著者
Atsushi KOBAYASHI Sayaka TSUCHIDA Atsushi UEDA Takuji YAMADA Koichi MURATA Hiroshi NAKAMURA Kazunari USHIDA
出版者
JAPANESE SOCIETY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE
雑誌
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (ISSN:09167250)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.19-0014, (Released:2019-08-12)

The transgenerational maintenance of symbiotic microbes that benefit host nutrition and health is evolutionarily advantageous. In some vertebrate lineages, coprophagy is used as a strategy for effectively transmitting microbes across generations. However, this strategy has still not been studied in birds. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of maternal cecal feces consumption by Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta japonica) chicks as a strategy for acquiring essential gut microbes. Both the duration of coprophagy behavior by the chicks and the development process of the chick cecal microbiome (n=20 one- to three-week-old chicks, from three broods) were investigated. In all three broods, coprophagy behavior was only observed from 3 to 18 days of age. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 1-week-old chicks (n=651) and adults (n=609), and most of the main OTUs observed in the adults were already present in the 1-week-old chicks. These results indicate that, in this precocial bird species, coprophagy may contribute to the early establishment of cecal bacteria that are essential for food digestion and, thus, chick survival. In fact, Japanese rock ptarmigan chicks consume the same food as their hens from the time of hatching. This behavior may have applications to ex-situ conservation.
著者
Hideyuki Tukada Toshihiro Hiraki Hiroshi Nakamura
出版者
The Chemical Society of Japan
雑誌
Chemistry Letters (ISSN:03667022)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.130108, (Released:2013-05-18)
被引用文献数
2

[2]Rotaxanes constructed with an ethereal end-capped axle and a dibenzo-24-crown-8 wheel were synthesized from pseudorotaxanes bearing an alcoholic terminus and diaryl-diazomethanes using diphenyl phosphate as a catalyst. The reaction proceeded at room temperature in nonpolar solvents within several hours. The [2]rotaxanes thus obtained behaved as ammonium salts derived from a very strong base such as DBU. Thus, the amine form of the [2]rotaxane reacted with a weak acid, CO2–H2O, to give a bicarbonate salt of the [2]rotaxane, which turned back to the amine form after drying followed by evacuation.
著者
Hideyuki Tukada Toshihiro Hiraki Hiroshi Nakamura
出版者
(社)日本化学会
雑誌
Chemistry Letters (ISSN:03667022)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.6, pp.630-632, 2013-06-05 (Released:2013-06-05)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
2

[2]Rotaxanes constructed with an ethereal end-capped axle and a dibenzo-24-crown-8 wheel were synthesized from pseudorotaxanes bearing an alcoholic terminus and diaryldiazomethanes using diphenyl phosphate as a catalyst. The reaction proceeded at room temperature in nonpolar solvents within several hours. The [2]rotaxanes thus obtained behaved as ammonium salts derived from a very strong base such as DBU. Thus, the amine form of the [2]rotaxane reacted with a weak acid, CO2–H2O, to give a hydrogencarbonate salt of the [2]rotaxane, which turned back to the amine form after drying followed by evacuation.
著者
Hau-Jie Shiu Ken-ichi Tokita Emiko Morishita Emiko Hiraoka Yinyin Wu Hiroshi Nakamura Hiroyoshi Higuchi
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, no.2, pp.151-156, 2006 (Released:2007-02-01)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
7

In order to examine fidelity to migration route, breeding, wintering, and stopover sites, we analyzed the migration of two adult Grey-faced Buzzards Butastur indicus and an adult Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus that were satellite-tracked in East Asia for more than two migration seasons. The Grey-faced Buzzards showed a high degree of route fidelity across seasons and years. On the other hand, the migration routes of the Honey-buzzard were distinctly different between fall and spring seasons, whereas, within each season they were roughly similar between years. All three raptors were strictly faithful to their breeding and wintering sites. They also showed fidelity to several stopover sites in which the raptors stayed for relatively long periods to replenish energy. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of the migratory raptors.