著者
高橋 敏
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.41-51, 2017 (Released:2018-06-20)

群馬県下には、今日なお上州(上野国)といわれた江戸時代の在村剣術から二五代にわたって受け継が れてきた古武道が確固として命脈を保っている。高崎市吉井町に現存する樋口家と馬庭念流である。兵農 分離の刀狩りで剣術はおろか武器を根こそぎ取り上げられた筈の多胡郡馬庭村に、百姓身分でありながら 道場を構えて根を下ろし、周辺農村から上州一円、北関東、江戸にまで門人を獲得し、最盛期には門人が 数千と豪語された一大流派を築いた。更に明治維新以降の近代化のなかで前代の剣術諸流派が剣道に収 斂・統一される趨勢のなか、脈々と今日まで継承されてきた。そこには江戸時代の上州という風土と社会 が深くかかわっているように思われる。本講は、北関東上州の一農村の田舎剣法から門人数千の一大剣術 流派に発展した馬庭念流を手がかりに二世紀半にも及ぶ未曾有の平和な江戸時代に、身分制度の厚い壁を 破って展開していった武芸について考えてみたい。 上州、関東においては、兵農分離は身分制度として断行されたが、刀狩りは実施されず、武器の所持、 剣術の継承は禁止されることはなく許容された。樋口家は中世以来の在地土豪の権益を失い、公的には百 姓身分になったが、私的な領域においては姓を名乗り、帯刀し、念流を伝授することは黙認された。要は 在地土豪の念流を継承する郷士と馬庭村百姓の二つの顔を持つことになった。 馬庭念流は、江戸時代初頭から四代に長命にして剣技・指導力に優れた当主に恵まれ、北関東を中心に 多くの門弟を集め、江戸にまで進出して道場を経営し、一大流派の結社に発展する。門人は百姓町人のみ ならず、高家新田岩松氏、七日市藩前田氏、小幡藩織田氏、支配領主旗本長崎氏の主従にまで門下の列に 加えている。 なかでも流派念流の結社としての勢力を誇示したのが有名神社の社前において秘剣を披露し、師匠以下 門人名を列記した大額を奉納する儀礼であった。上野四社から江戸神田明神・浅草寺、鎌倉八幡、伊勢外 宮・内宮、遠く讃岐金刀比羅宮にまで足を運び、大枚を投じ奉額している。 このような現象は念流だけではなかった。千葉・斎藤・桃井の江戸三大道場と謳われた民間剣術流派の 盛業に顕著のように、幕藩領主に囲い込まれ、正統とされた剣術が衰退し、民間の剣術がこれに代わって 勃興していったことと軌を一にしたものであった。いわば幕藩秩序そのままの武士が独占する伝統守旧の 剣術から民間の活性化された在村剣術が掘り起こされて、身分制度の枠を打破して、武芸として百姓町人 までが入門、習練する時代が到来したのである。まさに戦国乱世の殺人剣から幕藩領主の子飼いの指南の 剣術を経て、新たに自衛のため、修行のための武芸に生まれ変わろうとしていた。もちろん武芸の大流行 は、念流が江戸から勢力拡大を図る北辰一刀流千葉周作と伊香保神社掲額をめぐって一髪触発のところま でいったように、諸流派の競合・対立を引き起こすことも多々あった。しかし、大勢は総じて流派間の共 存と連携を深めていったことの方が事実である。幕府法令からは民間の帯刀、剣術は厳禁されているが、 時代の武芸熱は冷めるどころか高揚し、諸流派を渡り歩く武者修行の旅が一般化していく。これを可能に したのが諸流派間を結び、連携する一種のネットワークの形成であったように思う。そこには支配秩序に 直結する武士のみならず姓名、諱まで名乗る武士風体の百姓・町人が多く含まれ、身分制度の壁を越えた 一大武芸の文化ネットワークが広がっていた。 剣術、武芸の歴史といえば、権力争奪に絡む殺伐とした合戦、暗殺、仇討ち、テロといった殺人剣を類 推する向きが多いが、平和の時代を背景に自己鍛錬の武芸として定着していったことを見落としてはなら ない。近代剣道に転換する素地はつくられていたのである。
著者
綿貫 慶徳
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.39-53, 2001-02-20 (Released:2017-03-18)

