著者
宮下 良子
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan Review of Anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.141-168, 2020-03

This paper explores the dynamics of ethnicity of the Zainichi Koreans living with the Japanese in a Hisabetsu-buraku, or “discriminated district”, in Sakai, Osaka prefecture, Japan. Here, the term “Zainichi Koreans” refers to the Koreans who or whose ancestors migrated from the KoreanPeninsula to Japan before or during the Second World War; and who, concurrently, maintain their identity as Koreans. Sakai is an administrative city located in the southern industrial suburbs of a metropolitan region of Osaka.Both the Zainichi Koreans and the Hisabetsu-buraku people have long suffered severe discrimination and prejudice in Japan. A number of sociological, historical, and other academic studies has so far addressed the issues of ethnicity or identity of these marginalized communities.However, the scholars have paid less attention to the dynamics of their identity (re)formation which may have historically occurred in the process of daily interactions between these two communities.Reviewing these earlier studies, the present paper aims to 1) depict the daily lives and social spaces constructed by the Zainichi Koreans who live side by side with the Japanese Hisabetsuburaku people in A town, Sakai; and 2) examine the dynamic (re)formation of ethnicity of the second-generation Zainichi Koreans in this town. The study is mainly based on the interviews I conducted from 2006 through 2011 with the Zainichi Koreans and the Hisabetsu-buraku people in A town.
著者
八尾 祥平
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan review of anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
no.21, pp.81-104, 2018-03

This research examines the historical process of how the pineapple industry propagated toOkinawa via Taiwan from Hawaii. Previous research studied the history of the pineapple industryby examining local history. This research goes beyond the influence of local regions and great power,but analyzes the process by shedding light on the international flow of a commodity and the peoplethat accompanied the propagation of the pineapple industry to various colonies of the world.This research reveals that the change of the regional order in the Asian-Pacific area had greatimpacts on the international flow in the pineapple industry. Firstly, the network transferring acommodity and the people that supported the propagation of pineapple industry to Okinawa viacolonial Taiwan from American territory was created because of the falling of the Hawaii and RyukyuKingdom at almost the same period by great power (the strong fortitudes) and also because Taiwanwas being governed by the Japanese Empire. Secondly, since after the collapse of the JapaneseEmpire and the reconstruction of the regional order of Asia-Pacific area due to the cold war system,the Philippines and Thailand, whose labor cost was cheap, eroded the world market share in Hawaii,Taiwan and Okinawa in the so-called open market.There are still discussions taking place that support the modernization theory, which claimsthat the economic growth in developing countries contributed to the transition of the base of thepineapple industry from Hawaii, Taiwan, and Okinawa to Philippine and Thailand. However, it issignificant in the history of the conversation about the pineapple industry to shed light on the peoplewho tried to stabilize their life while they were tossed about by the change of the local power betweengreat countries challenging the dominate arguments like the modernization theory. The importanceof research on the transition of a commodity and the people that connect the sphere of influence of multiple countries will be more and more recognized from now on.
著者
森田 良成
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan Review of Anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.57-78, 2017-03

This paper looks into two interrelated processes staged in a rural community in West Timor, Indonesia, a community that has been largely left behind by development projects. One is the process of rapid spread of mobile phones and expansion of their use. Another is the process of development (involving many twists and turns) of enterprises trying to create the electric infrastructure needed to charge mobile phones, a process that has recently suffered a serious setback. The author describes the two processes and analyzes how villagers proactively purchase new products, incorporate them into their daily lives, and master the ways to use them to fit their environment, at the same time letting the chances of "development", chances that are right there in front of their eyes, slip by. The purpose of the analysis is to highlight the "electroscape", an indispensable condition expected to just be there for the processes of development and modernization, a condition, without which everyday lives of us, researchers, and the countries we come from, would not have been possible, but one which still goes unnoticed by those whose very lives depend on it. This analysis of a rural community in Indonesia shall help us see how consumption and the desire to consume operate on a deeper level, a level unseen with such simple classifications as the "(pseudo-)middle class" and the "poor."
著者
山本 須美子
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan Review of Anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.241-266, 2020-03

