著者
小寺 敦之
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 = Toyo Eiwa Journal of the humanities and social science (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.29-46, 2014-03

As Internet use has proliferated worldwide, maladaptive patterns or negative impacts of Internet use, so-called Internet addiction, have been increasingly reported. This study critically reviewed literature and discussed some problems regarding the study of Internet addiction. Development of Internet addiction research and criticism of this subjectindicates that the research to date on Internet addiction 1) has no heoretical background, 2) lacks valid measurement, 3) may have resented misleading causal relationships, 4) has restricted research with a psychiatric paradigm, and 5) has been debated on the presumption that the Internet has brought negative consequences. IfInternet addiction truly exists, researchers must respond to these problems.
著者
中村 捷
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
no.27, pp.53-67, 2009

This paper discusses the significance in contemporary linguistics of Sanki Ichikawa'sbook Studies in English Grammar, which was published about one hundredyears ago. In this paper are taken up such topics as such an one, the usage of noneand each, split infinitives, and so on. These topics are examined in detail from thegenerative point of view and revised or extended alternatives of his analyses are provided.The final section summarizes the significance of his study in the field of contemporarylinguistics.
著者
中林 隆明
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.141-153, 2008-03

The National Diet Library has legal deposit of all kinds of published materials, including publications printed by government and local public entities and other publishers. This function is based on the National Diet Library act (Law no. 5, Feb. 9, 1948. Amendment, Law no. 194, June 6, 1949). However, the stability of these activities has entailed much effort, because of the unhappy history of censorship in the era of the World War Г. In this paper, the writer focused on the National Diet Library's activities to build up the legal deposit library, acquiring the effective cooperation of influential publishers. Frankly speaking, it was Yamashita Nobutsune, Section Chief (1949-54) and Division Chief (1959-66) of Acquisitions who stood in the center of these activities.
著者
横倉 聡
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, pp.137-157, 2018-03

In Japan, the mental health and medical welfare measures started in 1900. About 100 years have already passed. In recent years, various client-centered measures have been promoted based on the philosophy of “from hospital-based care to community-based support.” Today in the relevant areas of mental health and medical welfare, the cooperation among medical care, health care, welfare, employment, housing support are strengthened.In this paper, I will first summarize the historical changes in the past 100 years of mental health and medical welfare measures. Second, I will discuss the main issues in the field of mental health and medical welfare that is undergoing a rapid transformation these days.
著者
増田 弘 佐藤 晋 加藤 陽子 加藤 聖文 浜井 和史 永島 広紀 大澤 武司 竹野 学
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

平成21年度から23年度に至る3力年の研究の具体的成果は、本年9月に慶応義塾大学出版会より刊行が予定されている増田弘編『大日本帝国の崩壊と復員・引揚』にある。本書は、日本が第二次世界大戦に敗北したことで生じた帝国日本の崩壊過程に関して、外地からの民間人引揚と外地に在った日本軍将兵の復員という視座に立った実証研究であると同時に、東アジアにおける冷戦という新局面との歴史的接合点を解明しようとする試論である。
著者
秋本 倫子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 = Toyo Eiwa Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.59-82, 2013-03

A worldwide best seller Yoru to Kiri (the original German title : EIN PSYCHOLOGE ERLEBT DAS KONZENTRATIONSLAGER, the Enlish title: Man’s Search for Meaning) was written by a Jewish psychiatrist Viktor E. Frankl. It was first translated into Japanese by Tokuji Shimoyama, a clinical psychologist and a professor emeritus at Sophia University (an ex-professor of Toyo Eiwa University). Since its publication, it has been read by many people over generations. The book has tremendous power toinspire and to encourage. After he was released from the Nazi concentration camps, he continued to work as a psychiatrist, taught at universities, gave lectures around the world, and lived to be 92. He is a miraculous psychiatrist and a psychologist of a kind that cannot be found anywhere.The aim of this paper was to re-read Yoru to Kiri and examine both from the perspective of modern trauma psychology (1) what kind of psychological reactions, defense mechanisms or coping behaviors Frankl resorted to while he was imprisoned in the Nazi concentration camps, (2) how he overcame the trauma and adapted to his life after the war, and by referencing some literature on his life and on Holocaust survivors’ psychology, (3) what kind of defense mechanisms or coping behaviors were effective in surviving extreme situations.Results:(1) It was found that Frankl showed at least some traumatic symptoms: extreme fear, denial or undoing, dissociation, repetitive and intrusive reactions (nightmares and obsession) , paralyzed or limited emotions, reduced interests, irritability and anger. The nightmares persisted till his ninties. (2) Frankl was not only using the coping behaviors as the Holocaust survivors in the literature, but he 82 was also rich in resources: intelligence, being a psychiatrist, warm and loving family elationships, and Jewish faith. More than anything, he supported himself by his firm convi ction that the life is worthwhile living no matter how harsh it may be.Conclusion: Frankl may have been a gifted person in many ways. But more than anything, he was willing, instead of giving in to the “fate”, he was willing to take responsibility to find the right answers and fulfill the tasks given to him. He lived with this belief all his life and has been other people’s lives meaningful.
著者
小寺 敦之
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 = Toyo Eiwa Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.87-110, 2012-03

