televised animation programs ("anime") constitute a major source of daily entertainment for young children, and indeed, programs such as "Pokemon" have gained a worldwide audience. It is important to understand what, if any, influence such popular programs might have on the formation of attitudes regarding gender on the part of children from a very young age. The next step is to make children as well parents and other caregivers sensitive to gender-based biases and stereotypes contained in these programs and encourage them to view the programs in a critical way, so that their impact can be mitigated. This paper is based on the results of a two-year research study undertaken between 2000 and 2002 by the Education Committee of the Japanese Association of University Women, of which the two authors of this paper are members. The purpose of the study is to shed light on the issue of the influence of mass media, in this case televised animation programs, on the formation of gender attitudes among young children. We initially conducted a survey among 168 first-graders and also 300 parents of pre-school children to find out which anime were most popularly viewed by 2 to 7-year-olds. In the questionnaire directed at parents, we also sought to find out whether they exercised discretion in terms of the content of anime programs and the amount of time spent in viewing such programs and also whether they were alert to the depictions of gender in these programs and their possible influence on their children. Next we undertook a detailed analysis of the content of two episodes from three programs : "Pokemon, " ranked number one in popularity among both girls and boys in our survey, "Ojamajo doremi#, " one of the most popular programs among the girls we surveyed, 152 and "Yugio dueru monsutazu" ("YU-GI-OH! Duel Monsters"), a favorite among young boys. The three programs are in fact aired in numerous countries throughout the world. We looked at gender differences in terms of, e. g., number of lead characters, frequency and order of utterances, occupation of adult characters, physical characteristics and dress of main characters, their personalities and behavior patterns, and the relationships depicted between male and female characters. Among the most striking findings is that while at first glance depictions of the lead female characters contradict some of the stereotypical images of Japanese women (passive, silent, subservient), a more detailed analysis reveals a number of subtle ways in which gender comes into play in the construction of female and male roles and behavior. Thus, in scenes of fighting or combat, female characters are frequently shown either running away or watching in silence and being rescued by male characters. In order to find out how children themselves perceived, interpreted, and responded to images, speech, and actions which we had found to reflect gender stereotyping, in the next phase of our research we had 38 girls and 35 boys between the ages of 5 and 7 view one or more of the three anime in groups of 3 to 5 while we recorded their reactions to various scenes and actions. The interviews that followed revealed distinctive differences between girls and boys in terms of character preferences and criteria applied in evaluating characters. While the interviews were limited in scope, we should emphasize that few studies have actually involved face-to-face interviews of young children to try to understand through their own words, their reactions to gendered images and messages contained in animation programs. Children are not simply passive viewers : they can, to a greater or lesser degree, mediate what they see and hear on television. They can be educated from a very early age to be conscious of and sensitive to images and messages pertaining to gender and to identify instances of stereotyping-or lack of stereotyping-when they view not only anime but other television programs as well. The first step toward enabling children to become critical viewers is to have adults involved in the day-to-day care, upbringing, and education of small children to acquire the skills of media literacy. The final part of the paper describes workshops we have conducted over the past few years in various parts of the country, among parents of young children, child care support groups, caregivers in day care centers, and elementary and junior high school teachers, to try to promote media literacy. The emphasis in these workshop is not to present our findings or conclusions but rather to have the participants themselves undergo the process of uncovering gendered messages that may be embedded in media, and perhaps in their own subconscious, by actually viewing anime, with each group focussing on a specific task, such as counting and writing down the utterances of a particular character, then together analyzing and reflecting on the data.
著者
五十嵐 修 イガラシ オサム Osamu IGARASHI
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.1-22, 2004-03

Die tatsachliche Kaisererhebung Karls des Groβen bereitete dem frankischen Hof groβe Schwierigkeiten. Das 800 in Rom geschaffene Kaisertum entsprach nicht der Vorstellungen des frankischen Hofs. Die Ideen Alkuins und anderer frankischer Kleriker zielten eigentlich auf eine spirituelle Uberhohung des frankischen Konigtums zum imperium Christianum. Aber der romische Ursprung in Karls Kaisertum trat weiter in den Vordergrund. Deshalb bedurfte es viel Zeit, um diese Schwierigkeiten zu uberwinden. Karls Titel nach seiner Kaiserkronung unterstutzt diese Interpretation. Zum neuen Titel wahlte Karl der Groβe eine sehr komplizierte Form. Der neue Titel behielt auch wie bisher den frankischen und langobardischen Konigstitel bei. Der Kaisertitel war nur ein Bestandteil seines neues Titels. Wahrscheinlich konnte der frankische Hof erst 802 eine bestimmte Richtung geben. Vielleicht zeigt es auch die Schwache der Idee des Kaisertums. Der Begriff des Kaisertums, dessen Titel Karl endlich erwerben konnte, war zu kompliziert fur das langere Bestehen des Kaiserreiches Karls des Groβen.
著者
五十嵐 修
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.1-52, 2006-03

