著者
林田 賢史 村上 玄樹 高橋 裕子 辻 一郎 今中 雄一
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.50-55, 2012 (Released:2012-03-07)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 1

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine which of the two groups have higher lifetime medical expenditures; male smokers or male nonsmokers. We conducted this investigation using a Japanese single cohort database to calculate long-term medical expenditures and 95% confidence intervals. Methods: We first constructed life tables for male smokers and male nonsmokers from the age of 40 years after analyzing their mortality rates. Next, we calculated the average annual medical expenditures of each of the two groups, categorized into survivors and deceased. Finally, we calculated long-term medical expenditures and performed sensitivity analyses. Results: The results showed that although smokers had generally higher annual medical expenditures than nonsmokers, the former’s lifetime medical expenditure was slightly lower than the latter’s because of a shorter life expectancy that resulted from a higher mortality rate. Sensitivity analyses did not reverse the order of the two lifetime medical expenditures. Conclusions: In conclusion, although smoking may not result in an increase in lifetime medical expenditures, it is associated with diseases, decreased life expectancy, lower quality of life (QOL), and generally higher annual medical expenditures. It is crucial to promote further tobacco control strategically by maximizing the use of available data.
著者
加藤 貴彦
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.1, pp.1-8, 2018 (Released:2018-01-31)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
4

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance, has been described as a chronic acquired disorder characterized by nonspecific symptoms in multiple organ systems and is associated with exposure to low-level chemicals. The name was established by Cullen, in 1987, although the name and diagnostic criteria are still under debate even now. A number of hypotheses concering the etiology and pathogenesis of MCS have been proposed, including impairmens of neurological, immunological and psychological systems. However, research on the possible mechanisms underlying MCS is far from complete. The name and diagnostic criteria of its history as well as theoretical and experimental mechanisms underlying MCS are reviewed here.
著者
袁 軍 世良 耕一郎 高辻 俊宏
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.2, pp.149-160, 2015 (Released:2015-05-21)
参考文献数
16

Objective: To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Methods: The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. Results: 134Cs and 137Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that 134Cs and 137Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when 134Cs and 137Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios (134Cs/137Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the 134Cs and 137Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. Conclusion: It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.
著者
鈴木 越治 小松 裕和 頼藤 貴志 山本 英二 土居 弘幸 津田 敏秀
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.786-795, 2009 (Released:2009-10-02)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
2 1

A central problem in natural science is identifying general laws of cause and effect. Medical science is devoted to revealing causal relationships in humans. The framework for causal inference applied in epidemiology can contribute substantially to clearly specifying and testing causal hypotheses in many other areas of biomedical research. In this article, we review the importance of defining explicit research hypotheses to make valid causal inferences in medical studies. In the counterfactual model, a causal effect is defined as the contrast between an observed outcome and an outcome that would have been observed in a situation that did not actually happen. The fundamental problem of causal inference should be clear; individual causal effects are not directly observable, and we need to find general causal relationships, using population data. Under an “ideal” randomized trial, the assumption of exchangeability between the exposed and the unexposed groups is met; consequently, population-level causal effects can be estimated. In observational studies, however, there is a greater risk that the assumption of conditional exchangeability may be violated. In summary, in this article, we highlight the following points: (1) individual causal effects cannot be inferred because counterfactual outcomes cannot, by definition, be observed; (2) the distinction between concepts of association and concepts of causation and the basis for the definition of confounding; (3) the importance of elaborating specific research hypotheses in order to evaluate the assumption of conditional exchangeability between the exposed and unexposed groups; (4) the advantages of defining research hypotheses at the population level, including specification of a hypothetical intervention, consistent with the counterfactual model. In addition, we show how understanding the counterfactual model can lay the foundation for correct interpretation of epidemiologic evidence.
著者
西田 圭吾
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.3, pp.145-152, 2013 (Released:2013-09-28)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
2 2

