著者
JINNO Takuya MIYAKAWA Tomoki SATOH Masaki
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-017, (Released:2018-12-07)
被引用文献数
1

In August 2016, a monsoon gyre persisted over the western North Pacific and was associated with the genesis of multiple devastating tropical cyclones. A series of hindcast simulations was performed using the nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM) to reproduce the temporal evolution of this monsoon gyre. The simulations initiated at dates during the mature stage of the monsoon gyre successfully reproduced its termination and the subsequent intensification of the Bonin high, while the simulations initiated before the formation and during the developing stage of the gyre failed to reproduce subsequent gyre evolution even at a short lead time. These experiments further suggest a possibility that the development of the Bonin high is related to the termination of the monsoon gyre. High predictability of the termination is likely due to the predictable mid-latitudinal signals that intensify the Bonin high.
著者
SHUSSE Yukari MAESAKA Takeshi KIEDA Kaori IWANAMI Koyuru
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-021, (Released:2018-12-13)
被引用文献数
1

This study describes the spatial distribution of the melting layer (ML) in a winter stratiform precipitation system associated with a south-coast cyclone (SCC) on 30 January 2015 over the Kanto Plain, Japan, using an X-band polarimetric radar at Funabashi operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The detailed horizontal distribution of surface precipitation types based on Weather Reports from citizens provided by Weathernews Inc. (WNI reports) was also investigated in relation to the ML structure. Surface precipitation in the Kanto Region started with rain and then changed to snow around Tokyo. According to WNI reports, a large dry snow area had formed around Tokyo by 0900 Japan Standard Time (UTC + 9 hours), while surface rainfall continued in the southeast of the Kanto Plain (most part of Chiba and southern part of Kanagawa). A boundary line between the surface dry snow and rain areas became clear in the eastern part of Kanagawa and the northwestern part of Chiba. This boundary then gradually moved inland. Polarimetric ML signatures suggesting the presence of melting snow were continuously observed above the rainfall area in the southeast of the Kanto Plain. The polarimetric ML signatures, on the other hand, approached the ground near the surface dry snow-rain boundary while the surface snowfall was predominant around Tokyo. During the mature snowfall period around Tokyo, the ML vertically extended below 1 km above sea level near the surface dry snow-rain boundary, which indicates the presence of a local horizontal temperature gradient and a surrounding ~0°C near-isothermal layer. It is suggested that this vertically extending ML coincided with the edge of a cold air mass in the lower atmosphere, which often forms during snowfall associated with SCCs in the Kanto Region.
著者
TOCHIMOTO Eigo NIINO Hiroshi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-043, (Released:2018-04-27)
被引用文献数
3

This study used the JRA-55 reanalysis dataset to analyze the structure and environment of extratropical cyclones (ECs) that spawned tornadoes (tornadic ECs: TECs) between 1961 and 2011 in Japan. Composite analysis indicated that the differences between the structure and environment of TECs and those of ECs that did not spawn tornadoes (non-tornadic ECs: NTECs) vary with the seasons. In spring (March–May), TECs are associated with stronger upper-level potential vorticity and colder mid-level temperature than NTECs. The colder air at the mid-level contributes to the increase in convective available potential energy (CAPE) of TECs. TECs in winter (December–February: DJF) and those northward of 40°N in autumn (September–November: SON) are accompanied by larger CAPE than are NTECs. The larger CAPE for TECs in DJF is caused by larger moisture and warmer temperature at low levels, and that for TECs northward of 40°N in SON (NSON) is caused by the colder mid-level temperature associated with an upper-level trough. The distribution of the energy helicity index also shows significant differences between TECs and NTECs for DJF and NSON. On the other hand, the distribution of the 0–1 km storm relative environmental helicity (SREH) shows no significant differences between TECs and NTECs in most seasons except DJF. A comparison of TECs between Japan and the United States (US) shows that SREH and CAPE are noticeably larger in the US. It is suggested that these differences occur because TECs in the US (Japan) develop over land (ocean), which exerts more (less) surface friction and diurnal heating.
著者
ITO Rui AOYAGI Toshinori HORI Naoto OH'IZUMI Mitsuo KAWASE Hiroaki DAIRAKU Koji SEINO Naoko SASAKI Hidetaka
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-053, (Released:2018-08-24)