In einem wichtigen Aufsatz (1982) hat Johannes Fried Einwande gegen die Interpretation des karolingischen Staates von Kategorien der Abstraktion und Institutionalisierung her erhoben. Fur ihn reduziert sich das Reich (regnum) auf Konigsherrschaft, bietet nur einen Ausschnitt aus der politischen Daseinsform. Obwohl diese Frage schon von H.-W.Goetz ausfuhrlich diskutiert worden ist, habe ich hier versucht, diese Problematik auf der Basis des heutigen Forschungsstandes nochmals zu uberprufen. Meine Ergebnisse: 1. Das von Zeitgenossen als regnum bezeichnete Gebilde umfaBte das Reichsgebiet und das hier siedelnde Volk. Das war umfangsreicher als ein nur dem Konig unmittelbar zuganglicher Herrschaftsverband. Regnum war eine wahre politische Gemeinschaft. 2. Die Thronfolge beweist den Character des Regnums als politische Gemeinschaft eindeutig. In Thronfolgefallen tritt populus oft in den Quellen als Wahler. Die karolingischen Quellen berichten, dass an der Wahl das Volk beteiligt war. In der Tat sind naturlich nur die Optimaten als reprasentive Schicht des frankischen Volkes an Thronfolgen beteiligt, diese Nachrichten zeigen aber sehr gut den Charakter des Regnums als politischer Gemeinschaft. Diesen Charakter zeigen auch die Reichsversammlungen. In seinem beruhmten Werk De ordine palatii gibt Hinkmar von Reims wichtige Informationen uber die Reichsversammlungen. Nach ihm bestand es die Gewohnheit, nicht ofter als zweimal im Jahr Reichsversammlungen abzuhalten. Sicher ist, dass auch auf diesen Versammlungen das Volk eine Rolle spielte. 3. Regnum war die jeweilige politische Ordnung, weil es in karolingischer Zeit den Brauch gab, bei der Thronfolge die Herrschaft unter die Sohne des verstorbenen Konigs aufzuteilen. 4. An keiner mir bekannten Stelle in karolingischer Zeit bedeutet ecclesia den Staat. Man darf nicht den karolingischen Staat "Kirche" nennen. Nur sinnbildlich kann man ihn als "Kirche" bezeichnen. 5. Wir konnen auch feststellen, dass in nur seltenen Stellen die Zeitgenossen den Staat als imperium bezeichnen. Auch nach der Kaiserkronung Karls des GroBen (800) war der allgemeine Ausdruck fur den Staat wie bisher regnum.
著者
三上 章
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.1-32, 2011-03

This article purports to clarify how the platonism of Whichcote acts upon hisunderstanding of Christ.His platonism is not so much something like an intellectual system built uponPlatonic philosophers in the past, as an attitude of respect towards the Platonic spiritwhich has been transmitted in the history. This will include an inquisitiveness toincessantly seek after truth, a cautiousness to refrain from a harried judgement, aviewpoint to look up to the invisibles beyond the visible, an esteem to reason in man,and a reverence to the truly divine. Therefore the platonism of Whichcote is a typeor a tendency of thinking rather than a philosophical system. It might be called a Platonismin the broad sense.In his exposition of biblical texts, the Bible is the ultimate authority. However,when some biblical passages or theological concepts seem to allow multiple interpretations,he does not hesitate to endeavor to inquire an essential meaning which willaccord with reason. Herein is working his platonism in the broad sense.Such a tendency of his thinking shows itself in his understanding of Christ interms of `Christ in us' and `deification'. This means that the Christ who had been shutaway from man by Puritan Calvinism was recovered as `Christ in us' into the innerpart of man. That Christ partook of human nature is not the matter outside of, andfar away from man. It happens in man, enables man to partake of the divine natureof Christ, and opens up the possibility of man's deification in the sense of becomingGod-like.The same tendency of Whichcote's thinking is particularly reflected in his viewof the mutuality of God and man in the work of reconciliation. It goes without sayingthat `reconciliation' occupies a crucial place in the Christian soteriology, and is the32ground and basis of salvation for man. However, it had been made by Puritan Calvinismthe matter of the absolute despotism belonging to God. There was no room for aparticipation in it on the part of man who had been branded as totally depraved. Reconciliationwas exclusively given up to the will and desire of God. Against this kindof determinism which would deliver man up to anxiety and resignation Whichcotethrew an objection. True, man's depravity may be irrevocably grave, but, at least, ina tiny portion where man, by the grace of God, recognizes his sin, repents and comesback to God, there might be a room for a cooperation with God in reconciliation. Thereconciliation in this sense will save man, and the saved man, in turn, will be drivento do good works in response to the love of God revealed in Christ. The proof of thisis the existence of reason in man. Even though reason is fatally weakened by sin, andappears to be on the brink of dying away, it is never put out, as far as it is the gift ofGod to man. This was the conviction of Whichcote.The people of England was in a deadly need of salvation. But that salvation hadbeen suffered a pedantic devision by Puritan Calvinism into regeneration, conversion,adoption, calling, sanctification, justification, reconciliation, redemption, salvation,and glorification. Such a detailed theological distinction will not be able to save thecommon people who was illiterate due to poverty. It is Whichcote who united the dividedsalvation and recovered its original state, which is nothing but Christ Himself.This Christ is the one in us. Also, the crucified Christ is not the one outside us, but theone within us. This Christ is the one felt and understood as a principle of life in us.Thus comprehended, Christ will inevitably reform us from within and cannotbut drive us to do good works. In distinction from the Christ of Puritan Calvinismwho was cast far away from man to a remote place, the Christ of Whichcote is presentin a closest proximity to human existence. This is a sort of new and bright imageof Christ in an old and dark age. Herein is seen a token of the working of Whichcote'splatonism.
著者
高橋 基治
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.33-56, 2011-03

