著者
林田 賢史 村上 玄樹 高橋 裕子 辻 一郎 今中 雄一
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.50-55, 2012 (Released:2012-03-07)
参考文献数
17

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine which of the two groups have higher lifetime medical expenditures; male smokers or male nonsmokers. We conducted this investigation using a Japanese single cohort database to calculate long-term medical expenditures and 95% confidence intervals. Methods: We first constructed life tables for male smokers and male nonsmokers from the age of 40 years after analyzing their mortality rates. Next, we calculated the average annual medical expenditures of each of the two groups, categorized into survivors and deceased. Finally, we calculated long-term medical expenditures and performed sensitivity analyses. Results: The results showed that although smokers had generally higher annual medical expenditures than nonsmokers, the former’s lifetime medical expenditure was slightly lower than the latter’s because of a shorter life expectancy that resulted from a higher mortality rate. Sensitivity analyses did not reverse the order of the two lifetime medical expenditures. Conclusions: In conclusion, although smoking may not result in an increase in lifetime medical expenditures, it is associated with diseases, decreased life expectancy, lower quality of life (QOL), and generally higher annual medical expenditures. It is crucial to promote further tobacco control strategically by maximizing the use of available data.
著者
袁 軍 世良 耕一郎 高辻 俊宏
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.2, pp.149-160, 2015 (Released:2015-05-21)
参考文献数
16

Objective: To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Methods: The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. Results: 134Cs and 137Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that 134Cs and 137Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when 134Cs and 137Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios (134Cs/137Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the 134Cs and 137Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. Conclusion: It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.
著者
高木 祐介 和久利 久 小野寺 昇 小野 ミツ
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.4, pp.704-710, 2011 (Released:2011-10-12)
参考文献数
39

Objectives: There are several recommendations on the prevention of hypothermia during snow shoveling. However, there seemed to be insufficient evidence supporting these recommendations because they are not based on data from actual snow shoveling research. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in brain temperature (tympanic temperature) and visceral temperature (rectal temperature) during snow shoveling among healthy young males. Methods: Eight healthy young males (age, 23.6 ± 2.4 years; weight, 69.7 ± 6.1 kg; height, 172.8 ± 7.3 cm) performed snow shoveling with an ordinary-size shovel for 15 min at their own pace in a rural snowfall area in December, 2009. Rectal temperature (Tre) and tympanic temperature (Tty) were measured 5 times (at rest, 5th (Ex5), 10th (Ex10), and 15th (Ex15) minute of snow shoveling; and 5th (Rec5) minute of recovery phase). The room temperature was 18.6 ± 0.7°C and the atmospheric temperature was 3.8 ± 2.6°C. Results: Tre continued to increase from at rest to Ex15. Tre at Ex15 (37.7 ± 0.3°C) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that at rest (37.2 ± 0.3°C). Tty at rest (36.7 ± 0.2°C) and Tty at Ex5 (36.6 ± 0.3°C) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at Ex10 (36.2 ± 0.6°C). A significant negative correlation between changes in Tre and Tty were observed during snow shoveling (r = -0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Discrepancy between changes in brain temperature (tympanic temperature) and visceral temperature (rectal temperature) should be taken into consideration in the prevention of disease development during snow shoveling in a cold environment.
著者
鈴木 越治 小松 裕和 頼藤 貴志 山本 英二 土居 弘幸 津田 敏秀
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.786-795, 2009 (Released:2009-10-02)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
2 or 0

A central problem in natural science is identifying general laws of cause and effect. Medical science is devoted to revealing causal relationships in humans. The framework for causal inference applied in epidemiology can contribute substantially to clearly specifying and testing causal hypotheses in many other areas of biomedical research. In this article, we review the importance of defining explicit research hypotheses to make valid causal inferences in medical studies. In the counterfactual model, a causal effect is defined as the contrast between an observed outcome and an outcome that would have been observed in a situation that did not actually happen. The fundamental problem of causal inference should be clear; individual causal effects are not directly observable, and we need to find general causal relationships, using population data. Under an “ideal” randomized trial, the assumption of exchangeability between the exposed and the unexposed groups is met; consequently, population-level causal effects can be estimated. In observational studies, however, there is a greater risk that the assumption of conditional exchangeability may be violated. In summary, in this article, we highlight the following points: (1) individual causal effects cannot be inferred because counterfactual outcomes cannot, by definition, be observed; (2) the distinction between concepts of association and concepts of causation and the basis for the definition of confounding; (3) the importance of elaborating specific research hypotheses in order to evaluate the assumption of conditional exchangeability between the exposed and unexposed groups; (4) the advantages of defining research hypotheses at the population level, including specification of a hypothetical intervention, consistent with the counterfactual model. In addition, we show how understanding the counterfactual model can lay the foundation for correct interpretation of epidemiologic evidence.
著者
吉丸 博志 大竹 正徳 藤越 康祝 William J. Schull
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.747-754, 1991-08-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
2 or 5