Accurate simulation of urban snow accumulation/melting processes is important to provide reliable information about climate change in snowy urban areas. The Japan Meteorological Agency operates a square prism urban canopy (SPUC) model within their regional model to simulate urban atmosphere. However, presently, this model takes no account of snow processes. Therefore, in this study, we enhanced the SPUC by introducing a snowpack scheme, and the simulated snow over Japanese urban areas was assessed by comparing the snow depths from the enhanced SPUC and from a simple biosphere (iSiB) model with the observations. Snowpack schemes based on two approaches were implemented. The diagnostic approach (sSPUCdgn) uses empirical factors for snow temperature and melting/freezing amounts and the Penman equation for heat fluxes, whereas the prognostic approach (sSPUCprg) calculates snow temperatures using heat fluxes estimated from bulk equations. Both snowpack schemes enabled the model to accurately reproduce the seasonal variations and peaks in snow depth, but it is necessary to use sSPUCprg if we wish to consider the physical processes in the snow layer. Compared with iSiB, sSPUCprg resulted in a good performance for the seasonal variations in snow depth, and the error fell to 20 %. While iSiB overestimated the snow depth, a cold bias of over 1°C appeared in the daily mean temperature, which can be attributed to excessive decreases in the snow surface temperature. sSPUCprg reduces the bias by a different calculation method for the snow surface temperature and by the inclusion of heated building walls without snow; consequently, the simulated snow depth is improved. sSPUCprg generated a relationship between the seasonal variations in snowfall and snow depth close to the observed relationship, with the correlation coefficient getting large. Therefore, the simulation accuracy of snowfall becomes more crucial for simulating the surface snow processes precisely by the enhanced SPUC.
著者
Akiyoshi WADA Ryo OYAMA
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, no.6, pp.489-509, 2018 (Released:2018-11-22)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
2

Typhoon Lionrock (2016) made landfall in the Pacific side of northern Japan. One of the intriguing events was consecutive deep convections (convective bursts, CBs) occurred before making landfall on 31 August. Lionrock paused the decay of the intensity of the storm, although sea surface cooling (SSC) was induced distinctly by Lionrock along the track. To examine the influence of CBs on changes in storm intensity during the decay phase, numerical simulations were conducted with a 3 km mesh coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model. The coupled model successfully simulated the occurrence of CBs north of the near-surface-convergence area, which was formed by the confluent of the storm's tangential winds with near-surface frictional spiral inflow from the surrounding region where the significant wave height was high. Simultaneously, the relatively fast translation and asymmetric tropical cyclone (TC) structure were maintained. Lower tropospheric horizontal moisture fluxes have enhanced around the convergence area, although SSC resulted in reduction of the air-sea latent heat fluxes within the storm's inner core. Local occurrences of upward moisture fluxes associated with CBs increased the mid-to-upper tropospheric condensational heating on the upstream side. This caused local increase in lower-tropospheric pressure gradient on the upstream side. This was favorable for pausing the decay of the simulated storm intensity even during the decay phase. Sensitivity experiments regarding the execution time of the coupled model showed that the vertical moisture fluxes and number of CBs could increase around the surface frictional convergence area ahead of the storm when the coupled model was not used. This suggests that the storm in mid-latitude could locally increase the maximum surface wind speed under favorable oceanic conditions. The number and distribution of CBs are indeed sensitive to oceanic conditions and are considered to affect the storm-track simulation and maximum surface wind speeds.
著者
YUMIMOTO Keiya TANAKA Taichu Y. YOSHIDA Mayumi KIKUCHI Maki NAGAO Takashi M. MURAKAMI Hiroshi MAKI Takashi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-035, (Released:2018-04-08)
被引用文献数
6

