著者
渡辺 和子
出版者
リトン
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.167-180, 2016-03-31
著者
前川 美行
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報 = Annual of the institute of thanatology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.187-206, 2014-03-31

In this paper, the author discusses “Gakkou no Kwaidan” in relation to the psychological development of schoolchildren. Originally, “Gakkou no Kwaidan” were tales of the supernatural circulated by word of mouth among schoolchildren. After Toru Tsunemitsu, a junior-high-school teacher, collected and edited them into a book in 1990, a boom of new “Gakkou no Kwaidan” publications arose and continued through the 1990s. The author points out, however, that the boom of newly published tales reduced school children’s primitive power of narrating these stories themselves.In this article, the original tales of the supernatural in school, “Gakkou no Kwaidan” will be the focus. Why do children tell “Gakkou no Kwaidan?” Why do they like narrating the tales? The author explains two reasons for this. The first is from the viewpoint of “the sense of self” in childhood, and the second is from the viewpoint of the special space of school where children are experiencing life together.First, many researchers in developmental and clinical psychology have stressed a turning point in an 8-10 year old child’s sense of self. It is a fundamental restructuring of the self. After that occurs, they begin to be aware of the existence of “another me” (an objective self) in themselves. The author proposes that sometimes this can emerge in a mysterious and/or supernatural form.Furthermore, the author explains the significance of the power of narration. Children experience various feelings in school life such as delight, happiness, sadness, distress, rage, loneliness and so on. Unfortunately, there is also severe bullying at some schools that many children go through which can wound them deeply. In this case, narrating tales of the supernatural in school can give children reassurance, and has a great power to bring peace to 206 them and others who have been injured. In other words, the narration of such stories could be seen as a requiem of sorts.In conclusion, the author emphasizes the power of narrating “Gakkou no Kwaidan” and people should be careful not to underestimate or reduce the positive power this may have for children.
著者
島薗 進
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.103-128, 2007-03-31

In rationalizing the approval of scientific research on human embryos, comparisons to abortion are often brought up. In discussing the bioethical question concerning “life’s beginning,” we note that, since 1960 in both Europe and America, the debate surrounding the morality of abortion has been carried on with battle-like intensity. And the accumulated debate points have determined the general scheme of the public understanding of the issue. In short, the focus of that debate centers on whether or not embryos and fetuses a human life forms (life as individuated human beings) worthy of the highest level of respect.In Japan, the debate over this issue has not been very lively and, in fact, there the issue is not taken to be one with any definite significance. One reason for this is that among those supporting abortion rights in Japan there is also concern for the things being emphasized by the community of persons with disabilities. On the one hand, within anti-abortion groups in Japan, there are some who have not developed powerful oppositional movements such as those of religious organizations like the Catholic Church.Although the commandment that “one must not kill humans without just cause” is acknowledged in Buddhism, Shinto, and Confucianism as well as in Japanese folk culture, rhetoric explaining the foundation for this belief differs greatly from that found in the western Christian cultural sphere. In this way, a religious culture different from western Christian thought exists in Japan, and when the notion of “dignity of human life” is used in Japan, it reflects a religious culture with different nuances than those evoked in the West. With view to the difference of religious culture between the West and Japan, the author proposes to use the concept of “the dignity of coexisting 128 life” in considering the reasons that we must refrain from the use of human embryos. This was an attempt to liberate the values and spirituality that accompany the idea of “dignity of human life” from the notion of respect for the human as an individual. Presently, the fact that differences in value systems and spirituality in relation to “human dignity” have a large influence on bioethical considerations is causing apprehension. Because cultures are different, great differences in the judgment of individual problems arise, and the number of such problems that must be solved is considerable. If so, it could be said that we are coming to a point where we must seek out some understanding based on a standard shared by all of us in the human race. The value systems and notions of spirituality based in particular religious cultures confront one another and are based in diversity. We must work hard to advance the dialogue between different cultures in order to reach agreements on various issues of bioethics.
著者
前川 美行
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報
巻号頁・発行日
pp.187-206, 2014

