著者
大島 宏
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.109-128, 2004-10-01 (Released:2017-06-01)

The purpose of this study is to define the process of the institutionalization of an open door policy for higher schools (Koto-gakko) to allow girls to attend. In Japan, higher schools had been only for boys until 1947. In the early stages of preparation for "A New General Plan of Female Education Reform", the Ministry of Education had planned to open the door of higher schools to girls. In the plan, girl's special colleges (Joshi-senmon-gakko), higher courses (Koto-ka) and special courses (Senko-ka) of higher girl's schools (Koto-jogakko) would be changed into "girl's higher schools (Joshi-koto-gakko)". However, a difficulty arose in changing girl's special colleges into "girl's higher schools". Also, it became possible for girls to receive a higher school level education through other means. Because of this, in 1946, the Ministry of Education denied the urgent need of an open door policy for higher schools, refusing to qualify girls for entry into higher schools. The revision of the Constitution made it necessary to allow girls to qualify for entry into higher schools. Therefore, the establishment of "higher schools for girls" was once more chosen as the way to open the door of higher schools to girls. However, the plan to reform the school system intended to abolish the higher schools. This made it difficult to carry out an open door policy for higher schools in this way. Eventually, opening the door of higher schools to girls was realized by transforming higher schools into coeducational institutions. The revision of the Constitution required a revision of the purpose (the first) and entrance qualification (the 12th) articles of the imperial ordinance regarding higher schools. However, only the purpose was revised, and entrance qualifications were not. This originates from having tried to deal with the issue of girls' entrance qualification as an exception to the rule.
著者
大島 宏行 後藤 逸男
出版者
日本土壌肥料學會
雑誌
日本土壌肥料学雑誌 (ISSN:00290610)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.3, pp.263-271, 2008
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
5

ウリ科急性萎凋症が多発する地域の土壌養分とりわけ,リン酸の蓄積実態を明らかにする目的で,茨城県筑西市において小玉スイカ栽培ハウス32ヶ所の土壌分析を行った.小玉スイカに対する窒素とカリ施用量は施肥基準量にほぼ同等であったのに対して,リン酸は約2倍に達した.また,堆肥からハウス土壌に供給される三要素の有効成分量の施肥基準量に対する割合は,窒素20.3%,リン酸72.7%,カリ62.7%であった.調査対象ハウスの土壌はいずれも黒ボク土であった.調査地域内の未耕地土壌は酸性が強く,交換性塩基や可給態リン酸を欠いていたが,ハウス土壌ではpH(H_2O),塩基飽和度,塩基バランスの他,可給態微量要素はほぼ適正な状態にあった.一方,作土中の硝酸態窒素は11.6〜732mgkg^<-1>におよび,その影響で電気伝導率は0.23〜2.39dSm^<-1>と著しく高かった.黒ボク土にもかかわらず,作土の可給態リン酸は510〜3,440(平均1,950)mgkg^<-1>におよび,その約20%が水溶性リン酸であった.40年間にわたり小玉スイカを栽培してきたハウスでは土層60cm内に酸分解性リン酸として4.36Mgha^<-1>におよぶ大量のリン酸が蓄積していた.リン酸蓄積層では著しいリン酸吸収係数と可溶性アルミニウムの減少が認められた.小玉スイカハウス土壌における土壌養分,とりわけ硝酸態窒素とリン酸の過剰蓄積実態が明らかになった.
著者
大島 宏
出版者
教育史学会
雑誌
日本の教育史学 (ISSN:03868982)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.109-128, 2004

The purpose of this study is to define the process of the institutionalization of an open door policy for higher schools (Koto-gakko) to allow girls to attend. In Japan, higher schools had been only for boys until 1947. In the early stages of preparation for "A New General Plan of Female Education Reform", the Ministry of Education had planned to open the door of higher schools to girls. In the plan, girl's special colleges (Joshi-senmon-gakko), higher courses (Koto-ka) and special courses (Senko-ka) of higher girl's schools (Koto-jogakko) would be changed into "girl's higher schools (Joshi-koto-gakko)". However, a difficulty arose in changing girl's special colleges into "girl's higher schools". Also, it became possible for girls to receive a higher school level education through other means. Because of this, in 1946, the Ministry of Education denied the urgent need of an open door policy for higher schools, refusing to qualify girls for entry into higher schools. The revision of the Constitution made it necessary to allow girls to qualify for entry into higher schools. Therefore, the establishment of "higher schools for girls" was once more chosen as the way to open the door of higher schools to girls. However, the plan to reform the school system intended to abolish the higher schools. This made it difficult to carry out an open door policy for higher schools in this way. Eventually, opening the door of higher schools to girls was realized by transforming higher schools into coeducational institutions. The revision of the Constitution required a revision of the purpose (the first) and entrance qualification (the 12th) articles of the imperial ordinance regarding higher schools. However, only the purpose was revised, and entrance qualifications were not. This originates from having tried to deal with the issue of girls' entrance qualification as an exception to the rule.