著者
陳 仲奇
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.149-170, 2001-03-31

The aim of this paper is to explain the complex mental structure of Shenxian theory (神仙節) in Taoism (道教) using spiritual historical analysis. Originally the primitive cult of immortality was seen in inland beliefs such as the Kunlun myth(崑崙神話). However, after f the Warring States Period in the middle of 4th century B. C., Haixian belief(海仙信仰) (e.g. the Legend of Penglai 蓬莱伝説) originated from countries in coastal areas, such as Qi (斉) and Chu(楚), and those beliefs became assimilated. Later, the Shenxian theory was supported by alchemy which was the high technology at that time and absorbed ancient Chinese folk beliefs, the Taoist school (道家) metaphysical views of nature alchemists' delusion of grandeur in the universe, tradition of techniques to attain Yangshenshu (養生術) since the Qin'Han(秦漢) dynasties, and outcomes of folk medicine. Then the eminent scholar GeHong (葛洪) in Eastern Jin(東晋) systematized and established the Shenxian theory. The Shenxian theory established by GeHong has theoretical and rationalistic tendencies. Especially the empirical and realistic thonght (that Shenxian is not innate but attained through trainings) and mundane spirit (seen in Dixian theory (地仙説) that Shenxian does not ascend heaven but stayed in this world for a long time) reflect the rationalistic and utilitarian values of traditional Chinese culture. From this perspective cultural characteristics of Taoism can be understood. The Shenxian belief(神仙信仰) for immortals was just a fantasy, but in that approach we see the Chinese active attitude toward nature. The theoretical foundation of Shenxian theory formed by GeHong was influenced by this anti-fatalistic natural philosophy. Compared with the Confucian (儒家) tradition, which is characterized by neglect of technology, awe of Heaven's will, respect for the teachings of ancestors and primary emphasis on texts the Shenxian theory in Taoism is unique.
著者
諏訪 淳一郎
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.133-146, 2003-03

Various researches in popular music studies and related areas have been discussing the correlation between pop music and violent behaviors. While this study finds ground in the both sides of arguments - music as the root of violent behavior of teenagers and music having nothing to do with violence - it focuses on where and how violent behavior and music meet to form a nexus of cultural context. A recent study on urban Papua New Guinea by Karl Neuenfeldt has made an account of "mayhem" took place in during a pop concert at Port Moresby Show in order to exemplify contemporary cultural complex of the country. This study takes advantage of the Neuenfeldt article to posit an argument on violence and music by taking three separate incidents of violence at outdoor music concerts from the Madang area, where the author conducted a field research between 1997 and 1998. Both in Port Moresby and Madang, the aspect of moral panic may involve micro-ethnic conflict, sexual attack, and quality and repertoire of musical performance. However, the cases from Madang reflect more rural context than Port Moresby in the sense that both musicians and audiences are grassroots, whereas in Port Moresby the musicians tend to be widely recognized social figures. Thus in the Madang area, the complex of violence and music is exemplary of cultural production of the grassroots. The nature of violence, aside from direct causes such as the alcohol or personal feud, exists in the ideological effect of 'addressing' of singing voices. The singing voice, which always follows the phonetics of native languages and Melanesian Pidgin in the case of grassroots pops, becomes subject to imagining who is singing. The worst, occasionally violent reaction, is the consequence of a "White men's song", which is either copy of Western pop or an original that makes use of hard rock-style complex chords or a slow tempo like rock ballad. A grassroots audience clearly imagines a non-Papua New Guinea face behind such a singing voice, even if the singer is a Papuan or Melanesian, and reacts with negative comment or violence. The sense of 'being made resonate' with the sound of White men's song leads grassroots audience to the feeling of alienation and deprivation of identity. In the cases of a denied romantic approach leading to sexual violence, which in one case resulted rape, listening to grassroots music that romanticizes local and lived spaces of life, such as a lover, surmounts the feeling of lack. Along with the beat of reggae that often incorporates words from local traditional dance, the grassroots music may alienate the audience by creating a feeling of loss, such as feeling that The voice that is singing, is not I.' Even if the music is sung in a pleasant voice, emotive contents, and played in a dancing rhythm, when it is felt as an addressing voice, it makes an awareness in the audience that he or she is not the one who is singing, or who is expressing feelings so deeply.
著者
小林 博
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.15-35, 2003-02-10