The “Powerspots”, known as the sacred places to heal or activate visitors, has come into fashion in recent years. The aim of this paper is to define what the “Powerspots” are based on sociological approach.In the view of sociology of religion, the “Powerspots” are located as a popularized form of modern spirituality. Especially Ehara’s TV program, a Japanese TV program in which he counseled guests spiritually, had decisive impact to make spirituality popular. Even though affirmative handlings of paranormal phenomenon in mass media have long history in Japan, after Ehara’s fad people have accepted a word of spirituality and collaborated to expand it. Publications entitled “Powerspots” have increased from then. Popularized spirituality has transformed as materialism and created spiritual markets.Sociological studies have explained the appearance of spirituality in postmodern society and proliferation of popularized spirituality in Japan, but only a few empirical studies has been done on the receptiveness. In the present study a preliminary survey was conducted on the “Powerspots” for future research. Openended questionnaire results have revealed that (1) while they have knowledge of collecting information about “Powerspots” from the media as well as from other people, the “Powerspots” have been discovered or re-innovated by themselves; (2) although the aims of visit are diverse, in common, they all want to make a distance from daily life; and (3) their attitudes to the “Powerspots” is not only determined by belief, but evaluation of the fashion or society.
著者
藤村 久美子 伊藤 めぐみ
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.127-153, 2004-03

The establishment of a society based on gender equality requires that from the time of birth children be brought up and educated in such a way that they are not bound by traditional attitudes based on gender. This realization was at the basis of the call on the part of the Japanese Ministry of Education in 2001 to promote gender-sensitive education from age zero. Televised animation programs ("anime") constitute a major source of daily entertainment for young children, and indeed, programs such as "Pokemon" have gained a worldwide audience. It is important to understand what, if any, influence such popular programs might have on the formation of attitudes regarding gender on the part of children from a very young age. The next step is to make children as well parents and other caregivers sensitive to gender-based biases and stereotypes contained in these programs and encourage them to view the programs in a critical way, so that their impact can be mitigated. This paper is based on the results of a two-year research study undertaken between 2000 and 2002 by the Education Committee of the Japanese Association of University Women, of which the two authors of this paper are members. The purpose of the study is to shed light on the issue of the influence of mass media, in this case televised animation programs, on the formation of gender attitudes among young children. We initially conducted a survey among 168 first-graders and also 300 parents of pre-school children to find out which anime were most popularly viewed by 2 to 7-year-olds. In the questionnaire directed at parents, we also sought to find out whether they exercised discretion in terms of the content of anime programs and the amount of time spent in viewing such programs and also whether they were alert to the depictions of gender in these programs and their possible influence on their children. Next we undertook a detailed analysis of the content of two episodes from three programs : "Pokemon, " ranked number one in popularity among both girls and boys in our survey, "Ojamajo doremi#, " one of the most popular programs among the girls we surveyed, 152 and "Yugio dueru monsutazu" ("YU-GI-OH! Duel Monsters"), a favorite among young boys. The three programs are in fact aired in numerous countries throughout the world. We looked at gender differences in terms of, e. g., number of lead characters, frequency and order of utterances, occupation of adult characters, physical characteristics and dress of main characters, their personalities and behavior patterns, and the relationships depicted between male and female characters. Among the most striking findings is that while at first glance depictions of the lead female characters contradict some of the stereotypical images of Japanese women (passive, silent, subservient), a more detailed analysis reveals a number of subtle ways in which gender comes into play in the construction of female and male roles and behavior. Thus, in scenes of fighting or combat, female characters are frequently shown either running away or watching in silence and being rescued by male characters. In order to find out how children themselves perceived, interpreted, and responded to images, speech, and actions which we had found to reflect gender stereotyping, in the next phase of our research we had 38 girls and 35 boys between the ages of 5 and 7 view one or more of the three anime in groups of 3 to 5 while we recorded their reactions to various scenes and actions. The interviews that followed revealed distinctive differences between girls and boys in terms of character preferences and criteria applied in evaluating characters. While the interviews were limited in scope, we should emphasize that few studies have actually involved face-to-face interviews of young children to try to understand through their own words, their reactions to gendered images and messages contained in animation programs. Children are not simply passive viewers : they can, to a greater or lesser degree, mediate what they see and hear on television. They can be educated from a very early age to be conscious of and sensitive to images and messages pertaining to gender and to identify instances of stereotyping-or lack of stereotyping-when they view not only anime but other television programs as well. The first step toward enabling children to become critical viewers is to have adults involved in the day-to-day care, upbringing, and education of small children to acquire the skills of media literacy. The final part of the paper describes workshops we have conducted over the past few years in various parts of the country, among parents of young children, child care support groups, caregivers in day care centers, and elementary and junior high school teachers, to try to promote media literacy. The emphasis in these workshop is not to present our findings or conclusions but rather to have the participants themselves undergo the process of uncovering gendered messages that may be embedded in media, and perhaps in their own subconscious, by actually viewing anime, with each group focussing on a specific task, such as counting and writing down the utterances of a particular character, then together analyzing and reflecting on the data.
著者
小坂 和子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.45-51, 2008

