著者
堀 雅明 中井 斌
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.1-11, 1976 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1 1

Genetic risk assessment for potential hazard from environmental tritium to man becomes important with increasing nuclear-power industry. The purpose of this short review is to discuss the possible genetic effects of tritium from a view of genetic risk estimation.The discussion is based mainly on our experimental results on the chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by tritium at the very low-level. The types of chromosome aberrations induced by radiation from tritium incorporated into the cells are mostly chromatid types. The most interesting finding is that the dose-response relationship observed in both tritiated-water and tritiated-thymidine is composed of two phases. The examination on the nature of two-phase dose-response relationship is very important not only for the mechanisms of chromosome aberrations, but also for the evaluation of genetic risk from low-level radiation.
著者
甲斐 倫明
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.3-10, 1983 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
1 1 3

The purpose of the present study was to estimate a biological half-life of iodine in normal Japanese thyroid for the calculation of the thyroid dose from iodine-129 with a long physical half-life. The Japanese takes stable iodine through sea food in a more considerable amount than the Caucasian who is assumed to be the Reference Man recommended by ICRP. It can be shown by medical research in thyroidology that the iodine metabolism between the Japanese and the Caucasian is different owing to the amount of the ingested stable iodine. Furthermore, in the Japanese the thyroid releases inorganic iodine since it takes up iodine more than physiologically required to produce thyroid hormone.We calculated the biological half-life of iodine for both the Japanese and the Caucasian by using a five compartment model. The following results were delivered. The biological half-life in the Japanese was approximately 40 days, which was in agreement with the values reported before. On the other hand, that of the Caucasian was 130 days nearly equal to the Reference Man.
著者
脇田 宏
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.215-222, 1996 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
3 4
著者
Noriko KOBAYASHI
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.55-65, 2019-04-18 (Released:2019-09-03)
参考文献数
20

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) internal dose assessment model, currently adopted in Japanese regulation, assumes uniform distribution of radionuclides in bone marrow blood (ICRP Publication 60). Recent studies have revealed a localization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immune cells in the perivascular region of the bone marrow sinusoids, suggesting a need to consider nonuniform distributions of the blood source and HSCs. To evaluate energy transfer to HSCs, a simplified model of cervical vertebrae with bone tissues and blood vessels was built using data from the adult Japanese male phantom. Doses absorbed by HSCs from blood and hard bone sources were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation, and absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) from electrons were compared with those in the ICRP 1990 model. In the cervical vascular model, electron SAFs from sinusoidal blood in the red bone marrow (RBM) to the target perivascular region were 1.2 to 6.9 times higher than the SAF in the ICRP 1990 model, suggesting an underestimation of the RBM dose. Electrons from the cortical bone source to the perisinusoidal target exhibited energy transfer. The ICRP 1990 model underestimates electron SAFs from radionuclides in sinusoidal blood and cortical bones. A more elaborate model is needed to examine doses for the RBM and effects on hematopoietic and immune functions.
著者
森内 茂 堤 正博 斎藤 公明
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.121-128, 1990 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
21 21

A practical conversion factor to estimate the value of effective dose equivalent rate in Sv unit from absorbed dose rate in air in Gy unit was examined for natural gamma radiations. The experimental examination was carried out by two methods; one measures the effective dose equivalent rate directly by using a measuring instrument having effective dose equivalent response for isotropic gamma radiations and the other obtaines it from calculation applying the gamma flux-to-effective dose equivalent factor to actual gamma energy spectrum measured in various indoor and outdoor places.From these investigations the value of the quotient of effective dose equivalent to absorbed dose in air was found do be 0.748±0.007 Sv per Gy for natural radiation exposures in various environments. The value of the quotient 0.7, which is adopted to applied to environmental gamma radiations in the UNSCEAR 1982 and 1988 Reports, was clarified to be about 7% lower than the one obtained experimentally for natural gamma radiations.
著者
内山 正史
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.143-150, 1996 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
10
著者
丸山 隆司
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.4, pp.273-283, 1986 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
18
著者
神田 玲子 辻 さつき 米原 英典
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.68-78, 2014
被引用文献数
1

In general, the press is considered to have amplified the level of public's anxiety and perception of risk. In the present study, we analyzed newspaper article headlines and Internet contents that were released from March 11, 2011 to January 31, 2012 using text mining techniques. The aim is to reveal the particular characteristics of the information propagated regarding the Fukushima NPP Accident. The article headlines of the newspapers which had a largest circulation were chosen for analysis, and contents of Internet media were chosen based on the number of times they were linked or retweeted. According to our text mining analysis, newspapers frequently reported the "measurement, investigation and examination" of radiation/radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Accident, and this information might be spread selectively via the social media. On the other hand, the words related to health effects of radiation exposure (i. e., cancer, hereditary effects) were rare in newspaper headlines. Instead, words like "anxiety" and "safe" were often used to convey the degree of health effects. Particularly in March of 2011, the concept of "danger" was used frequently in newspaper headlines. These indirect characterizations of the situation may have contributed more or less to the misunderstanding of the health effects and to the enhanced perception of risk felt by the public. In conclusion, there were found no evidence to suggest that newspapers or Internet media users released sensational information that increased the health anxiety of readers throughout the period of analysis.
著者
稲葉 次郎
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.109-116, 1977 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
9

As any radiation exposure may involve some degree of risk the International Commission of Radiation Protection recommends that any unnecessary exposure be avoided, and that all doses be kept ALARA, i. e., as low as is readily achievable, economic and social considerations being taken into account. To define the level at which it can be said that a dose is ALARA the use of cost- (or risk-) benefit analysis is required. In making a cost-benefit calculation the most difficult step is the conversion of positive and negative effect into a consistent set of units, i. e., conversion of man-rem into dollars. This paper presents the monetary value of population dose which appeared in the past reports (six papers reffered by ICRP Publication 22, BEIR Report and NRC-10CFR50, App. I).We must be very careful in the application of cost-benefit analysis to decision making of individual cases, but the estimated risk in monetary term may help us at least to check whether we act in a consistent way.
著者
宮本 霧子
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.50-59, 2008 (Released:2010-08-05)
参考文献数
9

The international program, known as the EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety) project was carried out in 2003-2007. “The working group for modelling of tritium and carbon-14 transfer to biota and man” took an active part in the EMRAS by presenting the eight scenarios for the purpose of the validation of the environmental tritium model. Three scenarios were concerned about uptake and depuration of tritium by bivalves and various biological species in a steady state lake. Two scenarios dealt with tritium uptake of soybean and pine tree, other two did pig metabolism and various products from a farm land. One scenario was designed to estimate human dose exposed by a hypothetical shot of tritium release in the atmosphere. OBT definition and revision of parameter values in the Handbook, IAEA-TRS No. 364 were also carried out.
著者
矢部 明
出版者
Japan Health Physics Society
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.163-172, 1972 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
35