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) launched a next-generation geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS), Himawari-8, on October 7, 2014 and began its operation on July 7, 2015. The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8 has 16 observational bands that enable the retrieval of full-disk maps of aerosol optical properties (AOPs), including aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and the Ångström exponent (AE) with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we combined an aerosol transport model with the Himawari-8 AOT using the data assimilation method, and performed aerosol assimilation and forecasting experiments on smoke from an intensive wildfire that occurred over Siberia between May 15 and 18, 2016. To effectively utilize the high observational frequency of Himawari-8, we assimilated 1-h merged AOTs generated through the combination of six AOT snapshots taken over 10-min intervals, three times per day. The heavy smoke originating from the wildfire was transported eastward behind a low-pressure trough, and covered northern Japan from May 19 to 20. The southern part of the smoke plume then traveled westward, in a clockwise flow associated with high pressure. The forecast without assimilation reproduced the transport of the smoke to northern Japan; however, it underestimated AOT and the extinction coefficient compared with observed values, mainly due to errors in the emission inventory. Data assimilation with the Himawari-8 AOT compensated for the underestimation and successfully forecasted the unique C-shaped distribution of the smoke. In particular, the assimilation of the Himawari-8 AOT during May 18 greatly improved the forecast of the southern part of the smoke flow. Our results indicate that the inheritance of assimilation cycles and the assimilation of more recent observations led to better forecasting in this case of a continental smoke outflow.
著者
Keiichi ISHIOKA
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, no.2, pp.241-249, 2018 (Released:2018-03-27)
参考文献数
18

A new recurrence formula to calculate the associated Legendre functions is proposed for efficient computation of the spherical harmonic transform. This new recurrence formula makes the best use of the fused multiply–add (FMA) operations implemented in modern computers. The computational speeds in calculating the spherical harmonic transform are compared between a numerical code in which the new recurrence formula is implemented and another code using the traditional recurrence formula. This comparison shows that implementation of the new recurrence formula contributes to a faster transform. Furthermore, a scheme to maintain the accuracy of the transform, even when the truncation wavenumber is huge, is also explained.
著者
STEVENS Bjorn ACQUISTAPACE Claudia HANSEN Akio HEINZE Rieke KLINGER Carolin KLOCKE Daniel RYBKA Harald SCHUBOTZ Wiebke WINDMILLER Julia ADAMIDIS Panagiotis ARKA Ioanna BARLAKAS Vasileios BIERCAMP Joachim BRUECK Matthias BRUNE Sebastian BUEHLER Stefan A. BURKHARDT Ulrike CIONI Guido COSTA-SURÓS Montserrat CREWELL Susanne CRÜGER Traute DENEKE Hartwig FRIEDERICHS Petra HENKEN Cintia Carbajal HOHENEGGER Cathy JACOB Marek JAKUB Fabian KALTHOFF Norbert KÖHLER Martin LAAR Thirza W. van LI Puxi LÖHNERT Ulrich MACKE Andreas MADENACH Nils MAYER Bernhard NAM Christine NAUMANN Ann Kristin PETERS Karsten POLL Stefan QUAAS Johannes RÖBER Niklas ROCHETIN Nicolas SCHECK Leonhard SCHEMANN Vera SCHNITT Sabrina SEIFERT Axel SENF Fabian SHAPKALIJEVSKI Metodija SIMMER Clemens SINGH Shweta SOURDEVAL Odran SPICKERMANN Dela STRANDGREN Johan TESSIOT Octave VERCAUTEREN Nikki VIAL Jessica VOIGT Aiko ZÄNGL Günter
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-021, (Released:2020-01-28)

More than one hundred days were simulated over very large domains with fine (0.156 km to 2.5 km) grid spacing for realistic conditions to test the hypothesis that storm (kilometer) and large-eddy (hectometer) resolving simulations would provide an improved representation of clouds and precipitation in atmospheric simulations. At scales that resolve convective storms (storm-resolving for short) scales, the vertical velocity variance becomes resolved and a better physical basis is achieved for representing clouds and precipitation. Similar to past studies we find an improved representation of precipitation at kilometer scales, as compared to models with parameterised convection. The main precipitation features (location, diurnal cycle and spatial propagation) are well captured already at kilometer scales, and refining resolution to hectometer scales does not substantially change the simulations in these respects. It does, however, lead to a reduction in the precipitation on the time-scales considered – most notably over the Tropical ocean. Changes in the distribution of precipitation, with less frequent extremes are also found in simulations incorporating hecto-meter scales. Hectometer scales appear more important for the representation of clouds, and make it possible to capture many important aspects of the cloud field, from the vertical distribution of cloud cover, to the distribution of cloud sizes, to the diel (daily) cycle. Qualitative improvements, particularly in the ability to differentiate cumulus from stratiform clouds, are seen when reducing the grid spacing from kilometer to hectometer scales. At the hectometer scale new challenges arise, but the similarity of observed and simulated scales, and the more direct connection between the circulation and the unconstrained degrees of freedom make these challenges less daunting. This quality, combined with an already improved simulation as compared to more parameterised models, underpins our conviction that the use and further development of storm-resolving models offers exciting opportunities for advancing understanding of climate and climate change.
著者
NAOI Moeka KAMAE Youichi UEDA Hiroaki MEI Wei
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-027, (Released:2020-02-10)

Atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow water vapor transport bands over the mid-latitudes, often cause great socio-economic impacts over East Asia. While it has been shown that summertime AR activity over East Asia is strongly induced by preceding-winter El Niño development, it remains unclear the extent to which seasonal transitions of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) from winter to summer affect the AR activity. Here we examine the relationship between the seasonal transitions of ENSO and the summertime AR activity over East Asia using an atmospheric reanalysis and high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ensemble simulations. A rapid transition from preceding-winter El Niño to summertime La Niña results in more AR occurrence over northern East Asia via northward expansion of an anomalous low-level anticyclone over the western North Pacific compared to sustained or decayed El Niño cases. The northward expansion of the anticyclone is consistent with a steady response of the atmosphere to the anomalous condensation heating over the Maritime Continent and equatorial Pacific. Meridional positions of the extratropical AR occurrence and circulation anomalies are different between the reanalysis and AGCM simulations, which is possibly contributed by a limited sample size and/or AGCM biases and suggests that seasonal prediction of AR-related natural disaster risk over East Asia on a regional scale remains a challenge.
著者
NAOE Hiroaki MATSUMOTO Takanori UENO Keisuke MAKI Takashi DEUSHI Makoto TAKEUCHI Ayako
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-019, (Released:2020-02-03)

This study constructs a merged total column ozone (TCO) dataset using 20 available satellite Level 2 TCO (L2SAT) datasets over 40 years from 1978 to 2017. The individual 20 datasets and the merged TCO dataset are corrected against ground-based Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometer TCO (GD) measurements. Two bias correction methods are used: simple linear regression (SLR) as a function of time and multiple linear regression (MLR) as a function of time, solar zenith angle, and effective ozone temperature. All of the satellite datasets are consistent with GD within ±2-3%, except for some degraded data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Earth Probe during a period of degraded calibration and from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) provided from NOAA at an early stage of measurements. OMPS data provided from NASA show fairly stable L2SAT-GD differences. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment/MetOp-A and -B datasets show abrupt changes of approximately 8 DU coincident with the change of retrieval algorithm. For the TCO merged datasets created by averaging all coincident data located within a grid cell from the 20 satellite-borne TCO datasets, the differences between corrected and uncorrected TCOs by MLR are generally positive at lower latitudes where the bias correction increases TCO because of low effective ozone temperature. In the trend analysis, the difference between corrected and uncorrected TCO trends by MLR shows clear seasonal and latitudinal dependency, whereas such seasonal and latitudinal dependency is lost by SLR. The root mean square difference of L2SAT-GD for the uncorrected merged datasets, 8.6 DU, is reduced to 8.4 DU after correction using SLR and MLR. Therefore, the empirically corrected merged TCO datasets that are converted into time-series homogenization with high temporal-resolution are suitable as a data source for trend analyses as well as assimilation for long-term reanalysis.
著者
YOKOYAMA Chie TSUJI Hiroki TAKAYABU Yukari N.
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-013, (Released:2019-11-30)