アイヌ文化において、 「神(カムイ)の世界」と「人間の世界」の相互透過性には、中沢の「対象性」理論が機能していることが認められる。この二者関係の心理的変転のなかに、無意識由来の「交流不可能なるエネルギー対象」の出現がみられる。生活することの主体としての意識が、全体性のバランスを回復する方向性にあって、これを受け入れ、享受し、送り届ける、という内的作業の象徴的意味を拡充させつつ、分析心理学的考察を試みた。
著者
田中 愛治
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
一般研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
1992

平成4年度には、同年7月の参議院選挙の前後に横浜市において有権者1,000名に対し郵送法による世論調査を行い、横浜市における一般有権者の政治不信と政党離れ意識について調査した。平成5年度は、前年の郵送調査における「政党支持なし」の回答者を深層面接法により追跡調査する予定であった。しかし平成5年の政治状況は、国民の政治不信、特に既成政党に対する不信感が更に高まり、政党離れがいっそう進行した。平成5年6月の宮沢内閣不信任案の成立後、自民党から新生党、新党さきがけが分裂し、同年7月18日の衆議院総選挙の結果、昭和30年の自民党結党以来初めて政権交代が起こった。この新党(新生党、新党さきがけ、日本新党)の出現と政界再編の状況下では、少数の「政党支持なし」の有権者の深層面接よりも、一般有権者を対象に従来と異なった投票行動をとる心理的メカニズムを広範に探ることの方が重要性が高いと判断し、研究計画を変更して、総選挙の前後にパネル方式の電話世論調査を実施した。有権者の政治不信、政党離れが急激に進む状況の中で、「政党支持なし」層の役割はかつてなかったほど重要になり、それに呼応するように3新党が総選挙では躍進して、政権交代が起こった。上述の電話調査の結果からは、3新党の支持者はどの新党に対しても好意的な感情を持っており、相互に支持する傾向が見られるが、逆に既存の伝統的な自民党と社会党に対しては冷淡な態度が見られ、既存の政党離れが進んだことが明らかになった。さらに、「政党支持なし」層の存在が、92年の参議院選挙に続いて、93年の総選挙の際にも確認されたが、この積極的な「政党支持なし」層が必ずしも新党の支持に回ったとは言い切れず、単純な構造ではないことが分かった。今後、本調査のデータ分析を更に進めていく所存である。
著者
五十嵐 修
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.1-52, 2006-03