1. When we look back upon the recent years, the Japanese banks faced many events which were not thought of before such as (1)the collapses of several major banks (2)extremely severe and protracted bad loan problems (3)the consolidation among major banks forming four big financial groups and (4)the entrance to the banking industries by the non-financial corporations and the birth of the internet banks. 2. Public financial institutions which have long been criticized because of their size which is much larger than originally intended and their lending terms which are more favorable for the borrowers than those of commercial banks. Reform efforts of these institutions, especially the Postal Services Agency and the Government Housing Loan Corporation, are underway toward organizational restructuring and downsizing. 3. The results of the fiscal year ending in March 2002 of the Japanese banks deteriorated significantly. Net losses after-tax for all banks increased from 0.1 trillion yen of the previous year to 4.9 trillion yen. Main reasons for this heavy losses are (1)substantially increased credit costs due to the deflationary economic environment and strengthened loan classification by the banks and inspections of the Financial Services Agency (FSA) (2)large amount of write-off of equities under the low price level of the equity market. 4. The special inspection by the FSA had a significant effect on banks' financial results. However, special inspection covered only large, highly-indebted borrowers of the major banks representing only about 4 per cent of their total loans. More comprehensive and strict inspections are needed to recognize the true scale of bad loans of the Japanese banks as a whole. 5. Together with tackling the bad loan problems, the Japanese banks need to improve their profitability which is extremely low compared with those of the major banks of the U.S. and European countries. In order to achieve this goal, the Japanese banks need to make every effort to increase interest earnings and fee incomes. 6. At the end of July of this year, the Japanese government proposed that the government maintain full protection for non-interest bearing settlement account. However, this new proposal seem to serve to further delay the process of recovering by the Japanese banking system by allowing the weak institutions to stay in the market. 7. In summary, solving the bad loan problems, strengthening the profitability and the reform of the public financial institutions are three key factors for the future of the Japanese banks. In addition to the strenuous efforts by the banks themselves, the strong leadership of the Japanese government is inevitable including the overall reform of public financial institutions and the injections of the necessary public fund.
著者
兼本 雅章
雑誌
総合政策論叢
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.1, pp.47-80, 2015-03-15
著者
陳 仲奇
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.55-71, 2005-12

The thesis of this paper is based on the following hypothesis. Cultural communications between Japan and China are represented by words of the same characters in Japanese and Chinese. During the May 4th Era, China borrowed many new words from Japan. The majority of the new Japanese words, written in the same characters as Chinese, have been absorbed into the Chinese language and used by the Chinese in daily life without any sense of incongruity as if they were native Chinese words. However, some Japanese words with the same characters but different meanings have not been absorbed by Chinese society, as if the stones carried by the waves in the high tide were left scattered on the beach on the ebb tide, which may also be characteristic of the cultural communications between the two countries. The works of Luxun are representative of this. It is in the light of the original age of the particular works and the original language environment that the "marks" of cultural communications between the two countries can be understood and clarified. Only in this way can the wordings be analyzed. Through an analysis of Luxun's works in this may, many Japanese expressions were found.
著者
大橋 敏博
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.85-91, 2002-03-25

American Association of Fundraising Counsel estimated total charitable contributions in the United States of America at $203.45 billion for 2000, 2.0 percent of Gross Domestic Product. As for the corporate giving, total corporate charitable contributions were estimated to have been $10.86 billion in 2000, an increase of 12.1 percent over 1999. In the history of charitable contributions in the United States of America, the role of business corporations were not so important in amount owing to the doctrine of ultra vires. In the case of A.P. Smith MFG. CO. v. Barlow et al., Supreme Court of New Jersey declared that business corporation's contribution for general maintenance of privately supported educational institution was not an ultra vires act, and that corporate power to make reasonable charitable contributions existed under modern conditions. This was a turning point in the history of corporate charitable contributions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the case and the influences in the history of corporate charitable contributions.
著者
川中 淳子
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.1-14, 2003-08-22

The first study on school refusal was reported in the 1940's in America. In Japan, the first study on it was in 1959. Now about 45 years have passed and since then more than 1000 studies have been reported. Some of these refer to self help groups for parents of school refusal children. Now self help groups have been held in all parts of Japan. It is said that these groups have a supportive effect. So this paper reviews these reports and studies, such groups' significance, problems of the preceding studies, and so on. Further, I report the result of my interview with representatives of the self help group. Significance of self help groups for parents is being able to make company, being free from feeling isolation, exchange information and learn school refusal problem. A problem of preceding studies is lack of reference to the danger of the groups.
著者
横田 禎昭
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.71-78, 2003-03-28

The Shajing (沙井) culture is named for the Shajing site in Minqin (民勤) xian of Kansu (甘粛) province where it was first discovered in 1924, by J.G.Andersson. The Shajing culture graves were discovered in Yulingou (楡樹溝), Yongdeng xian; Sanjiao-cheng (三角城), Hamadun (蛤蟆〓), Yong-chang xian in Kansu province, and Hoxi-Corridor in Qilian (祁連) mountains and Badanjilin (巴丹吉林) Desert. Many bronze and a few iron wares buried with them were also found. Those bronze wares are accessories such as tubular ornaments, belt buckles, buttons, knives, pendants and golden-ear rings. They are animal-styles and common in Northan (Ordos) Bronze Culture. It also shows their kinships and culture fostered by the mounted nomads in North Eurasia, especially in South Siberia. The carbon-dated (estimated age) for Shajing Culture is around B.C.1300-B.C, 789. That is at the late stage of the Yin (殷) Dynasty or at the beginning of Western Zhou (西周) to Spring and Autumn (春秋) period. From the age, the distribution of the area can be inferred that the Shajing culture belongs to the ancient Yuezhi (月氏) nationality.
著者
謝 富勝 張 忠任
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.123-132, 2004-03-16