It has widely been believed that when it comes to learning a new language as asecond/foreign language,"the younger the better"is the rule that applies. On the otherhand, recent studies have demonstrated that although younger learners may have anadvantage in mastering native-like pronunciation, adults might actually learn second/foreign languages more easily and quickly than younger learners in such areas asvocabulary acquisition and syntax.The claim that an authentic pronunciation of a second/foreign language isunattainable after a certain age has been supported by certain kinds of evidence.However, at the same time, it is also true that there are, in actuality, some individualswho have acquired a native-like accent even after the so-called "critical period."With this conflicting evidence in mind, in this paper, I will discuss theprobability of obtaining native-like phonological performance by reviewing the existingempirical and theoretical literature on Second Language Acquisition, especially thatwhich focuses on the Critical Period Hypothesis and foreign accent. In addition, I willconsider the viability of direct phonological instruction as a subject in school basedon the information and insights gained through this review of key studies in the field.
著者
中林 隆明
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.77-95, 2005-03

Educational policies in modern Japan, especially in the early Meiji period, were led by Tanaka Fujimaro, Deputy Minister of Education. At the first time, France was the model of education policies in Japan. Its example was Gakusei (national educational system) enforcement (Imperial Ordinance). In those days, Tanaka participated in the Iwakura Mission, led by Iwakura Envoy Extraordinary and Ambassador Plenipotentiary to the United States and European countries, as commissioner of Education Department. He eagerly conducted educational research in both continents with his staff during 1872-73. And again, he traveled to the United States to take part in the Exposition Fair in Philadelphia, in commemoration of American Centennal Foundation year in 1876. At both times he was impressed with American flexible educational systems, including libraries, small school districts and social institutions, and a variety of state initiatives. In 1879, he enacted the Imperial Educational Ordinance based on the principle of independence for local communities in elementary schools and educational institutions. As a result, his policy was denied by the government of the day, and he was transferred to another post (Minister of Justice).
著者
中林 隆明 ナカバヤシ タカアキ Takaaki NAKABAYASHI
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.141-153, 2008-03

The National Diet Library has legal deposit of all kinds of published materials, including publications printed by government and local public entities and other publishers. This function is based on the National Diet Library act (Law no. 5, Feb. 9, 1948. Amendment, Law no. 194, June 6, 1949). However, the stability of these activities has entailed much effort, because of the unhappy history of censorship in the era of the World War Г. In this paper, the writer focused on the National Diet Library's activities to build up the legal deposit library, acquiring the effective cooperation of influential publishers. Frankly speaking, it was Yamashita Nobutsune, Section Chief (1949-54) and Division Chief (1959-66) of Acquisitions who stood in the center of these activities.
著者
山下 久美 ヤマシタ クミ Kumi Yamashita
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.79-98, 2006-03

