著者
斎藤 公明 栗原 治 松田 規宏 高原 省五 佐藤 哲朗
出版者
公益社団法人 日本アイソトープ協会
雑誌
RADIOISOTOPES (ISSN:00338303)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.93-112, 2016-02-15 (Released:2016-02-15)
参考文献数
51

福島事故に起因する被ばくにおいて重要な位置を占める外部被ばくの線量評価に関する最新の知見を紹介する。まず,外部被ばく線量評価の基本的な考え方を提示し,空間線量率に基づく線量評価ならびに個人線量計を用いた測定の長所と問題点について基礎データを示しながら議論する。また,事故後に行われてきた主要な外部被ばく線量測定・評価の試みについてまとめる。さらに,線量評価の新たな試みについても紹介する。
著者
高原 省五 本間 俊充 米田 稔 島田 洋子
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.147-159, 2016 (Released:2016-11-18)
参考文献数
58

Management of radiation-induced risks in areas contaminated by a nuclear accident is characterized by three ethical issues: (i) risk trade-off, (ii) paternalistic intervention and (iii) individualization of responsibilities. To deal with these issues and to clarify requirements of justification of interventions for the purpose of reduction in radiation-induced risks, we explored the ethical basis of the radiological protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP's radiological protection system is established based on three normative ethics, i.e. utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics. The three ethical issues can be resolved based on the decision-making framework which is constructed in combination with these ethical theories. In addition, the interventions for inhabitants have the possibility to be justified in accordance with two ways. Firstly, when the dangers are severe and far-reaching, interventions could be justified with a sufficient explanation about the nature of harmful effects (or beneficial consequences). Secondly, if autonomy of intervened-individuals can be promoted, those interventions could be justified.
著者
高原 省五 加藤 尊秋 本間 俊充
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.180-192, 2013 (Released:2014-08-08)
参考文献数
70
被引用文献数
1 1

The monetary value of unit collective dose, which represents the benefit of dose reduction due to the protective measures, is a key element in implementing the optimization principle of the radiation protection. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the country-specific monetary value of unit collective dose reflecting the economic and population characteristics in Japan, as well as to analyze the balance of the cost and benefit of the radiological protective measures. When we calculated the monetary values of unit collective dose in Japan using human capital method and willingness to pay approach, the values were around several million yen/person-Sv and 20 million yen/person-Sv, respectively. In addition, we surveyed the data on costs of radiological protective measures per the avoided person-Sv. As the results of comparing the cost and benefit, the costs of radiological protective measures to reduce the concentration of radon in homes and to protect workers in nuclear facilities were balanced with the benefit. On the other hand, the costs of radionuclide emission control measures at industrial facilities tend to be higher than the benefit of those measures.
著者
木名瀬 栄 木村 仁宣 高原 省五 本間 俊充
出版者
Atomic Energy Society of Japan
雑誌
日本原子力学会和文論文誌 (ISSN:13472879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.3, pp.149-151, 2011 (Released:2011-07-29)
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1

There has been some concern in reviewing the effectiveness of making decisions on the implementation of protective measures in emergency exposure situations. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, temporal changes in the concentration of iodine 131 in tap water were studied using published data from several authorities in Fukushima, Ibaraki, and Tokyo. Averted doses to infants (1-year-old children) due to the intake of iodine 131 through tap water restrictions were also evaluated. Consequently, it was found that the apparent half-life of iodine 131 in tap water was 2.8 days. The averted equivalent doses to the thyroids of 1-year-old children were found to have a maximum value of 8.3 mSv in a local area of Fukushima. Hence, the tap water restrictions implemented by the authorities were considered to be effective in the early phase of the emergency exposure situation.