著者
永岡 美佳 藤田 博喜 中野 政尚 渡辺 均 住谷 秀一
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.104-113, 2013 (Released:2014-03-06)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Monthly deposition samples were collected at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories located about 115 km south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), and the radioactive nuclides were analyzed. Although radionuclides such as 131I, 129mTe-129Te and 132Te-132I with 134Cs and 137Cs were observed by gamma spectrometry at the early time of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, only 134Cs and 137Cs were detected as of September 2011. The annual depositions of 134Cs and 137Cs were about 19,000 and 17,000 Bq m-2, respectively in March 2011-February 2012 after the accident. Moreover, 90Sr was detected in some samples. Monthly 90Sr deposition in March 2011 was 5.1 Bq m-2 month-1 and then decreased after that. On the other hand, 239, 240Pu concentration was the same level with the concentration before the accident.
著者
藤原 慶子 高橋 知之 高橋 千太郎
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.1, pp.19-26, 2016 (Released:2016-07-06)
参考文献数
11

The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 caused the release of large amounts of tellurium (Te) isotopes, with radio-cesium (Cs) and radio-iodine (I), into the environment. The total amounts of 127mTe and 129mTe released from the nuclear power plant were estimated as 1.1 × 1015 and 3.3 × 1015 Bq, respectively. At the location where the deposition of 129mTe was relatively large, the ratio of the radioactivity of 129mTe to that of 137Cs reportedly reached 1.49 on June 14, 2011. Since 127mTe has a relatively long half-life, it possibly contributed to the internal radiation dose at the early stage after the accident. In this paper, the ratio of the committed effective dose of 127mTe to that of 137Cs after the oral ingestion of rice was estimated by using various reported parameters. The relevant parameters are: 1) the deposition ratios of 127mTe, 129mTe, and 134Cs to 137Cs; 2) the deposition ratio of 127mTe to 129mTe; 3) the transfer factors of Te and Cs; and 4) the effective dose coefficients for 127mTe, 129mTe, 134Cs, and 137Cs. The ratios of the committed effective dose of 127mTe to that of 137Cs were calculated for adults after a single ingestion at the time of the rice harvest. The ratio was 0.45 where the 129mTe/137Cs in the soil was higher and 0.05 where the level of 129mTe/137Cs was average. The ratio of the committed effective dose from 129mTe and 127mTe to that from 137Cs for one year reached 0.55 and 9.03 at the location where the level of 129mTe/137Cs in the soil was higher. These data could indicate that radioactive Te should not be disregarded in reconstructing the internal radiation dose from food for one year after the accident.
著者
飽本 一裕
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.17-28, 2014 (Released:2015-02-26)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
1 or 0

In this report, several works on mainly resuspension and eolian transfer of radioactive cesium due to wind, which is one of the most effective transfer processes of previously deposited radioactive particulate materials, are introduced. First, the mechanisms of the resuspension of particulate matter by wind as well as resultant dust storms and wind erosion are surveyed. Next, the papers related to resuspension and eolian transfer of radioactive aerosols originally emitted by the Chernobyl nuclear accident are reviewed. The measured fallouts and radioactivity concentrations show annual cycles, and their peak periods depend on the measured regions. Finally, the works that analyze the related effects of the accident at the Fukushima Daiich Nuclear Power Plant are reviewed, and some issues to be focused and resolved are summarized.
著者
加藤 秀起 古賀 佑彦 向山 隆史 戸松 弘孝 鈴木 友輔 鈴木 昇一
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.4, pp.380-386, 2009 (Released:2011-01-12)
参考文献数
7