Zinc (Zn) is essential for normal cell structure and physiology. Its deficiency causes growth retardation, neuronal degeneration, and immunodeficiency. Zn homeostasis is tightly controlled through Zn transporters and metallothioneins, which regulate Zn concentration and Zn distribution in individual cells, and contributes to Zn-binding protein in cells. Although many molecules involved in these processes have Zn-binding motifs, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Zn in the immune system have not been clarified. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated that Zn plays diverse and specific roles in vivo and in vitro, in studies on the genetic knockout of Zn transporter functions. In this review, we discuss the impact of Zn on mast cell-mediated allergy and T cell-mediated immune responses. We also describe Zn dysregulation as a leading health problem in allergy and immune responses.
著者
加藤 貴彦 藤原 悠基 中下 千尋 盧 渓 久田 文 宮崎 航 東 賢一 谷川 真理 内山 巌雄 欅田 尚樹
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.94-99, 2016 (Released:2016-01-30)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
1 2

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is an acquired chronic disorder characterized by nonspecific symptoms in multiple organ systems associated with exposure to low-level chemicals. Diagnosis of MCS can be difficult because of the inability to assess the causal relationship between exposure and symptoms. No standardized objective measures for the identification of MCS and no precise definition of this disorder have been established. Recent technological advances in mass spectrometry have significantly improved our capacity to obtain more data from each biological sample. Metabolomics comprises the methods and techniques that are used to determine the small-level molecules in biofluids and tissues. The metabolomic profile—the metabolome—has multiple applications in many biological sciences, including the development of new diagnostic tools for medicine. We performed metabolomics to detect the difference between 9 patients with MCS and 9 controls. We identified 183 substances whose levels were beyond the normal detection limit. The most prominent differences included significant increases in the levels of both hexanoic acid and pelargonic acid, and also a significant decrease in the level of acetylcarnitine in patients with MCS. In conclusion, using metabolomics analysis, we uncovered a hitherto unrecognized alteration in the levels of metabolites in MCS. These changes may have important biological implications and may have a significant potential for use as biomarkers.
著者
稲葉 洋平 大久保 忠利 杉田 和俊 内山 茂久 緒方 裕光 欅田 尚樹
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.1, pp.31-38, 2014 (Released:2014-01-29)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 1

Objective: To determine constituents of fillers and mainstream smoke from Neo Cedar. Methods: Neo Cedar is a second-class over-the-counter (OTC) drug and similar to cigarettes in a number of ways. In particular, the design and usage are very similar to those of cigarettes. For the fillers of the drug, the levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and heavy metals, and mutagenicity were determined using the methods for cigarette products. For the mainstream smoke, the levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO), TSNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and carbonyl compounds were also determined using the methods for cigarettes. The mainstream smoke from the drug were collected with a smoking machine using two smoking protocols (ISO and Health Canada Intense methods). Results: The nicotine and total TSNA levels in the fillers of the drug averaged 2.86 mg/g and 185 ng/g, respectively. The nine species of heavy metals were also detected in the fillers of the drug. The levels of nicotine, tar, CO, TSNA, PAH, and carbonyl compounds of mainstream smoke from the drug were higher when determined using the HCI regime than when using the ISO regime. The mutagenicity of the mainstream smoke determined using the HCI regime was also higher than that determined using the ISO regime. Conclusion: In this study, all constituents of Neo Cedar were determined by methods for cigarette products. The drug had a ventilation hole on its filter. Thus, its constituents are different from those determined by the smoking protocols. Neo Cedar users should be careful of higher exposure to the hazardous gases owing to smoking patterns.
著者
高木 祐介 和久利 久 小野寺 昇 小野 ミツ
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.4, pp.704-710, 2011 (Released:2011-10-12)
参考文献数
39

Objectives: There are several recommendations on the prevention of hypothermia during snow shoveling. However, there seemed to be insufficient evidence supporting these recommendations because they are not based on data from actual snow shoveling research. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in brain temperature (tympanic temperature) and visceral temperature (rectal temperature) during snow shoveling among healthy young males. Methods: Eight healthy young males (age, 23.6 ± 2.4 years; weight, 69.7 ± 6.1 kg; height, 172.8 ± 7.3 cm) performed snow shoveling with an ordinary-size shovel for 15 min at their own pace in a rural snowfall area in December, 2009. Rectal temperature (Tre) and tympanic temperature (Tty) were measured 5 times (at rest, 5th (Ex5), 10th (Ex10), and 15th (Ex15) minute of snow shoveling; and 5th (Rec5) minute of recovery phase). The room temperature was 18.6 ± 0.7°C and the atmospheric temperature was 3.8 ± 2.6°C. Results: Tre continued to increase from at rest to Ex15. Tre at Ex15 (37.7 ± 0.3°C) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that at rest (37.2 ± 0.3°C). Tty at rest (36.7 ± 0.2°C) and Tty at Ex5 (36.6 ± 0.3°C) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at Ex10 (36.2 ± 0.6°C). A significant negative correlation between changes in Tre and Tty were observed during snow shoveling (r = -0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Discrepancy between changes in brain temperature (tympanic temperature) and visceral temperature (rectal temperature) should be taken into consideration in the prevention of disease development during snow shoveling in a cold environment.
著者
蓑原 美奈恵 伊藤 宜則 大谷 元彦 佐々木 隆一郎 青木 國雄
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.607-615, 1988
被引用文献数
6 2

