著者
高橋 敏
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.41-51, 2017 (Released:2018-06-20)

群馬県下には、今日なお上州(上野国)といわれた江戸時代の在村剣術から二五代にわたって受け継が れてきた古武道が確固として命脈を保っている。高崎市吉井町に現存する樋口家と馬庭念流である。兵農 分離の刀狩りで剣術はおろか武器を根こそぎ取り上げられた筈の多胡郡馬庭村に、百姓身分でありながら 道場を構えて根を下ろし、周辺農村から上州一円、北関東、江戸にまで門人を獲得し、最盛期には門人が 数千と豪語された一大流派を築いた。更に明治維新以降の近代化のなかで前代の剣術諸流派が剣道に収 斂・統一される趨勢のなか、脈々と今日まで継承されてきた。そこには江戸時代の上州という風土と社会 が深くかかわっているように思われる。本講は、北関東上州の一農村の田舎剣法から門人数千の一大剣術 流派に発展した馬庭念流を手がかりに二世紀半にも及ぶ未曾有の平和な江戸時代に、身分制度の厚い壁を 破って展開していった武芸について考えてみたい。 上州、関東においては、兵農分離は身分制度として断行されたが、刀狩りは実施されず、武器の所持、 剣術の継承は禁止されることはなく許容された。樋口家は中世以来の在地土豪の権益を失い、公的には百 姓身分になったが、私的な領域においては姓を名乗り、帯刀し、念流を伝授することは黙認された。要は 在地土豪の念流を継承する郷士と馬庭村百姓の二つの顔を持つことになった。 馬庭念流は、江戸時代初頭から四代に長命にして剣技・指導力に優れた当主に恵まれ、北関東を中心に 多くの門弟を集め、江戸にまで進出して道場を経営し、一大流派の結社に発展する。門人は百姓町人のみ ならず、高家新田岩松氏、七日市藩前田氏、小幡藩織田氏、支配領主旗本長崎氏の主従にまで門下の列に 加えている。 なかでも流派念流の結社としての勢力を誇示したのが有名神社の社前において秘剣を披露し、師匠以下 門人名を列記した大額を奉納する儀礼であった。上野四社から江戸神田明神・浅草寺、鎌倉八幡、伊勢外 宮・内宮、遠く讃岐金刀比羅宮にまで足を運び、大枚を投じ奉額している。 このような現象は念流だけではなかった。千葉・斎藤・桃井の江戸三大道場と謳われた民間剣術流派の 盛業に顕著のように、幕藩領主に囲い込まれ、正統とされた剣術が衰退し、民間の剣術がこれに代わって 勃興していったことと軌を一にしたものであった。いわば幕藩秩序そのままの武士が独占する伝統守旧の 剣術から民間の活性化された在村剣術が掘り起こされて、身分制度の枠を打破して、武芸として百姓町人 までが入門、習練する時代が到来したのである。まさに戦国乱世の殺人剣から幕藩領主の子飼いの指南の 剣術を経て、新たに自衛のため、修行のための武芸に生まれ変わろうとしていた。もちろん武芸の大流行 は、念流が江戸から勢力拡大を図る北辰一刀流千葉周作と伊香保神社掲額をめぐって一髪触発のところま でいったように、諸流派の競合・対立を引き起こすことも多々あった。しかし、大勢は総じて流派間の共 存と連携を深めていったことの方が事実である。幕府法令からは民間の帯刀、剣術は厳禁されているが、 時代の武芸熱は冷めるどころか高揚し、諸流派を渡り歩く武者修行の旅が一般化していく。これを可能に したのが諸流派間を結び、連携する一種のネットワークの形成であったように思う。そこには支配秩序に 直結する武士のみならず姓名、諱まで名乗る武士風体の百姓・町人が多く含まれ、身分制度の壁を越えた 一大武芸の文化ネットワークが広がっていた。 剣術、武芸の歴史といえば、権力争奪に絡む殺伐とした合戦、暗殺、仇討ち、テロといった殺人剣を類 推する向きが多いが、平和の時代を背景に自己鍛錬の武芸として定着していったことを見落としてはなら ない。近代剣道に転換する素地はつくられていたのである。
著者
榎本 鐘司
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.21-36, 1994-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)
被引用文献数
1