In einem wichtigen Aufsatz (1982) hat Johannes Fried Einwande gegen die Interpretation des karolingischen Staates von Kategorien der Abstraktion und Institutionalisierung her erhoben. Fur ihn reduziert sich das Reich (regnum) auf Konigsherrschaft, bietet nur einen Ausschnitt aus der politischen Daseinsform. Obwohl diese Frage schon von H.-W.Goetz ausfuhrlich diskutiert worden ist, habe ich hier versucht, diese Problematik auf der Basis des heutigen Forschungsstandes nochmals zu uberprufen. Meine Ergebnisse: 1. Das von Zeitgenossen als regnum bezeichnete Gebilde umfaBte das Reichsgebiet und das hier siedelnde Volk. Das war umfangsreicher als ein nur dem Konig unmittelbar zuganglicher Herrschaftsverband. Regnum war eine wahre politische Gemeinschaft. 2. Die Thronfolge beweist den Character des Regnums als politische Gemeinschaft eindeutig. In Thronfolgefallen tritt populus oft in den Quellen als Wahler. Die karolingischen Quellen berichten, dass an der Wahl das Volk beteiligt war. In der Tat sind naturlich nur die Optimaten als reprasentive Schicht des frankischen Volkes an Thronfolgen beteiligt, diese Nachrichten zeigen aber sehr gut den Charakter des Regnums als politischer Gemeinschaft. Diesen Charakter zeigen auch die Reichsversammlungen. In seinem beruhmten Werk De ordine palatii gibt Hinkmar von Reims wichtige Informationen uber die Reichsversammlungen. Nach ihm bestand es die Gewohnheit, nicht ofter als zweimal im Jahr Reichsversammlungen abzuhalten. Sicher ist, dass auch auf diesen Versammlungen das Volk eine Rolle spielte. 3. Regnum war die jeweilige politische Ordnung, weil es in karolingischer Zeit den Brauch gab, bei der Thronfolge die Herrschaft unter die Sohne des verstorbenen Konigs aufzuteilen. 4. An keiner mir bekannten Stelle in karolingischer Zeit bedeutet ecclesia den Staat. Man darf nicht den karolingischen Staat "Kirche" nennen. Nur sinnbildlich kann man ihn als "Kirche" bezeichnen. 5. Wir konnen auch feststellen, dass in nur seltenen Stellen die Zeitgenossen den Staat als imperium bezeichnen. Auch nach der Kaiserkronung Karls des GroBen (800) war der allgemeine Ausdruck fur den Staat wie bisher regnum.
著者
稲垣 大紀
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.121-135, 2006-03-15

This thesis summarizes fact-finding studies and the history of disputes concerning the Nanking Massacre that broke out in 1937. The center of the dispute today concerns the scale of damage (the number of those killed) in the massacre, but there is more to it than that. The author made a thorough investigation into the truth of the atrocity by tracing its cause back to the Second Shanghai Incident and focusing attention upon the Nanking occupation and post-conquest activities by the Japanese Army. The author estimates the number of people slain to be approximately 40,000 at the maximum, and discusses the essence of and questions raised by the subject matter by taking account of the history of relevant disputes to date.
著者
陶山 義雄
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.43-56, 2007-03-15