In one of the accidents that might happen in the nuclear power station, there is a contamination accident caused by radioactive corrosion products during a periodic inspection. It is necessary to presume the skin absorbed dose from the adhesion area and the contamination density to forecast the level of the skin hazard by the adhesion of the radioactive substance. However, the data to forecast the local skin dose when the radioactive substance adhered handily is not maintained. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the skin surface neighborhood contaminated by radioactive corrosion products was calculated, and the relation between the adhesion area and the contamination density and the local absorption dose was derived. And, the approximate equation that forecast the integrated dose was derived from these data. As for the absorbed dose rate in depth 70 μm from the skin surface that became the index of the skin hazard, the contribution rate by 59Fe was the highest within 30 days, and the contribution of 60Co rose most after the 30th after the radioactive substance had adhered when the contamination density the adhesion area was the same. The relation between the initial contamination density and days that required it was graphed to reaching to the threshold by the integrated dose when the threshold dose in which the necrosis of the skin was caused was assumed to be 20 Gy. The absorbed dose commitment can be presumed from measurements of the contamination density by using this graph or the approximate equation.
著者
堀 雅明 中井 斌
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.1-11, 1976 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Genetic risk assessment for potential hazard from environmental tritium to man becomes important with increasing nuclear-power industry. The purpose of this short review is to discuss the possible genetic effects of tritium from a view of genetic risk estimation.The discussion is based mainly on our experimental results on the chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by tritium at the very low-level. The types of chromosome aberrations induced by radiation from tritium incorporated into the cells are mostly chromatid types. The most interesting finding is that the dose-response relationship observed in both tritiated-water and tritiated-thymidine is composed of two phases. The examination on the nature of two-phase dose-response relationship is very important not only for the mechanisms of chromosome aberrations, but also for the evaluation of genetic risk from low-level radiation.
著者
横山 直方
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.243-250, 1995 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
18
著者
松永 武 小林 健介
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.31-44, 2001 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
56

The prophylactic use of stable iodine is one of the protective measures during a nuclear emergency. In order to know the resultant radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in the case of Japanese, a sensitivity analysis was performed for related physiological parameters for Japanese. As a result, the variances in the deposition efficiency of radioactive iodine aerosol in the respiratory tract due to changes in the respiratory parameters were found rather small between the standard Caucasian and Japanese. The changes due to the radioactive iodine aerosol size were more significant, suggesting the importance of understanding the physico-chemical status of aerobic radioiodine released in a nuclear emergency. Concerning the metabolic parameters of iodine, the result of the sensitivity analysis based on an iodine metabolic model showed that the most critical parameters are those which describe the transport of stable and radioactive iodine from the blood compartment to the thyroid gland. Accordingly, a confirmation of the transport model and the related parameters for Japanese are essential to clarify the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis to reduce thyroid gland exposure of Japanese. (This work was performed under the auspices of the Science and Technology Agency of Japan.)
著者
甲斐 倫明
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.3-10, 1983 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
0 or 3

The purpose of the present study was to estimate a biological half-life of iodine in normal Japanese thyroid for the calculation of the thyroid dose from iodine-129 with a long physical half-life. The Japanese takes stable iodine through sea food in a more considerable amount than the Caucasian who is assumed to be the Reference Man recommended by ICRP. It can be shown by medical research in thyroidology that the iodine metabolism between the Japanese and the Caucasian is different owing to the amount of the ingested stable iodine. Furthermore, in the Japanese the thyroid releases inorganic iodine since it takes up iodine more than physiologically required to produce thyroid hormone.We calculated the biological half-life of iodine for both the Japanese and the Caucasian by using a five compartment model. The following results were delivered. The biological half-life in the Japanese was approximately 40 days, which was in agreement with the values reported before. On the other hand, that of the Caucasian was 130 days nearly equal to the Reference Man.
著者
須賀 新一 市川 龍資
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.4, pp.449-466, 2000 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
8 or 0

