著者
HIROFUMI UZAWA
出版者
JAPANESE ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION
雑誌
季刊 理論経済学 (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.59-62, 1962-09-30 (Released:2008-02-28)
参考文献数
12

THE PURPOSE of this note is to show the equivalence of two fundamental theorems-Walras' Existence Theorem on the one hand and Brouwer's FixedPoint Theorem on the other.Walras' theorem1) is concerned with the existence of an equilibrium in the Walrasian system of general equilibrium and has been a problem of some importance in formal economic analysis since his work [12] appeared in 1874-7. It was, however, not until Wald's contributions, [10] and [11], that the existence problem was rigorously treated. Recent contributions, in particular those of Arrow and Debreu [2], McKenzie [6], NikaidÔ [7], and Gale [4], have shown that Walras' theorem is essentially a necessary consequence of Brouwer's FixedPoint Theorem. The latter theorem, 2)first proved by Brouwer [3] in 1911, also bears a fundamental importance in mathematics. It may be hence of some interest to see that Brouwer's theorem is in fact implied by Walras' theorem. It would indicate the reason that the general treatment of the existence pro blem in the Walrasian system had to wait for the development of the twentieth century mathematics.
著者
本間 正明 跡田 直澄 橋本 恭之
出版者
日本経済学会
雑誌
The Economic Studies Quarterly (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.4, pp.336-348, 1989-12-20 (Released:2007-10-19)
参考文献数
14

The Japanese Tax Reform Act enforced by the Takeshita Administration consists of cutting the income tax with simplification of tax rate structure and introducing the “so-called” shohi zei which is a special type of the value added tax. In general, the tax reform has great influence on the structure of tax burden among different income groups. Unfortunately, however, there have been no welfare analysis on household behavior resulting from the present tax reform in Japan. Motivated by the present stage of the study, this paper aims to develop welfare analysis which is concerned with the response of household to the change in tax structure and with its implications from the view point not only of allocation but also of distribution.The first step of our analysis is to specify respective utility functions as nested C.E.S. type for income decile groups by using Annual Report on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey. The second one is to investigate the change in consumption, saving and labour supply of different income groups due to that in tax structure by simulating the optimal behavior of respective income groups. The third step is to calculate the changes in the after-tax income and utility levels of each income group. The final one is to evaluate welfare implications of the tax reform by adopting special type of social welfare function and the generalized entropy measure for income distribution. To sum up, the present tax reform in Japan reduces tax burden and improves utility level for all income groups expect for the lowest income group. How we evaluate this consequence in welfare aspect depends upon our value judgement on social justice. If we have strong preference to equality, the resulting consequence is not welcomed to the society as a whole not only in social welfare level but also in inequality measure. On the contrary, under such circumstance as utilitarian calculus, it is proved to be favorable for the society.
著者
荻沼 隆
出版者
日本経済学会
雑誌
The Economic Studies Quarterly (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.160-173, 1988-06-20 (Released:2007-10-19)
参考文献数
15

In this paper, we have the following results. (1) In general, the correspondeces between capital and class, and capital and exploitation don't hold in our model (these relations hold in Roemer (1982)), but the correspondence between class and exploitation holds. (2) We have two examples of nonexistence of exploitation with positive profit (the counter-example of Fundamental Marxian Theorem in our model) and an example of existence of exploitation with identical capital endowments. (3) We get some propositions about the relationship between three concepts, free to choose, freedom to attain one's purpose and non-existence of exploitation.
著者
成田 淳司
出版者
日本経済学会
雑誌
The Economic Studies Quarterly (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.62-71, 1991-03-20 (Released:2007-10-19)
参考文献数
20

It is widely held that the life-cycle hypothesis of consumption is not accepted by Japanese data. However, this view is not founded on firm evidence. In this paper, the life-cycle hypothesis of consumption is tested using cohort data instead of cross-section data. Consumption function of Ghez-Becker type is applied to our data. The hypothesis is proven to be accepted.
著者
二階堂 副包
出版者
日本経済学会
雑誌
季刊 理論経済学 (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-9, 1979-04-27 (Released:2007-10-18)
参考文献数
4

Pathology inherent to neoclassical equilibrium growth is diagnosed to reveal its instability by imbedding it in a Harrodian growth process in a disequilibrium dynamics setting. Despite the alleged stabilizing effect of smooth factor substitution it proves to be balanced just on a knifeedge. Once off the dead center the economy eventually suffers from either growth with prolonged inflation or secular depression. The malignancy is due to firms' investment behaviors, that can not be cured even by smooth factor substitution.
著者
上島 康弘
出版者
学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来
雑誌
季刊理論經濟學 (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.1, pp.78-87, 1990

In this paper, we build a two-period model which focuses on On-the-Job training and derive the effects of specific training on wage profiles and on dismissals. The main results we obtain are as follows:<br>(i) Our two period wage-employment contract dominates the familiar repetitive spot contract in the environment of restricted information.<br>(ii) In this contract, the employees are not necessarily dismissed even if a business deficit is incurred.<br>(iii) In principle, greater amounts of specific training make wage profiles steeper and restrict dismissals.

2 0 0 0 OA 書評

著者
岸本 哲也
出版者
日本経済学会
雑誌
季刊 理論経済学 (ISSN:0557109X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.3, pp.263-264, 1985-12-26 (Released:2007-10-18)