"Do not give dogs what is holy; and do not throw your pearls before swine, lest they trample them underfoot and turn to attack you. "Matthew 7:6 (RSV) This enigmatic aphorism, which appears in the New Testament only in Matthew (a second form is also preserved in Thomas 93:1~2) has frequently been discussed because of its inimical nature and in the context of the Sermon on the Mount, or of the Gospel of Matthew. This saying betrays Jewish esoteric instructions to set them apart from the Gentiles : namely the holy rituals of the Jews must not be profaned by dogs and swine (gentiles). If the author of the Gospel received this saying from independent source material either oral or written, it must have been transmitted in the Jewish Christian community where he was raised. Matthew 7:6 is significantly so dissimilar to the teachings of Jesus, and of the contents of the Gospel of Matthew, that it is regarded as the crux interpretum. The first half of the saying, "Do not give what is holy to the dogs..." is cited in the Didache: The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles 9:5. In order to sanctify their rite of eucharist, the author of this Christian instructional manual asserts that the unbaptized are dogs and are not accepted at the table of the Lord's Supper. The difficulty is whether the author of Matthew held intolerant sectarian beliefs and set it in the Sermon on the Mount. U. Luz and several other scholars abandoned their efforts on its interpretation, because it had no apparent connection to the rest of the Gospel of Matthew. A majority of the scholars, however, regard 7:6 functioning as a footnote to the preceding pericope, vv. 1~5 ("Judge not"). By placing 7:6 after the stern precept of not judging others, the evangelist attempts to neutralize extreme interpretations of the saying. From those (dogs and swine) who are not ready to accept the authentic teaching of Jesus (what is holy=pearls), it must be kept secret. This essay attempts to shed new light on 7:6 from the perspective of the Golden Rule (7:12). The author of this essay will investigate the evangelist's editorial work, and clarify what he intended to convey. The author of Matthew places this prejudiced sectarian aphorism prior to the Golden Rule : 1. An Intolerant Custom to be transformed (Dogs and Swine) by the Golden Rule (7:6) 2. Exhortation to Constant Pursuit and Prayer in Response to the Grace of God, the Father (7:7~11) 3. The Golden Rule (7:12) Presumably the evangelist grew up among Jewish Christians, therefore he could share the esoteric view of 7:6, but as the Christianity and its gospel message spread into the gentile world, he recognized the need of a more accepting and open fellowship. In order to respond to the situation of his community, the evangelist seemed to have two goals : one primarily for the Jews, and another for the gentiles (Matt.15:21~28). He sought to overcome the intolerance of the Jewish Christians, and transform it to embrace world mission. This explains why he concludes his Gospel with the Great Commission of the risen Christ for world mission (28:16~20). and This also clarifies the section on Galilee of the Gentiles (Matt.4:15; Isaiah 9:1~2), where Jesus started his ministry. Likewise, the Gospel of Matthew describes astrologers, undoubtedly gentile, from the East who came to worship the infant Jesus when he was born (2:1~12). After 7:6 is seen through the Golden Rule, the esoteric saying fits in well with the entire message of the Sermon on the Mount as follows : The Scene and the Audience (5:1~2) I. Invitation to the Blessings of Jesus (Beatitudes) (6:3~12) II. Remarkable Features of the Followers (Christians) (5:13~16) Discipleship as the Salt of the Earth (5:13), and the Light of the World (5:14~16) III. Christian Righteousness (5:17~6:18) 1. Prologue (A Greater Righteousness Supplanting an Old Jewish One) (5:17~20) 2. Exposition of the Greater Righteousness (5:21~6:18) A. The New Orders versus the Old Commandments (5:21~5:48) i) Against Anger (5:21~26) ii) Against Adultery and Divorce (5:27~32) iii) Against Oaths (5:33~37) iv) Against Retaliation (5:38~42) v) Love of One's Enemies (5:43~48) B. The New Rituals versus the Old Ones (6:1~6:18) i) On Giving to Charity (6:1~4) ii) On Prayer (6:5~15) (The Lord's Prayer6:9~13) iii) On Fasting (6:16~18) IV. The Christian Ethics (6:19~7:11) 1. Serve God, and not Mammon (6:19~24) 2. The Highest Way of Life (Responding Life to the Care of God) (6:25~34) 3. Unlimited Pursuit of Internal Sanctions (7:1~5) 4. An Intolerant Custom to be Transformed (7:6) 5. Exhortation to Constant Pursuit and Prayer in Response to the Grace of God (7:7~11) Concluding Summary THE GOLDEN RULE (7:12) V. Finale (7:13~27) 1. Enter this Narrow Gate for Salvation, or Else to Destruction (7:13~14) 2. Beware of the False Prophets(7:15~16) 3. How to tell Good Trees (Prophets) from the False Trees (7:17~20) 4. Final Judgment (The Kingdom of Heaven, or Hell) (7:21~23) 5. Concluding Exhortation with the Parable of the Two Houses (the House Built on Rock, and the House Built on the Sand) (7:24~27) Concluding Rubric: Reaction of the Crowds 7:28~29 Adherence to the Golden Rule has the potential to end hostilities, enmities, or strife by intolerant religious sects throughout the world. We learn this from the survey of Matthew 7:6 as the author of Matthew places it before the Golden Rule.
著者
岡本 浩一 杉森 伸吉
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
1995