In the Edo period the peasants were prohibited by law from possessing weapons. Neverthless, the peasants already practiced Bujutsu in the first half of the Edo period. Documents of the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools in the possession of the Takizawa family in a village in North Shinano have been found and analyzed by the present author. The purpose of this study is threefold:(1)To clarify what kinds of peasant in a village community practice the martial arts of the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools. (2)To clarify what kind of Bujutsu they practice, that is to say, what is the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools. (3)To clarify the purposes for which they practice it. Briefly, the main conclusions were as follows:(1)Many of the peasants that practiced the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools were also the samurais of the lowest rank in the Matsushiro clan, that is to say, they were the marginal people in the villages. (2)The MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools was comprehensive bujutsu which was medieval. It consisted of jujutsu, bojutsu, iai, nawa, and so on. (3)The purpose of the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools was primarily vocational educaion, but it was pastime and sport for many peasants in the villages.
著者
竹村 匡弥
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.39-53, 2010-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)

There are three traditional accounts as to where Kappa, one of the legendary Japanese folk creatures comes from. From a folkloristics perspective, however, Kunio Yanagita claimed it was a degraded form of a water god. Supposing that claim is true, degradation will be the origin. There is, however, no mention of it in those accounts. In Nihon Shoki, the oldest official chronicle of Japan, there are two mentions of Nomino-sukune. These mentions are part of the "Emperor Suinin Jyou," a collection of events during the reign of Emperor Suinin; one is about the origin of sumo and the other is about the origin of haniwa, earthenware figures. In the early eighth century, "Sumaino-sechie" one of the Imperial Court ceremonies was set on the seventh day of the seventh month and sumo was held on the same day along with the Star Festival. According to the chronicle, "a sumo match between Nomino-sukune and Taimano-kehaya," took place on the seventh day of the seventh month in the seventh year of Emperor Suinin's reign. This intentional setting shows a clear reason for having "Sumaino-sechie" on the seventh day of the seventh month and having a poem-composing ceremony for the Star Festival and sumo on the same day. There must have been some sound reasons, but no documents showing this have not been found. This paper starts examining the intention by assuming that the prototype of the Star Festival was disgrace. The prototype of the Star Festival is the act of sacrificing animals and humans to the water god. In the Jindaiki section of Nihon Shoki. there are some evil acts by Susanoo (a god) mentioned. One of them was the act of throwing a skinned cow into a place where weaving was in process and thus hurt a weaving girl. It can be said that the account was described with the prototype of the Star Festival in mind. The evil acts by Susanoo are the origin of amatsu-tsumi or sin and are regarded as a disgrace, something to be purified. Thus, the prototype of the Star Festival was set as a disgrace. A disgrace means events or acts which are not in compliance with social order and that order is set by the ones in power. In due course, those events or acts will become something that must be purified. This paper lists the outlying regions that don't obey the ruler and the insurrection within the government as these examples. Designating the acts of disgrace gives justification to ruling that region and epuration of the insurrection, solidifying the authenticity of power. The existence of the poem-composing ceremony for the Star Festival on the seventh day of the seventh month can be confirmed by "Manyo-shyu" the oldest collection of poems. Also, the recognition of the prototype of the Star Festival can be confirmed by the fact that it was described as a motif of evil acts by Susanoo. That is, sacrificing animals and humans, which are ceremonies for a water god, become disgraceful. The origin of a water god degrading into Kappa is found here. Originally, "Sumaino-sechie" has been thought to have started as "the rite for governing outlying regions." This paper, however, regards it as a disgrace from the correlations between the beginning of "Sumaino-sechie" and "a sumo match between Nomino-sukune and Taimano-kehaya." If the origin of "Sumaino-sechie" is regarded as disgrace, it can be viewed as "the rite to remain in power against insurrection within the government" in addition to the traditional assumption as "the rite to subject the outlying region." It can be said that the intention for setting the sumo match on the seventh day of the seventh month was to show legitimacy for governing the outlying region.
著者
榎本 鐘司
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.1-14, 1991-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)
被引用文献数
1