This paper describes the revised index levels of the control of food and water in the Nuclear Safety Commission guidelines, “Off-Site Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Power Plants, etc.” Food and water are divided into five categories, and the consumption of each has been conjectured. For this purpose, a nationwide survey for nutrition in Japan by the Welfare Ministry and a survey on the food of infants and children in the coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences are considered. These categories are (1) drinking water, (2) milk and dairy products, (3) vegetables, (4) grain, and (5) meats, egg, fish, shellfish, and others. The radionuclides groups are then chosen in consideration of their potential importance in regard to food and water contamination. Those chosen were, (1) radio-iodine, (2) radioactive cesium and strontium, (3) uranium, and (4) plutonium and alpha-rayemitting transuranic radionuclides. The intervention dose levels of 5mSv of effective dose and 50mSv of committed equivalent dose to the thyroid for radio-iodine for a period of one year were adopted. The radioactivities of 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, and 132Te are assumed to be proportional to the contents in nuclear fuel after a cooling time of 0.5 day, and the radioactivity of 131I is taken as a scale that represents the level of control on the ingestion of food and water. Based on doses to infants, whose exposure is highest, the levels of control are recommended to be 300Bq/kg or more for drinking water and milk and other dairy products, and 2, 000Bq/kg or more for vegetables, except edible roots and potatoes. It is assumed that radio-cesium released in the environment is accompanied by strontium radio-nuclides with a 90Sr/137Cs radioactivity ratio of 0.1, taking into account the past measurements of fallout. Radio-nuclides are assumed to contain 137Cs, 134Cs, 90Sr, and 89Sr with the same mixing ratio as that of the fuel in a nuclear reactor. The sum of radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs is used as a scale that represents the level of control, and the yearly average concentration in food and water is presumed equal to half the concentration of those in the peak term. It has then been recommended that the levels of control for radio-cesium should be 200Bq/kg or more for drinking water and milk and other dairy products, and 500Bq/kg or more for vegetables, grain, meat, eggs, and fish. Moreover, in special cases, measurements on radio-strontium are necessary if a nuclear power reactor operates for less than two years because the ratio of 89Sr radioactivity is much higher than in reactors with longer times of operation. For uranium, the index levels are presented in terms of alpha-activity concentration: 20Bq/kg or more for drinking water and milk and other dairy products, and 100Bq/kg or more for vegetables, grain, meat, eggs, and fish. The sum of the radioactivity concentration of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 242pu, 241Am, 242Cm, 243Cm, and 244Cm is selected as a scale for representing the levels of control on food and water for plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides. The level of control has been recommended as 1Bq/kg or more for drinking water and milk and other dairy products, and 10Bq/kg or more for vegetables, grain, meat, eggs, and fish. For commercially available food for babies, the recommended level of control is 1Bq/kg or more in a cooked form and served as a meal for plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides.
著者
草間 朋子 中川 健朗 吉澤 康雄
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.399-406, 1985 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1 or 0

The concept of population dose is of importance and of interest at the point of radiation protection of puplic. We devided it into two categories, source-related population dose and individual-related population dose, and estimated each population dose of Japan. We surveyed all sources that caused exposure to Japanese population. A number of sources, both naturally-occuring and man-made, contributed to population exposure. According to source-related dose assessment, average annual effective dose equivalent was about 3.3mSv, and about half of which, i. e. 1.6mSv, was given from medical exposure. And from the results of individual-related dose assessment we proposed the allocation of the annual dose limit of public for each controllable source, that is, 2.5mSv/yr to nuclear faculties, 1.0mSv/yr to miscellaneous sources, 1.5mSv/yr to probablistic exposure.
著者
石川 徹夫 安岡 由美 長濱 裕幸 川田 祐介 大森 康孝 床次 眞司 志野木 正樹
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.253-267, 2008 (Released:2010-08-05)
参考文献数
70
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, various geochemical precursors were observed in the aftershock area: chloride ion concentration, groundwater discharge rate, groundwater radon concentration and so on. Kobe Pharmaceutical University (KPU) is located about 25km northeast from the epicenter and within the aftershock area. Atmospheric radon concentration had been continuously measured from 1984 at KPU, using a flow-type ionization chamber. The radon concentration data were analyzed using the smoothed residual values which represent the daily minimum of radon concentration with the exclusion of normalized seasonal variation. The radon concentration (smoothed residual values) demonstrated an upward trend about two months before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. The trend can be well fitted to a log-periodic model related to earthquake fault dynamics. As a result of model fitting, a critical point was calculated to be between 13 and 27 January 1995, which was in good agreement with the occurrence date of earthquake (17 January 1995). The mechanism of radon anomaly before earthquakes is not fully understood. However, it might be possible to detect atmospheric radon anomaly as a precursor before a large earthquake, if (1) the measurement is conducted near the earthquake fault, (2) the monitoring station is located on granite (radon-rich) areas, and (3) the measurement is conducted for more than several years before the earthquake to obtain background data.
著者
藤原 慶子 山崎 敬三 高橋 知之 高橋 千太郎 北川 晃三 神藤 克人
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.282-285, 2012 (Released:2013-12-17)
参考文献数
8