As a part of the continuingassessment of the effects on the developing embryonic and fetal brain of exposure to ionizing radiation, the school performance of prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and a suitable comparison group have been studied. Inthis report, the changes in performance in seven school subjects according to dose are compared under the dosimetry system (DS86) instituted in 1986 at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The sample involves 929 children whose fetal absorbed dose are known and includes 14 severely mentally retarded persons.The findings can be summarized as follows:1) Damage to the 8-15 week fetal brain appears to be linearly related to the absorbed dose, as judged by the simple regression of average school-performance score on dose. Damage to the fetus exposed at 16-25 weeks after fertilization appears similar to that seen in the 8-15 week group. Canonical and multiple correlations also show a highly significant relationship of exposure 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after fertilization to achievement in school. This trend is stronger, however, in the earliest years of schooling.2) In the group exposed within 0-7 weeks following fertilization, or 26 or more weeks after fertilization, there was no evidence of a radiation-related effect on scholastic performance.3) These results parallel those previously found in prenatally exposed survivors with respect to achievement in standard intelligence tests in childhood and development of severe mental retardation.
著者
古田 和恵 山田 和子 森岡 郁晴
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.69-75, 2016 (Released:2016-01-30)
参考文献数
23

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify whether the explanation received from the guardian at the time of inoculation of a HPV vaccine is related to preventive behaviors against uterine cervical cancer among junior high school girls. The preventive behaviors were set as “wishing to receive the HPV vaccination” and “considering on sexual behaviors (dating, kissing, sexual relations).” Methods: An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was performed on 206 second-year junior high school girls who were candidates for the inoculation of the HPV vaccine in the previous year. We considered that a subject received an explanation on HPV vaccination if she received explanations on this topic, such as “an HPV vaccine prevents uterine cancer.” We considered that a subject received an explanation on pubertal events if she received explanations on this topic, such as “the importance of a life.” Including these two variables among the independent variables, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The knowledge on uterine cancer was promoted when the subjects received explanations about the HPV vaccination. Many subjects received explanations on pubertal events by receiving explanations on HPV vaccination. The guardian’s explanation about HPV vaccination was one of the factors related to “wishing to receive the HPV vaccination” and “considering on sexual behaviors.” Conclusion: It is important for guardians to explain to their children about HPV vaccination without hesitation at the time of the vaccination.
著者
鈴木 越治 小松 裕和 頼藤 貴志 山本 英二 土居 弘幸 津田 敏秀
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.796-805, 2009 (Released:2009-10-02)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Confounding is frequently a primary concern in epidemiological studies. With the increasing complexity of hypothesized relationships among exposures, outcomes, and covariates, it becomes very difficult to present these hypotheses lucidly and comprehensively. Graphical models are of great benefit in this regard. In this article, we focuse on directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), and review their value for confounder selection, categorization of potential biases, and hypothesis specification. We also discuss the importance of considering causal structures before selecting the covariates to be included in a statistical model and the potential biases introduced by inappropriately adjusting statistical models for covariates. DAGs are nonparametric and qualitative tools for visualizing research hypotheses regarding an exposure, an outcome, and covariates. Causal structures represented in DAGs will rarely be perfectly “correct” owing to the uncertainty about the underlying causal relationships. Nevertheless, to the extent that using DAGs forces greater clarity about causal assumptions, we are able to consider key sources of bias and uncertainty when interpreting study results. In summary, in this article, we review the following three points. (1) Although researchers have not adopted a consistent definition of confounders, using DAGs and the rules of d-separation we are able to identify clearly which variables we must condition on or adjust for in order to test a causal hypothesis under a set of causal assumptions. (2) We also show that DAGs should accurately correspond to research hypotheses of interest. To obtain a valid causal interpretation, research hypotheses should be defined explicitly from the perspective of a counterfactual model before drawing DAGs. A proper interpretation of the coefficients of a statistical model for addressing a specific research hypothesis relies on an accurate specification of a causal DAG reflecting the underlying causal structure. Unless DAGs correspond to research hypotheses, we cannot reliably reach proper conclusions testing the research hypotheses. Finally, (3) we have briefly reviewed other approaches to causal inference, and illustrate how these models are connected.
著者
小栗 朋子 吉永 淳
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.3, pp.177-186, 2014