一地域住民38歳&sim;84歳の924名のうち,味質脱失者19名を除いた905名を対象とし,滴下法を用いて味覚検査を行った。味質は甘味:精製白糖,塩味:塩化ナトリウム,酸味:酒石酸,苦味:塩酸キニーネの4種に限定し,以下の結果をえた。<br>味覚識別能は4基本味質のいずれも,女性が男性より敏感に識別していた。また,男女とも味覚識別能検査値は,70歳代で最も鈍化し,80歳代ではやや敏感になる傾向など,加齢による変化を認めた。<br>また,総入歯群と義歯なし群や部分入歯群とを比較したが,義歯の状態による味覚識別能に対する影響は認めなかった。<br>喫煙による味覚識別能の影響は,喫煙量(本/日)の増加にともない,男女とも味覚識別能が鈍くなる傾向にあり,味覚識別能における性差は無くなった。塩味,酸味の識別能は喫煙量の増加にともない,男性が女性より敏感に識別し,性差が逆転したが,喫煙量の増加に従い鈍化する傾向は一致した。<br>さらに,味覚識別能に影響を認めた性,年齢を考慮した多変量解析を行った結果,喫煙量の増加にともない味覚識別能は鈍くなる量-反応関係が明らかとなった。その影響の強さは,苦味,酸味,塩味,甘味の順であった。
著者
石竹 達也
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.3, pp.298-304, 2018 (Released:2018-09-29)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

We investigated whether long-term exposure to low-frequency noise generated by wind power facilities is a risk factor for sleep disorders. We performed an epidemiological study of the living environment and health effects of such noise by surveying 9,000 residents (≥20 years of age) living in areas with operational wind power facilities. Sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. To assess environmental noise in residential areas near wind turbines, infrasound and low-frequency sound exposure levels were measured at 50 community centers of a town. The prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher among residents who reported subjectively hearing noise (by approximately twofold) than among those who did not. Moreover, the reported prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher (by approximately twofold) among residents living at a distance of ≤1,500 m from the nearest wind turbine than among residents living at a distance of ≥2,000 m, suggesting a dose-response relationship. The attitudes of residents towards wind power facilities strongly affected their responses regarding sleep disorder prevalence. It is highly likely that audible noise generated by wind power facilities is a risk factor for sleep disorders. Obtaining a satisfactory consensus from local residents before installing wind power facilities is important as for more amenable their attitudes towards such facilities.
著者
杉山 登志郎
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.1, pp.62-66, 2018 (Released:2018-01-31)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1

The author describes ego-state therapy. This psychotherapy is used for treating multiple personality disorders. The author mentions the theoretical background of this method, and practical points. Initially, ego-state therapy was developed as a type of hypnotherapy, but it evolved as a safe therapeutic method in combination with trauma processing therapies. The author presents a case study, and discusses the clinical significance of this treatment.
著者
西岡 笑子
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.2, pp.178-184, 2018 (Released:2018-05-31)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 2

In this paper, we describe the historical transition of sexuality education in Japan and the direction of sexuality education taken by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Reproductive health/rights, a key concept in sex education, is also discussed. In Japanese society, discussion on sexuality has long been considered taboo. After the Second World War, sexuality education in Japan began as “purity education.” From 1960 until the early 1970s, physical aspects such as genital organs, function, secondary sexual characteristics, and gender differences were emphasized. Comprehensive education as a human being, including physiological, psychological, and social aspects, began to be adopted in the late 1970s. In 2002, it was criticized that teaching genital terms at primary schools and teaching about sexual intercourse and contraceptive methods at junior high schools were “overdue guidance” and “extreme contents.” Sexuality education in schools has become a problem and has stagnated for about 10 years. Currently, schools teach sexuality education that does not deviate from the MEXT course guidelines. The direction of MEXT regarding sexuality education should be examined from the basic position that sexual activity by children is inappropriate. Reproductive health/rights apply the concept of human rights to sexuality and reproduction. Reproductive health/rights are key concepts that support sex education and women’s health.
著者
嵯峨井 勝 ウィンシュイ ティンティン
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.3, pp.220-229, 2015 (Released:2015-09-26)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
4 5

Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to urban air pollution. Diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component of near-road and urban air pollutions and is commonly used as a surrogate model of air pollution in health effects studies. In particular, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and nanoparticles in DEPs are the components considered hazardous for health. It is widely known that exposure to DEPs is associated with mortality caused by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, evidence has been accumulating showing that DEPs and nanoparticles may cause neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we introduce evidence suggesting their association with these disorders. The chemical components and the translocation of DEPs and nanoparticles to the brain are described in part 1. In part 2, we introduce the mechanism of development of neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease via oxidative stress and inflammatory events. Furthermore, there are many lines of epidemiological evidence showing that the particulates impair cognitive function and ability of memory through oxidative and inflammatory events in the brain. These lines of evidences are supported by many animal experiments on neurological disorders.
著者
永田 昌子 森 晃爾 永田 智久 金子 鉱明 井上 愛
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.74, pp.18022, 2019 (Released:2019-02-20)
参考文献数
23

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to categorize the actions of occupational physicians in health committees leading to solutions of occupational health problems.Methods: We conducted two focus group discussions among experienced occupational physicians. The discussions addressed the following question: what had they and others said and done that had led to the development of solutions to occupational health problems. We used a qualitative content analysis approach developed by Berelson, and created a draft of the categories of actions. Subsequently, an online questionnaire survey was then used to evaluate the external validity of the draft. The questionnaire asked physicians whether they had experience of each item in the draft. They were also asked whether they had experienced any other items not included in the draft. If so, they were asked to provide a description of their experience. These descriptions were discussed by three researchers. Any suggested new items considered to fall under any of the original items in the draft were excluded, and any new items proposed by two or more participants were added as additional items. Finally, we corrected words and phrases and reviewed the items to ensure that they clearly conveyed the required meaning, and described actions leading to solutions to occupational health problems.Results: The content analysis revealed six basic actions, and 32 items were categorized in the draft. The six basic actions were “participate”, “gather information”, “make a place that allows communication with key people and health committee members”, “make arrangements”, “speak at a health committee”, and “pay attention”. In total, 67 physicians responded to the questionnaire survey. At least 40% of participants answered that they had experience of the draft items. All items in the draft had also been experienced by groups of occupational physicians other than those involved in the focus groups. Three additional items proposed by two or more participants were added. “Pay attention” was deleted following the final review.Conclusions: We categorized the actions of occupational physicians in health committees into five basic actions, and 32 items. Being aware of types of actions used in groups may encourage occupational physicians to be more involved in workplace health committees and contribute to the promotion of occupational health activities in the workplace.
著者
苅田 香苗 北田 真理
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.3, pp.322-329, 2018 (Released:2018-09-29)
参考文献数
21

Although the birthrate greatly declined from the 1960s to the mid-1970s amongst many developed countries, the downturn has steadily been reversed by promoting women’s rights and reviewing family policies in some European countries such as Sweden and France. The current total fertility rate in Sweden or France is approximately around 1.9 children per woman. The favorable state can be partly explained by the active family policies of these countries. The government of Sweden has implemented a wide range of measures including tax allowances, childcare services, and other subsidies, as well as an18 month parental leave to be shared between mothers and fathers. The government of France has expanded childcare and provided incentives by increasing childcare/family benefits with each subsequent child.In Japan, the fertility rate has changed from a downward trend to an upward trend, but only very slightly over the last decade. The legislative systems and enforcement remain totally inadequate to maintain stable a fertility rate. The Japanese government should try to change the social security/labor policies into more active and generous ones, with enhancement of economic support and promotion of work-life balance. Other attempts including removing barriers to encourage the youth to start a family are needed to overcome declining birth rates in Japan.
著者
内田 満夫 金子 稔 山本 洋 本田 孝行 川 茂幸
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.2, pp.103-117, 2013 (Released:2013-05-29)
参考文献数
121
被引用文献数
2 2