Investment in technological innovation (ITI) plays an important role in the process of economic development in China. The paper explores and illustrates mainly ITI's characteristics and tendency as well as questions, such as; (1)ITI had made vital contribution in the process of economic development in China, But that the percentage of ITI to total investment in fixed assets (TIFA) is falling continuously expresses that the policy of science and technology in China should be rectified. (2)The percentage of central ITI is increasing from the perspective of the percentage of central and local ITI, but the percentage of local ITI remains 60 percent, so the local ITI should be emphasized in the future. (3)Enterprise's fund-raising is in the highest flight from the perspective of the percentage of central and local ITI, so it is necessary to adjust the enterprise's policy of science and technology in China. (4)The percentage of privately-owned ITI is increasing constantly, but the percentage of public-owned ITI remains 55 percent, so the future adjustment of the policy of science and technology in China should focus more on privately-owned ITI. (5)During 20 years from the Fourth 5-year Plan to the Seventh 5-year Plan, the East are increasing constantly and the West lowest and the Middle reducing constantly in the percentage of ITI. All regions are falling from the perspective of per capita ITI, but the highest is the West and the lowest the East, for which involved the formation of social capital. To the West, it would be the investment in capital construction that should be emphasized rather than ITI.
著者
尹 芝恵
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.73-89, 2005-12

In the course of the resumption of friendly relations between Japan and Korea after Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion of the Korean Peninsula, a delegation was instituted. The Korean delegation consisted of 400 to 500 people including three main ambassadors, official painters, medical doctors, translators and Band musicians, etc. The delegation visited Japan 12 times between 1607 and 1811. This 200-year-long cultural exchange between Korea and the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan produced in both countries many kinds of pictures which related to the delegation. Some of which were pictures produced by the members of the Embassy and others were by Japanese painters. For example, we can classify these pictures according to the following themes: the magnificent parade of Korean members either by ship or on foot, the welcome-parties with Japanese hospitality and the portraits of the representative ambassadors. As time passed during the Tokugawa shogunate, the people in the Edo period grew richer and more refined, and became more interested in the Korean delegation. Ukiyo-e artists designed illustrated narrative books and published them. It is said that, for the Tokugawa shogunate, the Korean delegation was a symbolic medium to show how international the Tokugawa shogunate was. In this respect, very skillful painters in the Edo period were officially employed and maintained by the shogun. But the Ukiyo-e artists were designed and printed based on entertainment for the ordinary people of that time. I will focus on the Band musicians represented in folding screens, roll screens, and Ukiyo-e etc. The reason for this is that the images of the Band musicians were transformed. They were louder than reality. But the deformation shows strong the impression given to the public. And, at the same time, it also shows the image of aliens which the public also expected.
著者
豊田 有恒
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.27-41, 2004-03-16

The development of nuclear energy was started from military use. The result was tested unfortunately on those cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After the world -war II, the U.S. President Eisenhower declared "Atoms for Peace". But the following development was not for peace but for military affairs. In Britain they developed a new-type atomic pile, so-called GCR (Gas Coolant Reactor). That could produce Plutonium for atomic bombs. In America Admiral Recover adopted nuclear energy for submarine. The first nuclear submarine "Nautilus" was launched in early 1950s. The Other three countries France, Soviet Russia and China developed atomic bombs. And thus five big countries which own their atomic weapons, ruled the world for the past century. There were regimes to stop atomic bombs to proliferate to the other countries. I.A.E.A. (International Atomic Energy Agency) was founded on 1956. But I.A.E.A. had not enough power to prohibit nuclear development. So, the next step to restrict nuclear development was decided. It was N.P.T. (Non-Proliferation Treaty) From the end of the last century to the beginning of the new century, a new crisis happened. That is the North-Korean nukes.
著者
八田 典子
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.143-172, 2004-12

The purpose of this study is to deliberate the commitment of "place" to the birth and the appreciation of art works with special attention to the "site-specific art." "Site-specific" is a keyword which describes a trend of contemporary arts connected deeply with the place. Chapter I examines the basic relationships between contemporary art and society by noting an increasing power of individuals. Chapter II reveals the importance of the issue of "place" in art studies by referring to the rock-paintings in caves in prehistoric times and to the system of museum. Chapter III focuses upon the significance of the last masterpieces of Claude Monet, namely "Les salles des Nympheas au musee de l'Orangerie (The Rooms of Water Lilies in the Orangerie Museum), " from a new viewpoint of the "environmental art" that is one of the concepts of contemporary art. Chapter IV emphasizes the resurrection of "place" in the field of art, which is exemplified by five trends of "site-specific art" since 1960s, i.e. the "environmental art, " the "public art, " the "earth work, " the "installation, " and the "art project." In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the following three points. Firstly, art has a close connection with particular place intrinsically. "Site-specific" is, indeed, the keyword that expresses it. Secondly, it is indicated that the "art project" is the newest art expression that has integrated several trends of "site-specific art" since 1960s. On the other hand, some problems of the "art project" are also pointed out. Thirdly, the "site-specific art" has essentially the nature of "off-museum." It suggests that the system of museum has a serious influence upon art expressions.