Objective: The objective was to estimate the inorganic arsenic (iAs) intake of the general Japanese adult population by a probabilistic approach. Methods: Bioaccessible iAs concentrations in rice (n=56) and hijiki (n=32), the two food items that are the major iAs sources for the Japanese, were measured by liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry. The concentration in cooked rice was estimated from the measured concentration in a raw rice sample while taking into consideration the loss of iAs during cooking. The iAs concentration in hijiki was measured using soaked hijiki samples. The daily consumption of cooked rice and soaked hijiki was taken from published data. The distribution profile of daily iAs intake was estimated by multiplying the bioaccesible iAs concentration in cooked rice and soaked hijiki samples by the amount of these samples consumed daily, which were randomly extracted according to the respective distributions. This process was repeated 10,000 times. Results: The distribution profiles of iAs concentration in rice and hijiki were normal and log-normal, respectively, and those of the amount of cooked rice and soaked hijiki consumed were beta and log-normal, respectively. The daily bioaccessible iAs intake values were estimated to be 19 and 59 μg/day at 50 and 95 percentile. At 50 percentile iAs intake, the contributions from rice and hijiki were estimated to be equal, whereas the contribution from hijiki increased with the estimated total daily iAs intake. Conclusions: The iAs intakes of Japanese subjects estimated in previous duplicated portion studies were fairly consistent with the present estimation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the cancer risk derived from dietary iAs intake of the general Japanese population was not negligible.
著者
加藤 貴彦 藤原 悠基 中下 千尋 盧 渓 久田 文 宮崎 航 東 賢一 谷川 真理 内山 巌雄 欅田 尚樹
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.94-99, 2016 (Released:2016-01-30)
参考文献数
10