東京都と神奈川県に在住する成人を対象に、1500通の調査冊子を発送し、551人から回答を得た。リスク認知については、「恐れ」因子と「未知性」因子の2因子による相関構造が見出され、slovicらによる従来からの知見が認識された。また、社会的信頼感は、一般因子の存在が示唆された。リスク認知の2因子と、社会的価値観の種々のスコアとの相関を調べたところつぎのような結果が得られた。(1)政治的効力感の高い人ほどリスクの恐れが強く、リスクの未知性を高く感じている。(2)平等主義的価値観の強い人ほど、リスクの恐れが強く、逆に、権威主義的価値観の強い人ほどリスクの恐れが低い傾向があった。(3)リスクの統制感スコアの高い人ほど、リスクの未知性を低く感じる傾向があった。(4)社会に対する信頼感の高い人ほど、リスクの恐れぬ傾向があった。(5)社会的価値観のうち、個人主義尺度と政治的態度(進歩的か保守的か)はリスク認知と有意な相関をもっていなかった。(6)従来、リスク認知と相関すると報告されることの多い、神秘的世界観や宗教性はリスク認知と有意に相関していなかった。(7)情報への感受性の尺度のうち、情報認知の高い人がリスクの未知性を低く感じている傾向が有意であったが、情報探索傾向はリスク認知の変数と有意な相関をしていなかった。リスク認知が社会的価値観や社会的信頼感を心理的に投映している可能性を予測した研究であったが、その予測はおおむねデータによって裏付けられたといえよう。
著者
三上 章
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.1-32, 2011-03

This article purports to clarify how the platonism of Whichcote acts upon hisunderstanding of Christ.His platonism is not so much something like an intellectual system built uponPlatonic philosophers in the past, as an attitude of respect towards the Platonic spiritwhich has been transmitted in the history. This will include an inquisitiveness toincessantly seek after truth, a cautiousness to refrain from a harried judgement, aviewpoint to look up to the invisibles beyond the visible, an esteem to reason in man,and a reverence to the truly divine. Therefore the platonism of Whichcote is a typeor a tendency of thinking rather than a philosophical system. It might be called a Platonismin the broad sense.In his exposition of biblical texts, the Bible is the ultimate authority. However,when some biblical passages or theological concepts seem to allow multiple interpretations,he does not hesitate to endeavor to inquire an essential meaning which willaccord with reason. Herein is working his platonism in the broad sense.Such a tendency of his thinking shows itself in his understanding of Christ interms of `Christ in us' and `deification'. This means that the Christ who had been shutaway from man by Puritan Calvinism was recovered as `Christ in us' into the innerpart of man. That Christ partook of human nature is not the matter outside of, andfar away from man. It happens in man, enables man to partake of the divine natureof Christ, and opens up the possibility of man's deification in the sense of becomingGod-like.The same tendency of Whichcote's thinking is particularly reflected in his viewof the mutuality of God and man in the work of reconciliation. It goes without sayingthat `reconciliation' occupies a crucial place in the Christian soteriology, and is the32ground and basis of salvation for man. However, it had been made by Puritan Calvinismthe matter of the absolute despotism belonging to God. There was no room for aparticipation in it on the part of man who had been branded as totally depraved. Reconciliationwas exclusively given up to the will and desire of God. Against this kindof determinism which would deliver man up to anxiety and resignation Whichcotethrew an objection. True, man's depravity may be irrevocably grave, but, at least, ina tiny portion where man, by the grace of God, recognizes his sin, repents and comesback to God, there might be a room for a cooperation with God in reconciliation. Thereconciliation in this sense will save man, and the saved man, in turn, will be drivento do good works in response to the love of God revealed in Christ. The proof of thisis the existence of reason in man. Even though reason is fatally weakened by sin, andappears to be on the brink of dying away, it is never put out, as far as it is the gift ofGod to man. This was the conviction of Whichcote.The people of England was in a deadly need of salvation. But that salvation hadbeen suffered a pedantic devision by Puritan Calvinism into regeneration, conversion,adoption, calling, sanctification, justification, reconciliation, redemption, salvation,and glorification. Such a detailed theological distinction will not be able to save thecommon people who was illiterate due to poverty. It is Whichcote who united the dividedsalvation and recovered its original state, which is nothing but Christ Himself.This Christ is the one in us. Also, the crucified Christ is not the one outside us, but theone within us. This Christ is the one felt and understood as a principle of life in us.Thus comprehended, Christ will inevitably reform us from within and cannotbut drive us to do good works. In distinction from the Christ of Puritan Calvinismwho was cast far away from man to a remote place, the Christ of Whichcote is presentin a closest proximity to human existence. This is a sort of new and bright imageof Christ in an old and dark age. Herein is seen a token of the working of Whichcote'splatonism.
著者
Sippel Patricia
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.23-41, 2007-03-15