Insects familiar to young children are very easy-to-handle educational material, being inexpensive and not being troublesome. Insects are being bred at many preschools. Thus, teachers were queried on the reason for breeding insects, and it was learned that breeding was for the purpose of "informing young children of the ecology of insects,""teaching them of the importance of life." and "nurturing in them the thoughtfulness for others." However, since a study has not been performed hitherto on whether or not insect breeding truly has an effectiveness on such matters, an interview survey was accomplished on 100 young children. In the replies of 30 children of a preschool which routinely bred insects, the effectiveness of insect breeding experience was clearly perceptible as a result of a comparison with the replies from 70 children of preschools which had never bred insects. Children of the preschool that bred insects had greater knowledge of insect ecology and were able to understand that once dead an insect could not be revived in comparison with children of preschools that did not breed insects. The sympathetic feelings of children towards insects that died were observed. Although a feeling of thoughtfulness toward children younger than themselves was also discernible, this matter requires additional research.
著者
五十嵐 修 イガラシ オサム Osamu IGARASHI
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.1-52, 2006-03

In einem wichtigen Aufsatz (1982) hat Johannes Fried Einwande gegen die Interpretation des karolingischen Staates von Kategorien der Abstraktion und Institutionalisierung her erhoben. Fur ihn reduziert sich das Reich (regnum) auf Konigsherrschaft, bietet nur einen Ausschnitt aus der politischen Daseinsform. Obwohl diese Frage schon von H.-W.Goetz ausfuhrlich diskutiert worden ist, habe ich hier versucht, diese Problematik auf der Basis des heutigen Forschungsstandes nochmals zu uberprufen. Meine Ergebnisse: 1. Das von Zeitgenossen als regnum bezeichnete Gebilde umfaBte das Reichsgebiet und das hier siedelnde Volk. Das war umfangsreicher als ein nur dem Konig unmittelbar zuganglicher Herrschaftsverband. Regnum war eine wahre politische Gemeinschaft. 2. Die Thronfolge beweist den Character des Regnums als politische Gemeinschaft eindeutig. In Thronfolgefallen tritt populus oft in den Quellen als Wahler. Die karolingischen Quellen berichten, dass an der Wahl das Volk beteiligt war. In der Tat sind naturlich nur die Optimaten als reprasentive Schicht des frankischen Volkes an Thronfolgen beteiligt, diese Nachrichten zeigen aber sehr gut den Charakter des Regnums als politischer Gemeinschaft. Diesen Charakter zeigen auch die Reichsversammlungen. In seinem beruhmten Werk De ordine palatii gibt Hinkmar von Reims wichtige Informationen uber die Reichsversammlungen. Nach ihm bestand es die Gewohnheit, nicht ofter als zweimal im Jahr Reichsversammlungen abzuhalten. Sicher ist, dass auch auf diesen Versammlungen das Volk eine Rolle spielte. 3. Regnum war die jeweilige politische Ordnung, weil es in karolingischer Zeit den Brauch gab, bei der Thronfolge die Herrschaft unter die Sohne des verstorbenen Konigs aufzuteilen. 4. An keiner mir bekannten Stelle in karolingischer Zeit bedeutet ecclesia den Staat. Man darf nicht den karolingischen Staat "Kirche" nennen. Nur sinnbildlich kann man ihn als "Kirche" bezeichnen. 5. Wir konnen auch feststellen, dass in nur seltenen Stellen die Zeitgenossen den Staat als imperium bezeichnen. Auch nach der Kaiserkronung Karls des GroBen (800) war der allgemeine Ausdruck fur den Staat wie bisher regnum.
著者
春木 育美
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.93-106, 2011-03

The currency crisis in 1997 transformed foreign worker policies in South Korea.The government adopted a wide range of measures in order to escape from theunprecedented depression. The implementation of "the employment permit systemfor foreign workers" in 2004 and "the visiting employment system" in 2007 dramaticallychanged its stance on foreign worker policies in South Korea. Even though strictregulations were imposed on unskilled foreign workers, it was relaxed by opening theway for full-time positions with certain limitations. The considerable change in whichKorea legitimately accepted unskilled foreign workers, not as trainees, occurred dueto the severe deficiency of workers in small businesses, rapid decline in birthrate, andaging of society. Thus, there was an increasing concern for further labor shortage inthe future.
著者
中林 隆明 ナカバヤシ タカアキ Takaaki Nakabayashi
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.77-95, 2005-03