Kakegoe can be translated into "shouting" in English. In the matches of the Modern Kendo, various types of Kakegoe, such as 'Men''Kote''Doo''Yaa''Too', have been used. This study has two purposes. One is to clarify where Kakegoe of Kendo is traced back to, and the other is to point out the erroneous assumptions in the former studies of Budo history in order to offer the study of Budo history a new perspective. The gist of this paper is as follows:(1)In the Edo period, there were various schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe and various ones without Kakegoe. The KASHIMA-KATORI-SHINTO Schools, for instance, handed down Kakegoe. On the contrary, the SHINKAGE Schools and the ITTO Schools, which were the mainstream of Kenjutsu in the Edo period, did not hand it down. (2)The main function of Kakegoe of Kenjutsu in the Edo period was to increase and display the spirit of the performer, and was similar to that of the spells in Esoteric Buddhism. Some acting elements existed in Katas which were practised in the schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe in the Edo period. Because people belonging to these Schools somtimes used Kakegoe for the purposes of giving their opponents the signs of attacking and of expressing their feelings. (3)All schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe were local in the Edo period;that is to say, Kakegoe was handed down in the Schools mainly consisting of peasants. Neverthless, their modes of Kakegoe existed in the Shinai-Uchikomi-Shiai-Kenjutsu which became the mainstream of Kenjutsu by the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate and was the original form of the Modern Kendo. (4)It has been considered in the former studies of Kendo history that the Modern Kendo developed from the ITTO Schools and so on which were the mainstream of Kenjutsu in the Edo period. But, the history of Kakegoe tells us that the former studies of Kendo history are one-sided, and that the Modern Kendo can be traced back not only to the samurais' Kenjutsu but also to the Peasants' Kenjutsu.
著者
中嶋 哲也
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.27-40, 2011-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the ideology of Budo was changed after the Japan-China War in 1937. Specifically the discussion is focused on both Taro Inaba and Yasutaro Fujio's criticisms of Jigoro Kano's opinion of Kodokan. At the "Kodokan Excommunication" case in 1937, Kodokan judo was rejected due to the criticism Inaba, and Fujio was a member of the punishment council. The concept of Kodokan advocated by Kano, "Seiryokuzenyo (the way to use most efficiently the body and spirit of human being)" and "Jitakyoei (the way to live together in mutual prosperity)", aimed to contribute to the international society after World War I. But the concept was criticized by Fujio and Inaba from the standpoint of "Nihon-Seishin (Japanese spirit)". "Nihon-Seishin" as proposed by Fujio and Inaba, emerged in the background of the National Spiritual Mobilization just after the Japan-China War. Kano originally disliked "Nihon-Seishin", but the situation changed in1938 such that Kano held a meeting on "Nihon-Seishin" and was obliged to say in public that he was trying to encourage "Nihon-Seishin". It may be said that the event marked the beginning of a rejection of the character of internationalism in Kodokan as "Jitakyoei" due to the xenophobia nature of "Nihon-Seishin". In conclusion, we comment on how the ideology surrounding Kodokan was henceforth changed.
著者
石井 克
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.67-82, 2016 (Released:2017-06-08)

The purpose of this study is to clarify a modern sports ideology expressed in newspaper articles by focusing on their use of the term “Athlete”, which steadily increased in the Japanese media since around 1990. Firstly, it tried to explain why the term “Athlete” became a frequently used term by the media. The study considered it to the fact that the term was used by the UNESCO in the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport in characteristic ways, especially, in its Article 7 supplemented in 1991. Based on it, Japanese newspaper articles (Asahi and Yomiuri) in the 1990’s were analyzed. The findings indicate an emergence of new sports ideology, such as “Equality of pro-competition and non-competition”,“ Equality in the competition of healthy people and people with disabilities”“, Selfmanagement of the body”,“ Expansion and improvement of sports rights” and“ Sports as a selfexpression” in the Japanese media. The use of the term “Athlete” symbolizes the change in the recognition and category of modern sports, and opened a new discursive space. It also suggests a new perspective of sports, and international elements.
著者
西原 茂樹
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.1-18, 2006

