Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance, has been described as a chronic acquired disorder characterized by nonspecific symptoms in multiple organ systems and is associated with exposure to low-level chemicals. The name was established by Cullen, in 1987, although the name and diagnostic criteria are still under debate even now. A number of hypotheses concering the etiology and pathogenesis of MCS have been proposed, including impairmens of neurological, immunological and psychological systems. However, research on the possible mechanisms underlying MCS is far from complete. The name and diagnostic criteria of its history as well as theoretical and experimental mechanisms underlying MCS are reviewed here.