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, many people are concerned about the contamination of radioactive substances in their ordinary surrounding environment. In this study, we determined the levels of radioactive contamination with 137Cs in towels, very common textile products in our life, after exposing those to the soil collected from a farm field near Fukushima city. Three kinds of towels made from the same cotton fiber with different thickness were exposed to the soil under dry or water-suspension conditions. The radioactivities of 137Cs retained/absorbed were 30-50% of the loaded radioactivity per gram weight of the towel. When their weight and absorbency are taken into consideration, the differences in thickness did not so much affect the above values. Under standard washing condition, which mimic those with household washing machine, almost all the radioactive cesium were removed from the towels contaminated under the dry conditions, whereas only 50-70% were removed when the towels were contaminated under the wet conditions. A commercial soil-release treatment (Preshade-SR) didn't reduce the contamination under both dry and wet conditions, although processing the towels with silver nano-particles did.
著者
渡部 輝久
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.4, pp.221-233, 2006 (Released:2010-08-05)
参考文献数
25

Environmental protection is one of the key issues in the prospective policy and strategy of radiation protection. In this context, numerous efforts have been made for developing the framework for the protection of non-human species from ionizing radiation, especially in European countries and Unite States. The present report summarizes knowledge so far attained on the assessment of doses and radiation impact on marine organisms. Special attention was directed to the methodology for calculating absorbed doses of marine organisms, based on which a case study was also carried out for estimating absorbed dose rate of several species of marine organisms inhabiting in the coastal sea off Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori Prefecture where a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant came into operation.
著者
渡邉 正己
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.2, pp.118-123, 2012 (Released:2012-12-07)
参考文献数
15

It has been believed that the first target of radiation carcinogenesis is DNA. However, this is not proved for radiation carcinogenesis yet. We discovered that frequency of aneuploid cell was closely related to that of radiation-induced cell transformation and natural cell transformation by high-density cultivation, but gene mutation was not. Cell with p53 gene becomes tetraploid, but does not get tumorigenicity. On the other hand, cells without p53 gene function become a triploid easily, and acquire tumorigenicity. Both radiation exposure and high-density cultivation elevated the level of intracellular oxidative radicals. These radicals induced centrosome destabilization and produced cells carrying extra centrosome, which promote merotelic attachment of chromosome by altering spindle geometry. Unresolved merotelic attachments can give rise to lagging chromosomes at anaphase. Aneuploidy was seen in high frequency in early process of cell transformation. These results strongly suggest that a main target of carcinogenesis by low dose radiation is not DNA, but is centrosome, which are the proteins to constitute chromosomal homeostasis maintenance mechanism. In addition, this route may be the same as that of natural carcinogenesis. These serial results support necessity of a review of a LNT hypothesis at a radioprotective point of view.
著者
草間 朋子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.91-93, 2000 (Released:2010-02-25)
被引用文献数
0 or 1
著者
石原 弘
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.179-183, 2011 (Released:2012-07-28)
参考文献数
1