This paper sets out to review the earliest Japan-US intercollegiate baseball games heldby newspapers based in Tokyo and Osaka in around 1910, and thereby to clarify the actualsituations in the beginning of baseball games as media events in Japan. The following fourviewpoints could be pointed out as a result of studies in this paper.(1) The baseball games as media events in Japan couldn't have been taken place until newspaper management policy changed course for thinking more and more seriously of business and advertisement activities or holding various events in the beginning of the 20th century.(2) The first large-scale Japan-US intercollegiate baseball games were held by the Jiji Shinpo in Tokyo, and the Osaka Asahi and the Osaka Mainichi in Osaka. The following several differencies were noticed among them. @The games held by the Jiji Shinpo were independent events of baseball games, on the other hand those by the Osaka Asahi and the Osaka Mainichi were held with various related events. @The Jiji Shinpo's reports on its events were meant for readers who were familiar with baseball to some extent, but reports by the Osaka Asahi and the Osaka Mainichi were also meant for those who were just un- familiar with such baseball. @The former held its,events on the college sports ground, but the latter on the sports grounds owned by private railway companies in Kansai area.(3) In the background of these differences, it seems to reflect that there were some notice- able differences of readership among these newspapers, and differences between Tokyo and Osaka in economic environment seen particularly in a rapid economic leap of newspapers and a rapid development of a network of private railway lines.(4) In holding these Japan-US intercollegiate baseball games, the Jiji Shinpo and the Osaka Mainichi asserted repeatedly that baseball (sports) have diverse educational values. It seems that these assertions were maintained not as a mere theory but a firm objection to those who tried to insist that baseball was of little or no value(mainly those engaged in schoolteaching) , against the background of social environment in those days that various ill and harmful effects would arise by the absorption of students into baseball, and what's more, such ideologies as martial arts were much superior to baseball circulated among the public to some extent.
著者
脇田 泰子
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.1-19, 2015 (Released:2017-03-13)

The 2012 London Olympics were a great turning point in modern Olympic history, giving birth to the terms "Digital Olympics" and "Socialympics" due to the effective merging of the Internet with conventional broadcasting in the coverage of the event. The present paper begins with an examination of how the Olympics were initially covered by the media, especially up to the first decade of the 20th century mainly inprint media. At the time, the word "media" was largely synonymous with "press", as the print media - which literally used press machines to create their product - had no real rivals as sources of information for the vast majority of people. The earliest popular views of the Olympics were thus determined by print media's cover-age. Next, the paper proceeds to a discussion of the ways in which the very first form of broadcasting, radio, was initially perceived in the West, especially France and Britain, as a feasible medium for sports coverage. Particular attention is given here to Britain, where sports occupied a surprisingly prominent place in radio broadcasting even in the latter's earliest years, on par with coverage of such "serious" matters as the weather and the doings of the royal family. The paper's main and final section is a consideration of a specific example of the close historical relationship between the Olympics and broadcasting, namely radio coverage of the 1924 Games. It focuses on the coverage in France, with the brilliant activity of Edmond Dehorter, the first radio sports reporter in that country. In the course of the above discussions, this paper attempts to demonstrate how a detailed examination of the history of sports and media will reveal that the essence and significance of the close relationship between the Olympic Games and broadcasting can be found as far back as the earliest days of radio, a period which only not witnessed the dawn of Olympics broadcasting but also had significant parallels with the present, which is experiencing the "dawn" of yet another powerful and influential form of media - social media - and the latter's rapidly expanding role in information dissemination.
著者
松本 彰之
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.55-66, 2016 (Released:2017-06-08)

The Ookunitama Shrine in Fuchu City, Tokyo, is a shrine that enshrines Ookunitama no ōkami who is the mikogami, the son of Susanoo. The Ookunitama Shrine used to be a shrine in Kokufu( the capital of the historical Provinces of Japan) that was referred to as Rokusho-no-miya Shrine and Musashi-no-Soja. The Hassaku Sumo Festival is a festival held in the Ookunitama Shrine. The sumo arena in the precincts of the Ookunitama Shrine has a monument built in August 1, 1990. The epigraph says,“ The Ookunitama Shrine Hassaku Sumo is a venerable sumo festival whose Mizuhikimaku curtain was dedicated by the Shogunate for the purpose of encouraging physical activities and which originally started as dedicatory sumo matches to pray for the peace reigns over the land and the huge harvest (of the five grains) in commemoration of the fact that Tokugawa Ieyasu-ko (Lord Ieyasu Tokugawa) made an entry into the Edo Castle in August 1, 1590”.However, currently there is no evidence for the “dedicated Mizuhikimaku curtain” or a document which provides an evidence for the“ purpose of encouraging physical activities by the Shogunate”. Most of the festivals in Japan with the word “Hassaku” are those which have their origin in August 1( August is“ Hachigatsu” in Japanese, while 1 is“ Sakujitsu” in ancient Japanese) that has the significance related to agriculture such as wish for a good harvest and disaster prevention, or those which were started by the feudal lord who gave a special meaning to“ Hassaku.” The Hassaku Sumo Festival was quite a rare case in that it was said to originate from the commemoration of the triumphal entry into the Edo Castle by Lord Ieyasu Tokugawa. This study suggests that Ookunitama Shrine and the Tokugawa Shogunate continued their close relationship, based on the historical examination of sacred treasures kept in the Treasure Hall of Ookunitama Shrine as well as the history and literature on Ookunitama Shrine. And it presents a possibility that these close relationships may have influenced the Hassaku Sumo Festival. These close relationships can be said to have had sufficient influence on Hassaku Sumo Festival at Ookunitama Shrine to be regarded as originating from the commemoration of the triumphal entry into the Edo Castle by Lord Ieyasu Tokugawa.
著者
高橋 敏
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.41-51, 2017