In this study, we examined the characteristics of a rainfall system that brought heavy rainfall to a broad portion of western Japan on July 5-8, 2018 and the role played by an upper-tropospheric trough which stayed to the rear of the extensive rainfall area during the event. The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar onboard the core satellite of the Global Precipitation Measurement revealed the significant contribution of rainfall with its top below 10 km, the broad spatial extent covered by stratiform rainfall, and the presence of convective rainfall embedded in the large stratiform rainfall area. These features are characteristic of well-organized rainfall systems. Based on the analysis of meteorological data, large-scale environmental conditions related to the event were found to be relatively stable and very humid throughout most of the troposphere, compared to the climatology. This large-scale environment, which is consistent with previous statistical results for extreme rainfall events, was present across an extensive area of Japan. We found that the trough played an important role in maintaining an environment favorable for the organization of rainfall. Dynamical ascent associated with the trough acted to produce vertical moisture flux convergence in the mid-troposphere and upper troposphere, and moistened most of the troposphere in conjunction with horizontal moisture flux convergence. Humid conditions in the mid- to lower troposphere enhanced the development of deep convection when the lower troposphere was convectively unstable. Once deep convection was promoted in this way, convection itself could moisten the mid- to upper troposphere further through diabatic ascent, thereby loading the free troposphere with moisture. This synergy between the dynamical effect and the diabatic effect enhanced the conditions that allowed for a well-organized rainfall system that produced very heavy rainfall over a large portion of Japan.
著者
CHEN Wei GUAN Zhaoyong YANG Huadong XU Qi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-014, (Released:2019-12-08)

The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the Australian winter monsoon (AWM) are two important components of the Asian-Australian monsoon system during boreal summer. The simultaneous variations of these two monsoons would have remarkable impacts on climate in the Asian-Australian region. Using the reanalysis datasets, we investigate the mechanisms of variation and impacts of East Asian-Australian Monsoons (EAAMs). The singular value decomposition (SVD) is performed of the June-July-August (JJA) mean anomalous zonal wind for AWM as left field and JJA mean anomalous meridional wind for EASM as the right field after both El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and India Ocean Dipole (IOD) signals are filtered out. Our results demonstrate that AWM and EASM are closely related to each other as revealed by the first leading SVD mode. The anomalously strong (weak) EAAMs correspond to anomalously strong (weak) AWM and EASM to the south of 30°N. When EAAMs are anomalously strong, cold sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) appears in regions near northern and northeastern coasts of Australia whereas the warmer SSTA appears in the northwestern tropical Pacific and South China Sea. The colder SSTA is associated with the upwelling of cold water from below induced by equatorial easterly anomalies, reinforcing the anticyclonic circulation over Australia through the Matsuno/Gill-type response whereas warm SSTA appears in the northwestern tropical Pacific and South China Sea as a result of oceanic response to the intensified northwest Pacific subtropical anticyclonic circulation. The EASM couples with AWM via the anomalous easterlies near equator in the Maritime Continent (MC) region and the slanted vertical anomalous circulations. In the years with strong EAAMs, precipitation decreases in northern Australia and over areas from the western Pacific to Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea of China. Meanwhile, the western MC and the southeastern China experience more than normal precipitation.
著者
AWAZU Taeka OTSUKA Shigenori MIYOSHI Takemasa
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-066, (Released:2019-09-22)

This paper proposes a new verification metric that can evaluate location errors and shapes of rainfall areas simultaneously: the Pattern Similarity Index (PSI). Pixel-by-pixel verification methods such as the threat score and root mean squared error have difficulties in evaluating location errors and shapes of rainfall areas, and in evaluating small rainfall areas. To address these difficulties, various object-based methods have been developed. However, object-based methods tend to be complicated and computationally expensive. Therefore, PSI adopts a simpler, computationally more efficient algorithm as follows. First, bounding rectangles of individual rainfall areas are computed, and neighboring rectangles are combined so that they are treated as a single precipitation system to mimic the human recognition. Next, shape parameters are computed for each integrated bounding rectangle. For each pair of the observed and forecasted rainfall areas, the location error weighted by the differences of the shape parameters is used as the verification score. If no observed rainfall area with a similar size exists near a forecasted rainfall area, this distance- based score of the forecasted area is set to a large value. The integration method of the bounding rectangle and the precipitation threshold are the only tunable parameters in this method, and we repeat computing the verification score by varying these parameters. The best value is used as the final verification score. Idealized cases showed the ability of PSI to evaluate location errors and differences in the shape parameters. A real case with global precipitation nowcasting showed that the proposed evaluation value increased almost linearly with the forecast time, whereas the threat score and root mean squared error tended to saturate as the forecast time increases, showing a potential advantage of PSI. Comparison with another object-based method revealed the advantage of PSI in its computational efficiency while providing similar verification scores.
著者
TAKAMURA Tamio IRIE Hitoshi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-059, (Released:2019-08-09)