In this paper, the author discusses "Gakkou no Kwaidan" in relation to the psychological development of schoolchildren. Originally, "Gakkou no Kwaidan" were tales of the supernatural circulated by word of mouth among schoolchildren. After Toru Tsunemitsu, a junior-high-school teacher, collected and edited them into a book in 1990, a boom of new "Gakkou no Kwaidan" publications arose and continued through the 1990s. The author points out, however, that the boom of newly published tales reduced school children's primitive power of narrating these stories themselves.In this article, the original tales of the supernatural in school, "Gakkou no Kwaidan" will be the focus. Why do children tell "Gakkou no Kwaidan?" Why do they like narrating the tales? The author explains two reasons for this. The first is from the viewpoint of "the sense of self" in childhood, and the second is from the viewpoint of the special space of school where children are experiencing life together.First, many researchers in developmental and clinical psychology have stressed a turning point in an 8-10 year old child's sense of self. It is a fundamental restructuring of the self. After that occurs, they begin to be aware of the existence of "another me" (an objective self) in themselves. The author proposes that sometimes this can emerge in a mysterious and/or supernatural form.Furthermore, the author explains the significance of the power of narration. Children experience various feelings in school life such as delight, happiness, sadness, distress, rage, loneliness and so on. Unfortunately, there is also severe bullying at some schools that many children go through which can wound them deeply. In this case, narrating tales of the supernatural in school can give children reassurance, and has a great power to bring peace to 206 them and others who have been injured. In other words, the narration of such stories could be seen as a requiem of sorts.In conclusion, the author emphasizes the power of narrating "Gakkou no Kwaidan" and people should be careful not to underestimate or reduce the positive power this may have for children.
著者
古川 のり子
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2009, pp.129-147, 2009

In the rituals of weddings and funerals, the central figure (the bride or the deceased) wears special headgear. In the case of a bride, it is the traditional Japanese tsunokakushi (literally, "horn concealer"), and wataboshi (cotton hood), and in the case of the deceased, the kamieboshi (paper hat), which in ancient times was often a mino-kasa (straw raincoat with hat). Figures wearing such gear include the princess in the story Hachikazuki (The Princess Who Wore a Bowl) in Otogizoshi, the girl wearing a skin in the folktale Ubakawa (Old Woman's Skin), the boy covered with a snail shell in Tanishi Musuko (The Mud-snail Son), and references to fukurogo (babies born with cauls) in indigenous folklore, and the girl wandering around with a bag in the folktale Komebuku Awabuku; and this sort of figure can also be seen in Okuninushi no Kami (The God, Great-Land-Master), who carries a bag on his back in an ancient myth. They are all going through rites of passage that represent rebirth, undergoing a transformation hin the object that covers them and waiting to be born. The bag, bowl, skin, snail shell, mino-kasa, tsunokakushi, wataboshi, kamieboshi, and the like, are "cauls" destined eventually to be cast off. The person who discards them, after the arduous journey of death in the mother's womb, is then born into this world as a baby, or as a mature adult, or as a wife in her husband's family, or is born into a new world as a god of the hereafter. The dead who become gods of that world will one day be born into this world, again wearing a caul.
著者
福田 周
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報 = Annual of the institute of thanatology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.207-236, 2014-03-31

In this article, the process of psychological recovery from trauma caused by a major earthquake through the use of namazu (gigantic catfish) drawings (called namazue in Japanese) is examined. Namazue can bee seen in the tile block print pictures found in kawaraban, newspapers of the Tokugawa Period, several of which were published around the time of the Great Ansei Earthquake (1855) which struck Edo (Tokyo) at the end of the Edo Period.Ordinary people in Edo used catfish to symbolize the damage caused by the earthquake and their feelings toward it. According to Komatsu (1995), they were able to reduce their earthquake-related fear and anxiety through namazue. Komatsu classified the psychological modification process of the images of namazue into four categories: a) Direct expression, b) Imagery representing cursing, c) Personified and ambiguous images, and d) Images of recovery.This process is then compared with that of post-traumatic play therapy. Using a drawing of one elementary school student who suffered from a recent earthquake experience as an example, the same self-healing process of creating images of namazue can be seen.In conclusion, for reconstruction in the disaster area of the Great East Japan Earthquake to proceed, the author recommends that: 1) people should be mindful of the potential psychological effects that namazue may have on psychological recovery from trauma; 2) people should trust their own, innate human power of recovery; and 3) an environment should be created in which the psychological recovery process can proceed smoothly.
著者
髙井 啓介
出版者
リトン
雑誌
死生学年報
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89-104, 2015