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is an acquired chronic disorder characterized by nonspecific symptoms in multiple organ systems associated with exposure to low-level chemicals. Diagnosis of MCS can be difficult because of the inability to assess the causal relationship between exposure and symptoms. No standardized objective measures for the identification of MCS and no precise definition of this disorder have been established. Recent technological advances in mass spectrometry have significantly improved our capacity to obtain more data from each biological sample. Metabolomics comprises the methods and techniques that are used to determine the small-level molecules in biofluids and tissues. The metabolomic profile—the metabolome—has multiple applications in many biological sciences, including the development of new diagnostic tools for medicine. We performed metabolomics to detect the difference between 9 patients with MCS and 9 controls. We identified 183 substances whose levels were beyond the normal detection limit. The most prominent differences included significant increases in the levels of both hexanoic acid and pelargonic acid, and also a significant decrease in the level of acetylcarnitine in patients with MCS. In conclusion, using metabolomics analysis, we uncovered a hitherto unrecognized alteration in the levels of metabolites in MCS. These changes may have important biological implications and may have a significant potential for use as biomarkers.
著者
稲葉 洋平 大久保 忠利 杉田 和俊 内山 茂久 緒方 裕光 欅田 尚樹
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.1, pp.31-38, 2014 (Released:2014-01-29)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Objective: To determine constituents of fillers and mainstream smoke from Neo Cedar. Methods: Neo Cedar is a second-class over-the-counter (OTC) drug and similar to cigarettes in a number of ways. In particular, the design and usage are very similar to those of cigarettes. For the fillers of the drug, the levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and heavy metals, and mutagenicity were determined using the methods for cigarette products. For the mainstream smoke, the levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO), TSNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and carbonyl compounds were also determined using the methods for cigarettes. The mainstream smoke from the drug were collected with a smoking machine using two smoking protocols (ISO and Health Canada Intense methods). Results: The nicotine and total TSNA levels in the fillers of the drug averaged 2.86 mg/g and 185 ng/g, respectively. The nine species of heavy metals were also detected in the fillers of the drug. The levels of nicotine, tar, CO, TSNA, PAH, and carbonyl compounds of mainstream smoke from the drug were higher when determined using the HCI regime than when using the ISO regime. The mutagenicity of the mainstream smoke determined using the HCI regime was also higher than that determined using the ISO regime. Conclusion: In this study, all constituents of Neo Cedar were determined by methods for cigarette products. The drug had a ventilation hole on its filter. Thus, its constituents are different from those determined by the smoking protocols. Neo Cedar users should be careful of higher exposure to the hazardous gases owing to smoking patterns.
著者
内田 博之 小林 瑞希 細渕 亜実 太田 彩乃 大竹 一男 八巻 努 内田 昌希 小田切 陽一 夏目 秀視 小林 順
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.3, pp.215-224, 2014 (Released:2014-09-24)
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on cervical cancer mortality rate trends in Japanese women, by age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Additionally, we analyzed projected mortality rates. Methods: We obtained data on the number of cervical cancer deaths in Japanese women from 1975–2011 from the national vital statistics and census population data. A cohort table of mortality rate data was analyzed on the basis of a Bayesian APC model. We also projected the mortality rates for the 2012–2031 period. Results: The period effect was relatively limited, compared with the age and cohort effects. The age effect increased suddenly from 25–29 to 45–49 years of age and gently increased thereafter. An analysis of the cohort effect on mortality rate trends revealed a steep decreasing slope for birth cohorts born from 1908–1940 and a subsequent sudden increase after 1945. The mortality rate projections indicated increasing trends from 40 to 74 years of age until the year 2031. Conclusions: The age effect increased from 25–29 years of age. This could be attributable to the high human papilloma virus (HPV) infection risk and the low cervical cancer screening rate. The cohort effect changed from decreasing to increasing after the early 1940s. This might be attributable to the spread of cervical cancer screening and treatment before 1940 and the high HPV infection risk and reduced cervical cancer screening rate after 1945. The projected mortality rate indicated an increasing trend until the year 2031.
著者
田邉 剛 山口 奈津 奥田 昌之 石丸 泰隆 髙橋 秀和
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.2, pp.115-119, 2015 (Released:2015-05-21)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Environmental pollutants (such as diesel exhaust particles and silica) cause disorders ranging from bronchial asthma to malignant tumors. In recent years, it has been reported that some of the signaling pathways in which environmental contaminants act in vivo are associated with innate immunity. Innate immunity recognizes ligands and induces inflammation. Those ligands are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: e.g., lipopolysaccharide) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs: e.g., cholesterol crystallization or uric acid crystal). Activation of innate immunity stimulates the acquired immunity system. Therefore, innate immunity regulates the strength of the general immune system. Furthermore, crystal silica, which is an environmental pollutant, activates innate immunity as a ligand. Innate immunity involves the membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasm-localized nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLR). We reported the innate immunity-system-related diseases such as Crohn’s disease, Blau syndrome, myelogenous leukemia, and sarcoidosis. An inflammasome complex containing NLR has attracted attention owing to its correlation with the onset of several diseases. It is reported that the inflammasome activation is related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as myocardial infarction and fatty liver. It is also reported that the mechanism by which crystal silica and asbestos cause inflammation involves the inflammasome activation. Analyzing the genes of innate immunity contributes to the clarification of the mechanism of disease onset caused by environmental pollutants.
著者
横井 克彦 縄田 隆三 降井 佐太郎 長沢 武夫 柳瀬 杉夫 木村 美恵子 糸川 嘉則
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.5, pp.1009-1013, 1991-12-15 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
8

The quality of the sacred “temizu” water in shrines in Kyoto was surveyed. It was found that the sources of “temizu” were the municipal water supply or domestic wells and that the “temizu” was usually used for washing the hands and mouth, while in certain shrines it was drunk as well. Of 50 visitors responding to questions, 26 persons said that they drank “temizu”. In some shrines using the municipal water supply as “temizu”, the free residual chlorine concentration was lower than that in the municipal water supply itself. Contamination of “temizu” by Escherichia coli or Aeromonas hydrophila was observed in some shrines.
著者
石原 信夫
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.1, pp.75-79, 2014 (Released:2014-01-29)
参考文献数
28

The first reports of methylmercury intoxication appeared in 1865 and 1866. These reports had sensational effects in European countries, and were introduced not only in journals but also in newspapers. These two reports were referable in Japan at the latest in 1927. The formation of organic mercury in the production of acetoaldehyde was also referable in 1906 in Japan. In 1931 (one year before the start of acetoaldehyde production in Minamata) these important reports cited above were referable in Kumamoto University, and there were warnings about the toxicity of organic mercury and environmental pollution prior to the start of acetoaldehyde production. However, not only the plant, authorities (Ministry of Welfare), and Kumamoto Prefectural Office, but also the scientists completely ignored these reports. Waste was dumped into the environment without any treatment. Serious pollution of the environment by organic mercury started, which resulted in the outbreak of Minamata disease (=methylmercury intoxication).
著者
大久保 忠利 稲葉 洋平 原 泰子 内山 茂久 欅田 尚樹
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.84-90, 2016 (Released:2016-01-30)
参考文献数
17