群馬県下には、今日なお上州(上野国)といわれた江戸時代の在村剣術から二五代にわたって受け継がれてきた古武道が確固として命脈を保っている。高崎市吉井町に現存する樋口家と馬庭念流である。兵農分離の刀狩りで剣術はおろか武器を根こそぎ取り上げられた筈の多胡郡馬庭村に、百姓身分でありながら道場を構えて根を下ろし、周辺農村から上州一円、北関東、江戸にまで門人を獲得し、最盛期には門人が数千と豪語された一大流派を築いた。更に明治維新以降の近代化のなかで前代の剣術諸流派が剣道に収斂・統一される趨勢のなか、脈々と今日まで継承されてきた。そこには江戸時代の上州という風土と社会が深くかかわっているように思われる。本講は、北関東上州の一農村の田舎剣法から門人数千の一大剣術流派に発展した馬庭念流を手がかりに二世紀半にも及ぶ未曾有の平和な江戸時代に、身分制度の厚い壁を破って展開していった武芸について考えてみたい。<BR> 上州、関東においては、兵農分離は身分制度として断行されたが、刀狩りは実施されず、武器の所持、剣術の継承は禁止されることはなく許容された。樋口家は中世以来の在地土豪の権益を失い、公的には百姓身分になったが、私的な領域においては姓を名乗り、帯刀し、念流を伝授することは黙認された。要は在地土豪の念流を継承する郷士と馬庭村百姓の二つの顔を持つことになった。<BR> 馬庭念流は、江戸時代初頭から四代に長命にして剣技・指導力に優れた当主に恵まれ、北関東を中心に多くの門弟を集め、江戸にまで進出して道場を経営し、一大流派の結社に発展する。門人は百姓町人のみならず、高家新田岩松氏、七日市藩前田氏、小幡藩織田氏、支配領主旗本長崎氏の主従にまで門下の列に加えている。<BR> なかでも流派念流の結社としての勢力を誇示したのが有名神社の社前において秘剣を披露し、師匠以下門人名を列記した大額を奉納する儀礼であった。上野四社から江戸神田明神・浅草寺、鎌倉八幡、伊勢外宮・内宮、遠く讃岐金刀比羅宮にまで足を運び、大枚を投じ奉額している。<BR> このような現象は念流だけではなかった。千葉・斎藤・桃井の江戸三大道場と謳われた民間剣術流派の盛業に顕著のように、幕藩領主に囲い込まれ、正統とされた剣術が衰退し、民間の剣術がこれに代わって勃興していったことと軌を一にしたものであった。いわば幕藩秩序そのままの武士が独占する伝統守旧の剣術から民間の活性化された在村剣術が掘り起こされて、身分制度の枠を打破して、武芸として百姓町人までが入門、習練する時代が到来したのである。まさに戦国乱世の殺人剣から幕藩領主の子飼いの指南の剣術を経て、新たに自衛のため、修行のための武芸に生まれ変わろうとしていた。もちろん武芸の大流行は、念流が江戸から勢力拡大を図る北辰一刀流千葉周作と伊香保神社掲額をめぐって一髪触発のところまでいったように、諸流派の競合・対立を引き起こすことも多々あった。しかし、大勢は総じて流派間の共存と連携を深めていったことの方が事実である。幕府法令からは民間の帯刀、剣術は厳禁されているが、時代の武芸熱は冷めるどころか高揚し、諸流派を渡り歩く武者修行の旅が一般化していく。これを可能にしたのが諸流派間を結び、連携する一種のネットワークの形成であったように思う。そこには支配秩序に直結する武士のみならず姓名、諱まで名乗る武士風体の百姓・町人が多く含まれ、身分制度の壁を越えた一大武芸の文化ネットワークが広がっていた。<BR> 剣術、武芸の歴史といえば、権力争奪に絡む殺伐とした合戦、暗殺、仇討ち、テロといった殺人剣を類推する向きが多いが、平和の時代を背景に自己鍛錬の武芸として定着していったことを見落としてはならない。近代剣道に転換する素地はつくられていたのである。