著者
森田 良成
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan Review of Anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.57-78, 2017-03

This paper looks into two interrelated processes staged in a rural community in West Timor, Indonesia, a community that has been largely left behind by development projects. One is the process of rapid spread of mobile phones and expansion of their use. Another is the process of development (involving many twists and turns) of enterprises trying to create the electric infrastructure needed to charge mobile phones, a process that has recently suffered a serious setback. The author describes the two processes and analyzes how villagers proactively purchase new products, incorporate them into their daily lives, and master the ways to use them to fit their environment, at the same time letting the chances of "development", chances that are right there in front of their eyes, slip by. The purpose of the analysis is to highlight the "electroscape", an indispensable condition expected to just be there for the processes of development and modernization, a condition, without which everyday lives of us, researchers, and the countries we come from, would not have been possible, but one which still goes unnoticed by those whose very lives depend on it. This analysis of a rural community in Indonesia shall help us see how consumption and the desire to consume operate on a deeper level, a level unseen with such simple classifications as the "(pseudo-)middle class" and the "poor."
著者
Yoshinari Morita 森田 良成
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.367-390, 2019-01-25

Recent research in cultural anthropology has shown that smuggling is notnecessarily an act of negation of the rule of the state or an attempt toundermine this rule. In fact, smugglers quite often require the rule of thestate for their actions to be justified as ‘exceptions’.In 1999, the Province of East Timor became gained independence fromthe Republic of Indonesia, and in 2002 the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste was born. As a result, an international border was created on theisland separating the two countries. Since that time, the border surroundingOecusse District, a detached territory of Timor-Leste, has become a stagefor routine smuggling – an ‘open secret’ in the neighbouring villages.This chapter is structured around a series of events that occurred inNapan, a village on the Indonesian side of the international border surroundingOecusse District. The events involved villagers and soldiers of theIndonesian army assigned to border guard duty. This chapter gives anaccount of these events and then analyses them. The events threatened thedelicate balance between the villagers and the soldiers, at the same timelaying bare the contradictions and failures inherent in the rule of the stateover its people and the way in which the border is administered. We shallexamine the complex relationship between the power and violence inherentin state rule that clearly manifested itself in the process, at the same timediscussing more universal issues such as the relationship between the powerof the state and its people or citizens’ sense of belonging to the state.
著者
森田 良成 森田 良成
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.3, pp.367-390, 2019

Recent research in cultural anthropology has shown that smuggling is notnecessarily an act of negation of the rule of the state or an attempt toundermine this rule. In fact, smugglers quite often require the rule of thestate for their actions to be justified as 'exceptions'.In 1999, the Province of East Timor became gained independence fromthe Republic of Indonesia, and in 2002 the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste was born. As a result, an international border was created on theisland separating the two countries. Since that time, the border surroundingOecusse District, a detached territory of Timor-Leste, has become a stagefor routine smuggling – an 'open secret' in the neighbouring villages.This chapter is structured around a series of events that occurred inNapan, a village on the Indonesian side of the international border surroundingOecusse District. The events involved villagers and soldiers of theIndonesian army assigned to border guard duty. This chapter gives anaccount of these events and then analyses them. The events threatened thedelicate balance between the villagers and the soldiers, at the same timelaying bare the contradictions and failures inherent in the rule of the stateover its people and the way in which the border is administered. We shallexamine the complex relationship between the power and violence inherentin state rule that clearly manifested itself in the process, at the same timediscussing more universal issues such as the relationship between the powerof the state and its people or citizens' sense of belonging to the state.国境と密輸に関する近年の文化人類学は,密輸という行為が,国家の統治を否定したり破壊したりする行為とは限らないことを論じている。密輸を行う人々にとって,国家による統治は自らの行為を否定し阻む存在ではなく,この行為が「例外」としての正当性を得るために,しばしばむしろ必要とされている。 1999 年の住民投票を経て、東ティモール民主共和国は2002 年にインドネシア共和国から独立した。これによりティモール島には,ふたつの国家を隔てる国境線が引かれた。東ティモール領の飛び地オエクシ県を囲む国境では,独立以来,密輸が日常化している。これは周辺の村人たちによって「公然の秘密」といわれている。 本稿では,東ティモール領オエクシ県を囲む国境線のインドネシア側にあるナパン村において,村人と,国境警備にあたるインドネシア軍兵士との間に起こったある一連の出来事を記述し分析する。密輸をめぐり村人と兵士との間に起きたこの衝突は,両者の微妙な関係を不安定化するとともに,国民と国境に対する国家による管理の矛盾と破綻を露わにするものだった。結果として,ある方法によってこの危機に「和解」がもたらされた。本稿では,この過程で明らかになった国家の統治における権力と暴力の複雑な関係を明らかにするとともに,国家権力と国民の関係,国民としての国家への帰属意識について論じる。