Schools were closed worldwide during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic to prevent the viral spread; however, to date, there has been insufficient evidence to conclude that the closures were beneficial. Therefore, in the present review, we evaluated the effects of school closure during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in Japan. A search of PubMed and Japanese journals identified 24 articles that evaluated the effects of school closure using the following methods: descriptive epidemiology, changes in absenteeism rate, a simulation model, and reproductive number. Almost all of the retrieved studies showed that school closure effectively reduced the number of new infections and thus subsequently suppressed the epidemic. On the other hand, two major sets of confounding variables were identified. First, the effect of school closure was confounded by the methods used to measure, viral infectivity, subject characteristics, increased immunization rates, nonpharmaceutical interventions, antiviral administration, student contact patterns during school closure, and individual household environments. Secondly, school closure implementation was affected by differences between proactive and reactive closures, differences between seasonal and pandemic influenza, decision factors regarding school closure, socioeconomic cost, and ethics of imposing restrictions on individuals. Therefore, a comprehensive, longitudinal study is necessary to clarify the effects of school closure during viral pandemics.
著者
矢田 浩紀 安部 博史 大達 亮 岩永 靖 山根 俊恵
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.47-54, 2016 (Released:2016-01-30)
参考文献数
42

We studied the characteristics of psychiatric social workers (PSWs) and present research on job-related stress among them; we also provide insights into the future of such research. In recent years, studies on job-related stress among PSWs have been gaining interest. In particular, stress associated with the repeated revisions of related laws has increased. Subsequently, it was found that occupational stress in PSWs differs qualitatively and quantitatively depending on educational history, years of experience, and service department. However, no scale captures the specific characteristics of job-related stress among PSWs. Moreover, the development of a mental health care program for PSWs seems difficult. To develop a mental health care program that caters specifically to this group, future research should focus on developing a scale that determines the specific characteristics of job-related stress among PSWs, which should be evaluated on the basis of each PSW’s educational history, years of experience, and service department.
著者
梅田 孝 高橋 一平 檀上 和真 松坂 方士 中路 重之
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.533-542, 2011 (Released:2011-06-24)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
2 2

The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the known effects of exercise on neutrophil immune functions of athletes. We measured three neutrophil immune functions (i.e., phagocytic activity (PA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and serum opsonic activity (SOA)) in various types of exercise. The following is our recent findings. (1) A regular exercise increases ROS production and decreases PA. We call this change a normal pattern, and an abnormal pattern except this change. (2) A prolonged, strenuous activity (e.g., rugby match and marathon) decreases both ROS production and PA. This is one of the abnormal pattern. (3) The exercise loading performed after a camp training decreases ROS production whereas PA does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (4) When judoists who had stopped judo training for 6 months restarted their training, the exercise loading at the beginning of their training decreases PA whereas ROS production does not change. This is another abnormal pattern. (5) A regular exercise 2 months after the beginning of their training increases ROS production and decreases PA. This change is a normal pattern. SOA showed a similar pattern of changes to ROS under all conditions. The changes in neutrophil immune functions after performing various exercises might result from the balance between external factors (intensity and style of exercise) and internal factors (e.g., fatigue and physical pain). Therefore, the changes in three neutrophil immune functions after exercise might be an index of athletes’ condition.
著者
佐田 文宏 福岡 秀興 尾崎 貴視 伊藤 善也 吉池 信男 瀧本 秀美
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.1, pp.15-19, 2017 (Released:2017-02-02)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

There are two major nationwide birth cohort studies in Japan, namely, the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) and the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) conducted by the Ministry of Environment. The former was a longitudinal questionnaire survey focusing on environmental and socioeconomic factors for descriptive epidemiology conducted every year since 2001 by mail. The latter was based on 15 unit centers nationwide with environmental measurements and collection of biological samples for environmental risk evaluation. Both are prospective birth cohort studies whose findings will be expected as the basis for establishing health policies. The data obtained in the former study can be used for research with permission from MHLW. To date, there have been more than ten published studies using those data. We have reviewed these studies and introduced our preliminary findings on factors affecting infant growth. Employment before delivery, educational background of parents, household income, and smoking habit of both parents have been suggested to affect infant growth. We will analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and infant growth trajectory to elucidate the most adequate intervention for children.