This paper aims to shed light on the transnational relationship of Jains residing in Okachimachi, Taito-ku, Tokyo with India. The paper focuses on the repositioning of their life in Japan as a transnational domain and the differences between the parents’ and next generations.Okachimachi, meaning a ‘jewellery town’, dates back to the Edo period. However, the number of Indian jewellers has been increasing, especially since the 1990s. Indian jewellers are engaged in a transnational business, where coloured stones and diamonds from around the world are processed in Indian factories and then imported into Japan for sale. In some cases, the jewellery business has been handed down from generation to generation for 500 years or more, which makes it a unique ethnic business in Japan.From 2017–2019, I conducted an interview survey of six Jains in the age group of 40-60 years and five Jains in their teens and 30s living in Tokyo. Furthermore, in September 2019, five jewellers were interviewed in New Delhi and Jaipur, India, to understand the jewellery business in India and their relationship with relatives living in Okachimachi.The paper concludes that the parents’ generation runs the jewellery business in Japanese society by living amongst a strong Jain community formed in Okachimachi and maintains relationships with relatives in India. They maintain their Jain identity and adapt to Japanese society without establishing close relationships with the Japanese. However, the next generation is more involved in Japanese society both professionally and socially and also maintains relationships with Indian relatives while being somewhat involved with the Jain community formed by their parents’ generation.
著者
八尾 祥平
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan Review of Anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.81-104, 2018-03

This research examines the historical process of how the pineapple industry propagated toOkinawa via Taiwan from Hawaii. Previous research studied the history of the pineapple industryby examining local history. This research goes beyond the influence of local regions and great power,but analyzes the process by shedding light on the international flow of a commodity and the peoplethat accompanied the propagation of the pineapple industry to various colonies of the world.This research reveals that the change of the regional order in the Asian-Pacific area had greatimpacts on the international flow in the pineapple industry. Firstly, the network transferring acommodity and the people that supported the propagation of pineapple industry to Okinawa viacolonial Taiwan from American territory was created because of the falling of the Hawaii and RyukyuKingdom at almost the same period by great power (the strong fortitudes) and also because Taiwanwas being governed by the Japanese Empire. Secondly, since after the collapse of the JapaneseEmpire and the reconstruction of the regional order of Asia-Pacific area due to the cold war system,the Philippines and Thailand, whose labor cost was cheap, eroded the world market share in Hawaii,Taiwan and Okinawa in the so-called open market.There are still discussions taking place that support the modernization theory, which claimsthat the economic growth in developing countries contributed to the transition of the base of thepineapple industry from Hawaii, Taiwan, and Okinawa to Philippine and Thailand. However, it issignificant in the history of the conversation about the pineapple industry to shed light on the peoplewho tried to stabilize their life while they were tossed about by the change of the local power betweengreat countries challenging the dominate arguments like the modernization theory. The importanceof research on the transition of a commodity and the people that connect the sphere of influence of multiple countries will be more and more recognized from now on.
著者
中村 八重
出版者
白山人類学研究会
雑誌
白山人類学 = Hakusan Review of Anthropology (ISSN:13415980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.59-80, 2018-03

There is a movement to utilize Chosen Tsushinshi in local festivals in Korea and Japanrespectively, therefore to utilize it in tourism and local promotion. The fact that the records relatedChosen Tsushinshi (Joseon misshon to Japan) were applied to and registered in the 'Memory of theWorld' in October 2017 jointly with Korea and Japan is not irrelevant.In the background to actively use Chosen Tsushinshi, it is intended that Chosen Tsushinshishould be regarded as a symbol of friendship and peace between Korea and Japan. However, theemphasis on "peace" and "good diplomacy" in the Edo era can leave room to interpret the era of theJapanese Empire as heterogeneous.In this article, it is examined that how the process of establishing the Chosen Tsushinshiparade can be related through the case of the Korean residents, which originated in the imperialistera, Korean Residents Union in Japan (Mindan). Also, it is wanted to clarify the problems of theinternational exchange project which forget the memories of colonial period and imperialism.Specifically, the cases of Tsushima and Shimonoseki are adopted among the local governmentsperforming the reproduction process of Chosen Tsushinshi parades as part of the local festival.Tsushima and Shimonoseki are representative areas that have shared a strong sense ofsolidarity with Korea even after the war, during the Edo period and the imperialist era when theChosen Tsushinshi was active. But Korean residents in Japan and Mindan are not involved inthe reproduction process of Chosen Tsushinshi parade. There is no mention of the colonies in anymunicipality that wishes to use the Chosen Tsushinshi, and a procession is being made solely forthe purpose of local promotion. This means that the memories of discrimination and alienation ofKorean residents in Japan experienced during the Imperial era are being forgotten. And today, it shows that they are not subjective in the event of Chosen Tsushinshi Parades that links Korea andJapan. The Korea-Japan exchange by the Chosen Tsushinshi procession points out the problem oftoday's international exchange which is being used for the local promotion, rather than developingthe original ideology of the overcoming of the history problem and understanding of others.