In the late 1960 s, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, the former movie actor and TVpersonality, felt challenged by the documentary film "A Dog's Life" (originaltitle: Mondo Cane) produced by Italian film director Gualtiero Jacopetti.While pursuing the 'authenticity' of documentary, Kawaguchi alsoperformed as an actor and was involved in the production of a televisionprogram. The program of Hiroshi Kawaguchi was different from JunichiUshiyama's television documentary "Wonderful World Travel", as theformer tried to represent the 'authenticity' of documentary whileemphasizing the impact of the image, whereas the latter pursued'education' and academics through his program. This is, in a sense, a resultof focusing on creating a program from the perspective of the 'masses'instead of from the perspective of 'modern citizens'. Their directions weredifferent, yet their educational background, parents' occupations andcultural capital were related to each other. In the mid-1980 s, however,"Kawaguchi Hiroshi Adventurer Series" directed by the former actor whoplaced great emphasis on 'authenticity' became viewed as a parody ofadventure and exploration by the audience amid a rumor that the programwas 'staged'. In other words, although Hiroshi Kawaguchi's documentaryprogram began as a pursuit of 'authenticity', it was ironically criticized interms of its 'authenticity' and ridiculed. This was due to changes in theattitudes of TV viewers, especially of the audience of documentary shows.In the meanwhile, Junichi Ushiyama also entered the academic world, suchas the "Visual anthropology", and as a result, his television documentarybecame accepted as an 'educational program'.