Objective: Some Japanese smokers imported Japanese cigarette brands from other Asian countries for personal use because of the increase in tobacco tax in 2010, which meant that privately importing the cigarettes was cheaper than purchasing them in Japan. We assumed that the health hazards of locally made cigarettes were different from those of privately imported cigarettes, despite the brands being the same. In this study, we carried out a comparative toxicological analysis of domestic and privately imported cigarettes. Methods: Privately imported cigarettes of five brands and domestic cigarettes of the brand named “MILD SEVEN ORIGINAL” were selected for the study. The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream smoke was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. The mutagenicity of mainstream smoke was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98, and YG1024 with the metabolic activation system (S9mix) by preincubation assay. The levels of heavy metals in cigarette fillers were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results: The level of PAH in the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes was higher than that in the smoke from the domestic cigarettes. However, the mutagenic activity of the mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes was equivalent to that from the domestic cigarettes. The levels of nickel and cadmium in the fillers of the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those in the domestic cigarettes. Conclusion: The levels of constituents in the fillers and mainstream smoke from the privately imported cigarettes were higher than those in the fillers and mainstream smoke from the domestic cigarettes. The majority of Japanese smokers are unaware of these findings. The guidelines regulating tobacco products recommend that articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be fully implemented in Japan.
著者
杉田 稔 宮川 路子
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.4, pp.514-523, 2012 (Released:2012-10-25)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Introduction: Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Increased health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials are of concern over a long period of time and over a wide geographical area. From the results of epidemiologic studies conducted after the Chernobyl accident, the health risks are not anticipated to be very marked. The purpose of the present study is to examine (i) the elevated health risks as viewed by the general population, (ii) tolerance to the risks that the general population suffer from their viewpoint, and (iii) the overall picture as seen by researchers and experts in specialized areas of study after the accident. Method: Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet and by interviewing a psychologist and tens of employees of several corporations. Results and Discussion: Epidemiologic studies conducted after the severe accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl revealed an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in children due to 131I while elevated risks due to radioactive materials other than 131I were not detected. The amount of radioactive materials leaked into the environment from the FDNPP was less than that in Chernobyl. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP are low. However, it is impossible to conclude a zero risk. It is likely that the general population does not fully understand the health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP. Although no increased incidences of diseases other than thyroid cancer of children were scientifically shown en masse from studies in Chernobyl, individual risks and results in the future caused by the severe accident of FDNPP cannot be denied. Much of the general population is apt to demand the security of a zero risk from human-generated disasters such as the severe accident of FDNPP. Many are very intolerant of the health impairment risks factors and wish to avoid any risk altogether. The viewpoint of the general population differs considerably from that of epidemiologists and other research experts. Researchers and experts are often well versed in their own specialized areas but ignorant of other areas. Thus, it is difficult to grasp the complete view of an event under consideration. This so-called ‘takotsubo’ situation is dangerous in human society. Researchers and experts must make effort to understand areas other than their own specialized areas. Scientific researchers usually possess a great deal of conviction from the results of their own studies. They are apt to ignore criticism of their study results from individuals working in other research areas even when the results of their studies are inadequate. When the conditions of their studies are changed somewhat and insufficient information is obtained, the results may not be accurate. Researchers and experts should take full cognizance of this possibility, view with strong skepticism about the results of studies even in their own areas, and listen with humility to criticisms from those working in fields of discipline other than their own. Conclusions: It should be fully recognized that the viewpoint of the general population is considerably different from that of researchers and experts regarding health risks due to the severe accident of FDNPP. Researchers and experts must make effort to understand the opinions of those working in areas other than their own in order to grasp a true and complete view of an event under consideration.
著者
橋爪 真弘 上田 佳代 西脇 祐司 道川 武紘 小野塚 大介
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.3, pp.413-421, 2010 (Released:2010-05-27)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
29 or 0