1909年(明治42年)夏、秋田県内の3新聞社が、東京などの新聞雑誌記者十数名を秋田県に招待した。目的は、秋田県の経済的・文化的な状況を実際に見て、読者に伝えてもらう機会を提供することであった。一行のうち新渡戸稲造、中野正剛、永田新之允など15名が約束通り体験記を記し、これは同年『知られたる秋田』として刊行された。この秋田観光記者団はいくつかの観点から興味深い。第一、全国的に傑出した記者らの旅行記が即座にアピールされた点である。第二、秋田県の近代経済・文化の発展のつぶさな観察にある。第三に最も興味深いのは、1909年の観光は、近代日本における中心(中央政権・主要都市)と地方の関係についての問題を提起するという点である。明治時代の秋田を含め東北地方として知られるようになった6県は、全国的にあまり認識も理解もされていなかった。中央政府や専門家らは東北地方の経済成長が遅いことを懸念し、いわゆる「東北問題」について論じた。東北地方内の識者は自立と繁栄をもたらす発展モデルを見出して「後進」のイメージを払拭しようと必死になった。本稿は、1909年の秋田観光とは、秋田県の指導者らが「東北問題」の根強い認識を克服するために講じた試みであったとを論ずる。彼らは「問題」ある地方の一部としての秋田に対するネガティブな認識を払拭し、豊かな自然と目覚ましい産業発展というポジティブな認識に変えようとした。世界中の経済先進国で地方の生き残りが議論されている今日、1909年の秋田観光は、地方が活力を持つことは当然でも簡単でもなく、地方の内外における多大な努力の成果であったことを語っている。
著者
高橋 基治
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.33-56, 2011-03

It has widely been believed that when it comes to learning a new language as asecond/foreign language,"the younger the better"is the rule that applies. On the otherhand, recent studies have demonstrated that although younger learners may have anadvantage in mastering native-like pronunciation, adults might actually learn second/foreign languages more easily and quickly than younger learners in such areas asvocabulary acquisition and syntax.The claim that an authentic pronunciation of a second/foreign language isunattainable after a certain age has been supported by certain kinds of evidence.However, at the same time, it is also true that there are, in actuality, some individualswho have acquired a native-like accent even after the so-called "critical period."With this conflicting evidence in mind, in this paper, I will discuss theprobability of obtaining native-like phonological performance by reviewing the existingempirical and theoretical literature on Second Language Acquisition, especially thatwhich focuses on the Critical Period Hypothesis and foreign accent. In addition, I willconsider the viability of direct phonological instruction as a subject in school basedon the information and insights gained through this review of key studies in the field.
著者
中林 隆明
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
人文・社会科学論集 (ISSN:09157794)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.77-95, 2005-03

Educational policies in modern Japan, especially in the early Meiji period, were led by Tanaka Fujimaro, Deputy Minister of Education. At the first time, France was the model of education policies in Japan. Its example was Gakusei (national educational system) enforcement (Imperial Ordinance). In those days, Tanaka participated in the Iwakura Mission, led by Iwakura Envoy Extraordinary and Ambassador Plenipotentiary to the United States and European countries, as commissioner of Education Department. He eagerly conducted educational research in both continents with his staff during 1872-73. And again, he traveled to the United States to take part in the Exposition Fair in Philadelphia, in commemoration of American Centennal Foundation year in 1876. At both times he was impressed with American flexible educational systems, including libraries, small school districts and social institutions, and a variety of state initiatives. In 1879, he enacted the Imperial Educational Ordinance based on the principle of independence for local communities in elementary schools and educational institutions. As a result, his policy was denied by the government of the day, and he was transferred to another post (Minister of Justice).
著者
島 創平
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.43-51, 2005-04-01

In the scene of Paul's trial before the members of Sanhedrin, Paul called out, "Brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees."(Acts of the Apostles 23:6). Some scholars comment on this statement as Paul's tactics. But J. Jervell says that this statement is not tactics but "Zeugnis". That is, Luke, the author of Acts, depicts Paul as a "Pharisaic Christian". So after his conversion, Paul remained faithful to the Jewish law and he had the hope in the resurrection of the dead. On the other hand, in his own letter, Paul looks on his former life as a Pharisee as "rubbish" (The Letter to the Philippians 3:8). But E. P. Sanders says that Paul did not have one single theology regarding the law. In The Letter to the Romans Paul regards the law as Sin (chapter 6). But on the other hand, for the most part he agrees with the behavior which the law requires. His own views of proper behavior, both 'ethical' and 'cultic'. were Jewish to the core. Paul the Apostle shared many of the characteristics of Paul the Pharisee. Thus, early Christianity and Judaism of those days did not always oppose each other. The relationship between them should be re-examined more carefully.