著者
浜田 信行 吉永 信治
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.3, pp.136-145, 2018 (Released:2018-11-27)
参考文献数
66

Ionizing radiation has long been indispensable in medicine. Such medical exposures can broadly be divided into two categories, namely, therapeutic exposures and diagnostic exposures. On one hand, therapeutic exposures generally occur at high dose and/or high dose rate, in which health effects of main concern are tissue reactions (formally called deterministic effects) and second cancer. Of these, mounting epidemiological evidence for tissue reactions has attracted particular attention to circulatory disease and cataracts. Diagnostic exposures, on the other hand, occur at relatively low dose and/or low dose rate, where cancer is the major health effect of concern. Epidemiological evidence from diagnostically exposed populations is still subject to uncertainties in dose (e.g., lack of individual doses) and potential biases (e.g., confounding by indication and reverse causation), which render direct risk estimation of diagnostic exposures unreasonable. This raises the need for the extrapolation from epidemiological evidence in other populations exposed to high dose and/or high dose-rate radiation. From radiation protection viewpoints, recent discussions include individual risk estimation, and individual radiation responses. This review paper provides a brief overview of recent topics in epidemiology and risk estimation for medical exposures.
著者
今岡 達彦 勝部 孝則 川口 勇生 臺野 和広 土居 主尚 中島 徹夫 森岡 孝満 山田 裕 王 冰 神田 玲子 西村 まゆみ 二宮 康晴 村上 正弘 吉永 信治 柿沼 志津子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.2, pp.68-76, 2017 (Released:2017-07-29)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
4

Strategic research will be needed to unveil the uncertainty regarding the health effect of radiation at low dose and low dose rate. Recently, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published Commentary No. 24 dealing with the perspective of integrating radiation biology and epidemiology to address this issue. Results of radiation biology have not been effectively used for radiation risk assessment because 1) available epidemiological studies based on direct observation of human population have been considered to be the most relevant despite their uncertainties and 2) biological studies have not been conducted with their use in risk assessment in mind. The present paper summarizes the Commentary to present perspectives on integrating biology and epidemiology for radiation risk assessment.
著者
日本保健物理学会医療放射線リスク専門研究会 甲斐 倫明 伴 信彦 太田 勝正 小野 孝二 酒井 一夫 長谷川 隆幸 福士 政広 吉永 信治
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 : hoken buturi (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.1, pp.42-51, 2011-03-01
参考文献数
20

Radiation use in medicine generally gives us the benefit that outweighs the risk. However, some patients are much concerned about the risk while some medical people are unaware of radiation risk. The aim of this report is to review the low dose risk not only in the reports of ICRP, UNSCEAR, BEIR and French academy but also in the scientific papers that have been paid attention to. On these bases, we discuss the low dose risk and how we face the risk in medicine in order to go for medical use of radiation to the right way. In particular, we hope this report will support medical people as well as radiation protection experts should understand the radiation risk in medicine on current scientific basis.