Asian dust, called ‘kosa’ in Japan, is the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants originating from the desert areas of China and Mongolia. Although Asian dust has a long history of appearing in Japan, it is only quite recently that there is increasing concern for its possible adverse health effects. We reviewed the epidemiologic evidence of potential health effects of Asian dust events. PubMed was used to search for the following keywords: Asian dust, yellow sand, desert dust, dust storm, sandstorm, mortality, death, morbidity, hospitalization, hospital admission, health, pulmonary and respiratory. The search was limited to the epidemiologic studies published between January 1980 and May 2009. JMEDPlus was used to search for Japanese literature. Seventeen studies were retrieved from PubMed and one study from JMEDPlus. In addition, one study was identified for reviewing from the references of another study. In total, we identified 19 epidemiologic studies (3 for mortality, 13 for hospital visits or admissions and 3 for respiratory functions or symptoms) mainly from Taiwan and Korea. There were many combinations of outcomes and lagged exposures examined, and some suggested possible associations of dust exposure with an increase in mortality and hospital visits and admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, whereas the rest of the studies did not show statistically significant associations. The evidence from these studies was limited because exposure assessments were inadequately described and potential confounders were insufficiently controlled. Well-designed epidemiological studies are required to clarify any potential health effects of Asian dust events in Japan.
著者
松浦 康之 高田 宗樹
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.1, pp.2-11, 2016 (Released:2016-01-30)
参考文献数
84

The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology.
著者
山下 節義 土居 真 西尾 雅七 北條 博厚 田中 昌人
出版者
日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.4, pp.364-399, 1972-10-28 (Released:2009-02-17)
参考文献数
104
被引用文献数
19 or 0

In the summer of 1955, 12, 131 children in western Japan were poisoned as a result of the consumpting “Morinaga Dry Milk” (according to 1956 survey conducted by the Welfare Ministry). 130 of children actually died as a result of this poisoning. The arsenic contained in the milk resulted from the poorly purified “Secondary Sodium Phosphate” used as a stabilizer in the manufacturing process of powdered milk.The afflicted infants were those for whom the powdered milk served as a main food and who were physically and mentally in the developing process. Such mass-poisoning had heretofore never been reported in the world.As the symptoms of poisoning disappeared, these children were thought to have been cured. The issue was closed medically and administrationally in 1956 as the conclusion had been reached that there would be no longlasting effects.In 1969, Dr. Maruyama et al. (J.J.P.H. Vol. 16, No. 3, p. 170, 1969) reported continuing effects of this arsenic poisoning, once more reviving the medical and social problem. From that time, surveys of these patients were carried out in several places in western Japan.In Kyoto, from December 1970 to July 1971, inclusive checks were done as follows: Epidemiological Survey (415 Subjects), Clinical Survey (291 Subjects) and Clinical Psychological Survey (261 Subjects).The Kyoto victims presented the following:1. In Kyoto, many victims had a much higher rate of physical and mental complaints than the control group.2. Average height was less than that of the same age group.3. Rate of victims who showed proteinuria (male 14%, female 12%) was higher than that of the same age group.4. Abnormal and borderline brain waves were found to be much higher rate in victims (abnormal 14%, borderline 17%) than average.5. The younger the age of milk consumption, the higher were the rates of abnormal brain waves.6. Central nervous system disorders eq. epilepsy, minimal brain damage syndrome, mental retardation etc. were found to be higher rate than average.7. Numbers of the patients with hardness of hearing (18%) were above average.8. Numbers of the patients with anomaly of refraction (48%) were above average.9. Many victims (64%) had symptoms of skin that characterized pigmentation and depigmentation rashes etc..10. Tooth enamel dysplasia was found in higher rates among victims.11. Numbers of victims (21%) with an IQ of less than 85 exceeded average numbers, according to Educational Ministry Statistics.12. In psychological tests, eq. Uchida-Kraepelin methods, atypical group in victims was found to be higher rate than average.13. Many had irregular and painful menstruation.14. Many complaints of victims continued from infancy.15. The result of this follow-up study is not inconsistent with the result of pathological and clinical report in 1955.16. Clinical findings and diagnostic reports of this survey are just the same as those in Osaka and Okayama etc.As mentioned above, it can be concluded that the physical and mental defects of these victims are the result of consumption of arsenic tainted “Morinaga Dry Milk” and that these persons have received no therapy for 16 years.These victims are now in physical and mental adolescent changes. As they have had no follow-up medical care, a prediction of their health in adult hood is impossible.For these reasons, a continuation of the surveys is most necessary, and, counterplans-social care, health consultations, psychological counselling including educational problems etc.-should be carried out by medical and psychological specialists.