The accurate aerosol optical thickness is indispensable for estimating the radiative forcing of aerosols in the atmosphere. Sun photometry is one of the most popular methods, which is simple and easy to use, but it should be noted that some errors due to forward scattering effect can be introduced in the observation of the direct normal irradiance. Consequently, the estimated optical thickness of aerosols can be under-estimated even if the calibration constant is correct. This possibility depends on an optical geometry of the measuring instrument as well as aerosol characteristics. This report assesses these effects by assuming several aerosol types and instrumental parameters quantitatively. Forward scattering ratio γλfwd, which is defined as a ratio of the forward scattering part to the true direct normal irradiance (Iλ), by Iλobs=Iλ(1+γλfwd), is approximately proportional to the product of the optical thickness (τλaer) and the single scattering albedo (ωλ) of aerosols and the relative air mass (m), γλfwd≈ελωλτλaerm. The coefficient ελ is a proportional constant which is dependent on the opening angle of the instrument as well as the optical characteristics of aerosols. The variation of ελ is tabulated for several aerosol types and opening angles. Then the error for the estimate of τλaer can be approximately expressed by Δτλ≈ -ελωλτλaer.
著者
FUDEYASU Hironori YOSHIDA Ryuji YAMAGUCHI Munehiko EITO Hisaki MUROI Chiashi NISHIMURA Syuji BESSHO Kotaro OIKAWA Yoshinori KOIDE Naohisa
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-004, (Released:2019-10-20)

This study investigated the characteristics and environmental conditions of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific from 2009 to 2017 that dissipated before reaching tropical storm strength (TDs) under unfavorable environmental conditions; we compared these with TCs that reached tropical storm strength (TSs) in terms of modulations of relevant large-scale flow patterns. The flow patterns were categorized based on five factors: shear line, confluence region, monsoon gyre, easterly waves, and Rossby wave energy dispersion from a preexisting cyclone. Among 476 cases, 263 TDs were detected using best-track data and early stage Dvorak analysis. The TCs in the environments associated with the confluence region or Rossby wave energy dispersion (easterly waves) tended to reach tropical storm strength (remain weak) compared with the other factors. The average locations of TDs at the time of cyclogenesis in the confluence region, monsoon gyre, and easterly waves (Rossby wave energy dispersion) in the summer and autumn were farther to the west (east and north) than those of TSs that exhibited the same factors. The environments around TDs were less favorable for development than those of TSs, as there were significant differences in atmospheric (oceanic) environmental parameters between TDs and TSs in the factors of confluence region, easterly waves, and Rossby wave energy dispersion (shear line, monsoon gyre, and Rossby wave energy dispersion). The environmental conditions for reaching tropical storm strength over their developing stage, using five factors, can be summarized as follows: higher tropical cyclone heat potential in the shear line and monsoon gyre, weak vertical shear in the confluence region, wet conditions in the easterly waves, and higher sea surface temperatures and an intense preexisting cyclone in Rossby wave energy dispersion from a preexisting cyclone.
著者
松川 哲美
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.6, pp.160-162, 1925-07-30 (Released:2009-02-05)
著者
VITANOVA Lidia Lazarova KUSAKA Hiroyuki DOAN Van Quang NISHI Akifumi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-013, (Released:2018-11-16)