Educational policies in modern Japan, especially in the early Meiji period, were led by Tanaka Fujimaro, Deputy Minister of Education. At the first time, France was the model of education policies in Japan. Its example was Gakusei (national educational system) enforcement (Imperial Ordinance). In those days, Tanaka participated in the Iwakura Mission, led by Iwakura Envoy Extraordinary and Ambassador Plenipotentiary to the United States and European countries, as commissioner of Education Department. He eagerly conducted educational research in both continents with his staff during 1872-73. And again, he traveled to the United States to take part in the Exposition Fair in Philadelphia, in commemoration of American Centennal Foundation year in 1876. At both times he was impressed with American flexible educational systems, including libraries, small school districts and social institutions, and a variety of state initiatives. In 1879, he enacted the Imperial Educational Ordinance based on the principle of independence for local communities in elementary schools and educational institutions. As a result, his policy was denied by the government of the day, and he was transferred to another post (Minister of Justice).
著者
秋本 倫子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
no.30, pp.59-82, 2012

A worldwide best seller Yoru to Kiri (the original German title : EIN PSYCHOLOGE ERLEBT DAS KONZENTRATIONSLAGER, the Enlish title: Man's Search for Meaning) was written by a Jewish psychiatrist Viktor E. Frankl. It was first translated into Japanese by Tokuji Shimoyama, a clinical psychologist and a professor emeritus at Sophia University (an ex-professor of Toyo Eiwa University). Since its publication, it has been read by many people over generations. The book has tremendous power toinspire and to encourage. After he was released from the Nazi concentration camps, he continued to work as a psychiatrist, taught at universities, gave lectures around the world, and lived to be 92. He is a miraculous psychiatrist and a psychologist of a kind that cannot be found anywhere.The aim of this paper was to re-read Yoru to Kiri and examine both from the perspective of modern trauma psychology (1) what kind of psychological reactions, defense mechanisms or coping behaviors Frankl resorted to while he was imprisoned in the Nazi concentration camps, (2) how he overcame the trauma and adapted to his life after the war, and by referencing some literature on his life and on Holocaust survivors' psychology, (3) what kind of defense mechanisms or coping behaviors were effective in surviving extreme situations.Results:(1) It was found that Frankl showed at least some traumatic symptoms: extreme fear, denial or undoing, dissociation, repetitive and intrusive reactions (nightmares and obsession) , paralyzed or limited emotions, reduced interests, irritability and anger. The nightmares persisted till his ninties. (2) Frankl was not only using the coping behaviors as the Holocaust survivors in the literature, but he 82 was also rich in resources: intelligence, being a psychiatrist, warm and loving family elationships, and Jewish faith. More than anything, he supported himself by his firm convi ction that the life is worthwhile living no matter how harsh it may be.Conclusion: Frankl may have been a gifted person in many ways. But more than anything, he was willing, instead of giving in to the "fate", he was willing to take responsibility to find the right answers and fulfill the tasks given to him. He lived with this belief all his life and has been other people's lives meaningful.
著者
高橋 基治 タカハシ モトハル Motoharu Takahashi
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.33-56, 2011-03

It has widely been believed that when it comes to learning a new language as asecond/foreign language,"the younger the better"is the rule that applies. On the otherhand, recent studies have demonstrated that although younger learners may have anadvantage in mastering native-like pronunciation, adults might actually learn second/foreign languages more easily and quickly than younger learners in such areas asvocabulary acquisition and syntax.The claim that an authentic pronunciation of a second/foreign language isunattainable after a certain age has been supported by certain kinds of evidence.However, at the same time, it is also true that there are, in actuality, some individualswho have acquired a native-like accent even after the so-called "critical period."With this conflicting evidence in mind, in this paper, I will discuss theprobability of obtaining native-like phonological performance by reviewing the existingempirical and theoretical literature on Second Language Acquisition, especially thatwhich focuses on the Critical Period Hypothesis and foreign accent. In addition, I willconsider the viability of direct phonological instruction as a subject in school basedon the information and insights gained through this review of key studies in the field.
著者
津守 滋
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.53-78, 2006-03

In the East Asian region de facto economic integration has been increasingly progressing since the nineties. Against this backdrop the possibility of forming an institutional framework for this "natural economic zone" has been deliberated to further promote the mutual interdependence of trade, investment and other economic relations. In December 2005 the leaders of ASEAN+3 (Japan, Korea and China)+India, Australia and New Zealand gathered in Malaysia to explore the possibility of giving birth to an "East Asian community". In order to get a clue as to whether East Asia would and could establish eventually a kind of "pluralistic comprehensive security community" beyond an economic community, the following political and security problems should be examined. Firstly, whether differences of stances and policies in the political and security issues could pose a hindrance to this kind of undertaking, and, if yes, to what extent? Secondly, whether the deepening and widening of economic integration could lead to integration in the political and security sphere? Thirdly, what should be done to form eventually a political and security community in this region? Whatever the answers to these questions may be, the past 2 Malaysian Summits in December 2005 marked a milestone in the direction of the emerging regionalism suitable for East Asia.