著者
Ryugo S. HAYANO Masaharu TSUBOKURA Makoto MIYAZAKI Hideo SATOU Katsumi SATO Shin MASAKI Yu SAKUMA
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.6, pp.211-213, 2014-06-11 (Released:2014-06-11)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
3 5

Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys covering over 93% of the school children between the ages of 6 and 15 in Miharu town, Fukushima Prefecture, have been conducted for three consecutive years, in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Although the results of a questionnaire indicate that approximately 60% of the children have been regularly eating local or home-grown rice, in 2012 and 2013 no child was found to exceed the 137Cs detection limit of 300 Bq/body.
著者
Hiromi NAKANISHI Atsushi MORI Kouki TAKEDA Houdo TANAKA Natsuko KOBAYASHI Keitaro TANOI Takashi YAMAKAWA Satoshi MORI
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.91, no.4, pp.160-174, 2015-04-10 (Released:2015-04-10)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
3 10

Six months after the explosion of TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, radioactive silver (110mAg), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas 110mAg in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher 110mAg in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of 110mAg detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that 110mAg was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain. The factors affecting the subsequent rapid decline of 110mAg concentration in faunal species are discussed.
著者
Yoshiyuki TATSUMI Keiko SUZUKI-KAMATA
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.9, pp.347-352, 2014-11-11 (Released:2014-11-11)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1 11

The Japanese Archipelago is characterized by active volcanism with variable eruption styles. The magnitude (M)-frequency relationships of catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions (M ≥ 7) are statistically different from those of smaller eruptions (M ≤ 5.7), suggesting that different mechanisms control these eruptions. We also find that volcanoes prone to catastrophic eruptions are located in regions of low crustal strain rate (<0.5 × 108/y) and propose, as one possible mechanism, that the viscous silicic melts that cause such eruptions can be readily segregated from the partially molten lower crust and form a large magma reservoir in such a tectonic regime. Finally we show that there is a ∼1% probability of a catastrophic eruption in the next 100 years based on the eruption records for the last 120 ky. More than 110 million people live in an area at risk of being covered by tephra >20 cm thick, which would severely disrupt every day life, from such an eruption on Kyushu Island, SW Japan.
著者
深沢 克己
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
日本學士院紀要 (ISSN:03880036)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.1, pp.1-25, 2020 (Released:2020-11-13)

I. Introduction: the Japan Academy and Freemasonry Freemasonry, though not well known to Japanese people, is an initiatic society which has played an important part in the formation of modern Occidental civilization since the eighteenth century. So that historical connections are not absent between this fraternal association and the Japan Academy. Firstly, two of the founding members of the Academy, Amane Nishi and Mamichi Tsuda, had been initiated into Freemasonry at Leiden as early as 1864. Secondly, its equivalent in the United Kingdom being the Royal Society of London, the Japan Academy developed exchange, notably after the Second World War, with this British institution whose close relations with Freemasonry were known since its foundation in 1660, starting with Elias Ashmole and Sir Robert Moray. Lastly, just as the Japan Academy maintains intimate relations with the Imperial House, so British Freemasonry has been placed under the protection of the royal family since the early nineteenth century. All this justifies the subject of the present paper.(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)
著者
樋口 陽一
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
日本學士院紀要 (ISSN:03880036)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.2, pp.103-120, 2021 (Released:2021-02-20)

Propos introductif KIYOMIYA (1898-1989) et MIYAZAWA (1899-1976), les deux disciples représentatifs de MINOBE Tatsukichi (1873-1948), fondateur de la doctrine de constitutionnalisme au Japon I. Dans le année 1920-30 : théories critiques chez Kiyomiya et Miyazawa inspirées, l'un et l'autre, par la théorie pure du droit de Hans Kelsen 1. Ce que signifie la théorie pure du droit : «Reine Rechtslehre ist keine Rechtslehre» ? S'agit-il d'une «rechtsleere Rechtslehre» ? 2. Analyse d'interrogation par Kiyomiya ainsi que par Miyazawa à l'encontre des doctrines qui leur précédaient : les deux articles, parus dans les Mélanges offerts en l'honneur de Minobe (1934), l'un par Kiyomiya sur la possibilité logique de «lex posterior non derogat priori» et l'autre par Miyazawa sur le caractère fictif et idéologique de la notion de «représentation nationale». 3. Suite et développement : die «Grundnorm» non plus comme «vorausgesetzte », mais en tant que droit positif pour Kiyomiya, et le cours inaugural de Miyazawa comme successeur de la chaire de Minobe où il s'identifie, en invoquant Auguste Comte, à la troisième et dernière phase du développement du savoir. 4. Affaire de la doctrine de l'Empreur organe de l'Etat et prise de position de Miyazawa pour la défense de la liberté académique, tout en distinguant la doctrine préscriptive d'avec la théorie descriptive.(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)
著者
Naoki KANEKO Rie YAMAMOTO Taka-Aki SATO Koichi TANAKA
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.3, pp.104-117, 2014-03-11 (Released:2014-03-11)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
10 33 1

Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase leads to the generation and deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). N-terminally or C-terminally truncated Aβ variants have been found in human cerebrospinal fluid and cultured cell media using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the profile of plasma Aβ variants has not been revealed due to the difficulty of isolating Aβ from plasma. We present here for the first time studies of Aβ and related peptides in human plasma. Twenty-two Aβ-related peptides including novel peptides truncated before the β-secretase site were detected in human plasma and 20 of the peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Using an internal standard, we developed a quantitative assay for the Aβ-related peptides and demonstrated plasma dilution linearity and the precision required for their quantitation. The present method should enhance the understanding of APP processing and clearance in AD progression.
著者
Naoki KANEKO Akinori NAKAMURA Yukihiko WASHIMI Takashi KATO Takashi SAKURAI Yutaka ARAHATA Masahiko BUNDO Akinori TAKEDA Shumpei NIIDA Kengo ITO Kenji TOBA Koichi TANAKA Katsuhiko YANAGISAWA
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.9, pp.353-364, 2014-11-11 (Released:2014-11-11)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
8 67

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common and devastating dementia. Simple and practical biomarkers for AD are urgently required for accurate diagnosis and to facilitate the development of disease-modifying interventions. The subjects for the study were selected on the basis of PiB amyloid imaging by PET. Forty PiB-positive (PiB+) individuals, including cognitively healthy controls (HC), and mild cognitive impairment and AD individuals, and 22 PiB-negative (PiB−) HC participated. Employing our novel highly sensitive immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry, we measured plasma amyloid β-proteins (Aβs; Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42) and Aβ-approximate peptides (AβAPs), which were cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP). Among the AβAPs, APP669-711 appeared to be a good reference for deciphering pathological change of Aβ1-42. We evaluated the performance of the ratio of APP669-711 to Aβ1-42 (APP669-711/Aβ1-42) as a biomarker. APP669-711/Aβ1-42 significantly increased in the PiB+ groups. The sensitivity and specificity to discriminate PiB+ individuals from PiB− individuals were 0.925 and 0.955, respectively. Our plasma biomarker precisely surrogates cerebral amyloid deposition.
著者
Akihito
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.3, pp.143-146, 2010 (Released:2010-03-13)
被引用文献数
1

(Communicated by Koichiro TSUNEWAKI, M.J.A.)
著者
塩野 宏
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
日本學士院紀要 (ISSN:03880036)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.2, pp.81-101, 2021 (Released:2021-02-20)

The history of the Japan Academy goes back to the Tokyo Academy that was founded in 1879, up to ten years before the establishment of the Meiji Constitution (1889). When it was founded, it had Western academies as its model. After that it became the Imperial Academy in 1906 through its reorganization under the Meiji Constitution, and carried out activities within the country as an academy, and it also joined the Internationale Assoziation der Akademien (International Association of Academies) in the same year. Under the Constitution of Japan established after World War II (1946), the Science Council of Japan was set up as an institution representing Japan’s scientists in and out of the country. With this, the Imperial Academy was renamed as the Japan Academy and placed within the Science Council of Japan. After that the Japan Academy Act was established, and the Japan Academy drew away from the Science Council and became an independent institution for the preferential treatment of especially accomplished scientists, and it has carried on like this until today. According to the Japan Academy Act, the Academy aims to not only give privileges to scientists, but to also carry out work that is necessary for contributing to the development of science. As part of the international exchange of science, they have joined the Union Académique Internationale (which will henceforth be shortened to “UAI”) and have held the UAI General Assembly in Tokyo in 2017. (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)
著者
塩野 宏
出版者
日本学士院
雑誌
日本學士院紀要 (ISSN:03880036)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.1-33, 2008
被引用文献数
1