This study investigates the impact of urbanization on surface air temperature and the urban heat island (UHI) for Sendai City. We estimate the impacts of the urbaniza-tion during the 150-year period by comparing the 1850s to the 2000s case. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with 1-km horizontal resolution and three land-use datasets, one for potential natural vegetation (PNV) data, the other two for realistic land-use data (the 1850s and 2000s). Results from the control simulation (2000s land-use case) are firstly verified against observations. The results show that the WRF model reasonably well reproduces the diurnal variation of the observed surface air temperatures in the 2000s land-use case at six stations in Miyagi prefecture. The model mean biases range from −0.29 to −1.18°C in August (10-year average) and from −0.44 to −1.50°C in February (10-year average). Secondly, the impacts of urbanization on the surface air temperature distribution in and around Sendai City are evaluated. In the 1850s land-use case, the very small urban area of Sendai City results in a negligible UHI. This case gives nearly the same surface air temperatures as experiments using the PNV. Comparing the simulated monthly mean surface air temperatures in the central part of Sendai City between the 1850s and 2000s land-use cases, we find that the monthly mean temperature for February in the 2000s is 1.40°C higher than that in the 1850s, whereas that for August is 1.30°C. Similarly, we find considerable nocturnal (1800–0500 JST) average surface air temperature increases of 2.20°C in February and 2.00°C in August.
著者
Kotaro BESSHO Kenji DATE Masahiro HAYASHI Akio IKEDA Takahito IMAI Hidekazu INOUE Yukihiro KUMAGAI Takuya MIYAKAWA Hidehiko MURATA Tomoo OHNO Arata OKUYAMA Ryo OYAMA Yukio SASAKI Yoshio SHIMAZU Kazuki SHIMOJI Yasuhiko SUMIDA Masuo SUZUKI Hidetaka TANIGUCHI Hiroaki TSUCHIYAMA Daisaku UESAWA Hironobu YOKOTA Ryo YOSHIDA
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, no.2, pp.151-183, 2016 (Released:2016-04-28)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
143 257

Himawari-8/9—a new generation of Japanese geostationary meteorological satellites-carry state-of-the-art optical sensors with significantly higher radiometric, spectral, and spatial resolution than those previously available in the geostationary orbit. They have 16 observation bands, and their spatial resolution is 0.5 or 1 km for visible and near-infrared bands and 2 km for infrared bands. These advantages, when combined with shortened revisit times (around 10 min for Full Disk and 2.5 min for sectored regions), provide new levels of capacity for the identification and tracking of rapidly changing weather phenomena and for the derivation of quantitative products. For example, fundamental cloud product is retrieved from observation data of Himawari-8 operationally. Based on the fundamental cloud product, Clear Sky Radiance and Atmospheric Motion Vector are processed for numerical weather prediction, and volcanic ash product and Aeolian dust product are created for disaster watching and environmental monitoring. Imageries from the satellites are distributed and disseminated to users via multiple paths, including Internet cloud services and communication satellite services.
著者
ITO Takahiro NISHIMOTO Shusuke KANEHISA Hirotada
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-055, (Released:2018-09-07)

In this study, we show analytically that vortex Rossby waves (VRWs) with azimuthal wavenumber m =1 in a basic axisymmetric vortex can grow exponentially in a quasi-geostrophic system, although they cannot do so in a barotropic system. VRWs grow exponentially if Rayleigh’s condition and Fjørtoft’s condition are satisfied. Satisfying Rayleigh’s condition means that two horizontally aligned VRWs at two different radii propagate (here and hereafter “propagate” refers to propagation relative to the fluid) azimuthally counter to each other. Satisfying Fjørtoft’s condition means that the cyclonic advective angular velocity of the basic vortex is distributed radially so as to enable the VRWs to be phase-locked with each other. Under these conditions, a strong mutual interaction between the VRWs becomes possible, and thus they grow exponentially. In a barotropic system, even if Rayleigh’s condition is satisfied, the azimuthal counter propagation of VRWs with azimuthal wavenumber m =1 is so strong that phase-locking between them cannot occur, and thus they cannot grow exponentially. In a quasi-geostrophic system, however, the upper and lower VRWs of the first baroclinic vertical mode are equal in magnitude and have opposite signs. Because of this baroclinic structure, the azimuthal counter propagation of the horizontally aligned VRWs is suppressed by the vertical interactions between the upper and lower VRWs. Consequently, horizontally aligned VRWs with azimuthal wavenumber m =1 may become phase-locked, and hence they may grow exponentially. By analytically solving the linear problem of VRWs in a quasi-geostrophic system, we show that this is indeed the case.