著者
内田 らら
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.1-9, 2001

In this paper, I examine where nanka in ordinary conversations comes from. Here I take into consideration the relationship between nanka and "concept" (Halliday 1994:59) in "information unit" (ibid.). From analysis and discussion, I point out (1) nanka is not "a habit of saying" to make introductory remarks, but discourse marker which follows new concepts for hearers and (2) nanka is born of metaphorical grammaticalization from pronoun and metonymic one from adverbial particle to discourse marker. Moreover, I make clear the process of grammaticalization concerning nanka. That is, nanka is derived from pronoun expressing what is unspecified. Later, influenced by adverbial particle, it marks the whole utterances after nanka as something vague and is used in order to connect to clear contexts before nanka. Then, it is grammaticalized as an expression that implies the speaker's attitude to or judgement on what remains vague after nanka.
著者
大西 昇
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.61-75, 2001

For the people in the ancient Japan,nature herself was not God,but some natural products were their gods. Natural products had not their creator; they were not the creator and yet not creatures. They were matter and or non-matter. Therefore gods of the ancient Japanese were matter and or non-matter. And yet they were not gods of the Animism.
著者
塙 叡
出版者
東京工芸大学
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要 (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.1-10, 1979-01-15

Japanese thought of territorial waters in the Edo era developed connecting with the coastal fishery and being influenced by the approach of foreign ships. In Cremean War 1854, Japan rejected the demand of England on mainting neutrality. In Prussian-French War 1870, Japan declared the neutrality and accented the theory of 3-miles territorial waters. But the system of Japanese waters has not been legislated till 1977. Kairi, Hiro, Shaku and Knot were introduced by the Meiji Government. Especially Kairi took the lead in the history of adoption of the metric system.
著者
野呂 浩 Hiroshi NORO 東京工芸大学工学部基礎教育研究センター
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 = The Academic Reports, the Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.30-38, 2001

Scholars of American literature have produced innumerable interpretations on Nathaniel Hawthorne's masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Notably, each different approach to the work has revealed a different viewpoint hidden within the story. Here, the story is to be analyzed in relation to the lifelong inner angst of author Nathaniel Hawthorne. This new approach shows the main characters to be individuals into whom the depth of Nathaniel Hawthorne's psychological mindset has been projected. Arthur Dimmesdale, a young minister, reflects the author's internal struggle over his ancestor's past involvement in the judgement of witches, including at the Salem witch trial in 1692. Chillingworth, a diabolical man, represents Nathaniel Hawthorne's sense of guilt, and shows his commitment as an artist to observing people's inner souls. Hester's freethinking manner and way of life can be seen as Nathaniel Hawthorne's strong determination to become an independent artist, and one who is never to fall victim to the stains of the past and society. Nathaniel Hawthorne's longing for British culture is reflected in Pearl. The particular end that each character meets can also be interpreted as carrying its own unique message. Nathaniel Hawthorne is very negative about Chillingworth; the author shows no sympathy for his own inevitably sinful fate of peeping into people's inner souls. The implications of Dimmesdale's death after his final confession on the scaffold are somewhat ambiguous. It is uncertain whether he was saved or severely judged. More likely, there is a mixture of both elements, and his death clearly shows us that the sinful lifestyle of Nathaniel Hawthorne's ancestors must end. Hester ultimately returns of her own free will to the puritan society of Boston, after having lived for a while in the Old World with her daughter Pearl. Hester's return tells us that Nathaniel Hawthorne's desire for freedom includes the possibility of serving the puritan society. Pearl is the only character alive at the end of the novel, happily married, and possibly in England. Nathaniel Hawthorne's decision to live as an artist includes aspirations of British heritage. Dimmesdale's inherited strong animal nature is the root of the persecuting spirit in the history of the author's' ancestors. Therefore, the scarlet letter A in the story can be interpreted as the initial letter of the word 'animal.'
著者
平岡 一幸
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要 = The Academic Reports, the Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.1, pp.1-8, 2018-06-30

この小文は本学における初等数学の教育の素材提供の試みとして、音楽の「音」 の規則である「音律」に焦点を当てます。 近代・現代の音楽は平均律が主流ですが、純正律の方がハーモニーが美しいと言われます。 その美しさにアプロ ー チするため、 純正律と平均律を数理科学的に解析し、 両者を比較・整理するの がこの小文の目的の一つです。更に、純正律で奏でられる機会が多い「合唱音楽」を取り上げ、 具体的な演奏について考察します。
著者
内田 らら Lala UCHIDA 東京工芸大学工学部基礎教育研究センター
雑誌
東京工芸大学工学部紀要. 人文・社会編 = The Academic Reports, the Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University (ISSN:03876055)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.1-9, 2001

In this paper, I examine where nanka in ordinary conversations comes from. Here I take into consideration the relationship between nanka and "concept" (Halliday 1994:59) in "information unit" (ibid.). From analysis and discussion, I point out (1) nanka is not "a habit of saying" to make introductory remarks, but discourse marker which follows new concepts for hearers and (2) nanka is born of metaphorical grammaticalization from pronoun and metonymic one from adverbial particle to discourse marker. Moreover, I make clear the process of grammaticalization concerning nanka. That is, nanka is derived from pronoun expressing what is unspecified. Later, influenced by adverbial particle, it marks the whole utterances after nanka as something vague and is used in order to connect to clear contexts before nanka. Then, it is grammaticalized as an expression that implies the speaker's attitude to or judgement on what remains vague after nanka.