The purpose of this study is to clarify how baseball events sponsored by newspaper companies have changed as way of sales promotion to aim at the course from amateur baseball events sponsored by Osaka-Asahi, Osaka-Mainichi to professional baseball events sponsored by Yomiuri. This study gives the following findings. 1.By Taisho age(1912〜1926), the terms for holding baseball event, for example, the spread and progress of baseball, commercialization of the press, appearence of mass society, progress of railroad line development projected by railway corporations, were prepared. 2.Osaka-Asahi and Osaka-Mainichi held amateur baseball events each other with same idea that was Ichiko-baseball thinking much of winning spiritualism and collective principle.But when each company concentrated on sales promotion harder and harder, that was reflected in their amateur baseball events and it became more and more difficult for each company to embody Ichiko-baseball.And the situation made a foundation to realize professional baseball. 3.In 1924, Matsutaro Shoriki took president′s post with Yomiuri.Shoriki made Yomiuri rapid progress with business strategy that integrate event news sales and advertisemennt.Shoriki made an effort to establish not only Tokyo Giants but Professional Baseball League.This business strategy was demonstrated by baseball events especially.So it is not too much to say that professional baseball was like a Yomiuri′s possession.Yomiuri also held professional baseball events to embody Ichiko-baseball.Though Osaka-Asahi and Osaka-Mainichi had Ichiko-baseball ideal, finally they held professional baseball events in 1937.as mentioned above, I could clarify that newspaper companies have held baseball events for sales promotion.
著者
阿部 武尊
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.31-40, 2017 (Released:2018-06-20)

The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of labor negotiation by Japan Professional Baseball Players Association (JPBPA) in order to capture the change of the status of the players, who are the important persons concerned in the professional baseball world. This article focuses the period from 1993, when a free agent (FA) system was introduced to 2004, when the JPBPA went on strike for the first time in baseball history in Japan. After introduction of a FA system, the JPBPA continued to succeed in a certain level of improvement of the working conditions. And, since 1999, the JPBPA addressed the structural improvement of the baseball world as new movements. However, the Nippon Professional Baseball Organization (NPB) often made the player’s working conditions worse without the JPBPA’s recognitions. The worst of them was the baseball alignment in 2004. The JPBPA engaged in collective bargaining and strike with their legal rights as a labor union. As a result, they stopped reduction of the number of the clubs, stopped making their working conditions worse, and obtained the chances of discuss about structural improvements of Japanese professional baseball with the NPB. We should pay attention to having gained such achievements by the JPBPA under the condition which the NPB seems to lead the process of the negotiation.
著者
稲垣 正浩
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.23-40, 1997-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)

"Kulturgeschichte des Tennis":the masterpiece of H.Gillmeister is becoming the focus of public attention as a writing which reforms the history study of tennis until now. Especially, the hypotheses by H.Gillmeister which disprove the established theory thus far thought to bring a big dispute in future. However, I had a great doubts in parts in the argument about origin of "Tennisspiel" which was presented by H.Gillmeister. H.Gillmeister says that the "Tennisspiel" which established in monastery, namely Je de Paume, have no relationship with the old "Handballspiel" up to that time. I think they are however greatly related. Above all, I think the "Pelotaspiel" of Basque is the prior form of Je de Paume. Therefore, I pointed out the contradiction in the hypothesis by H.Gillmeister, and developed my own opinion which take the place of them in main subject. As the result, I clarify that the origin of "Pelotaspiel" is much older than Je de Paume, and the Je de Paume was "designed" by following the procedures of "Christian rationalization" of "Pelotaspiel". The grounds are as follows. (1)"Pelotaspiel" can seek its origin in the sun belief of Basque race, (2)"Pelotaspiel" was effective as a training for pebble fight, (3)many young men of Basque were training in the monastery aiming at churchman, (4)Je de Paume is the one which eliminate "pagan property" of "Pelotaspiel" in monastery and alter to a completely new form of ballgame, (5)Joust and football were the hints at that stage. Further, the hypothesis, supporting evidence, and reasoning stated above are wanting in "conclusive factor" as materials for study, therefore, to pile up further dispute is needed. Also I expect it.
著者
頼住 一昭
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.1-10, 2002-03-08 (Released:2017-03-18)

Erwin Balz (b.1849-d.1913) came to Japan in 1876 as a foreign employee for the medical department of the University of Tokyo, and spent 29 long years building the foundation of modern medicine in Japan. As such, he paid great attention to the physical strength of young people at that time. In order to improve their strength, he emphasized the importance of kenjutsu and jujutsu training, and highly recommended them. There has been other research on Balz and his interest in kenjutsu and jujutsu. But those are on the fact that he was a member of the committee that conducted the "Kenjutsu-Jujutsu-Chosa" (Survey of Kenjutsu and Jujutsu) in 1883 and what he had to do with kenjutsu, jujutsu, and physical education theory after the survey. Because of this, the details of his involvement with kenjutsu and jujutsu before the "Kenjutsu-Jujutsu-Chosa" have not been made clear. This paper makes an examination into Balz who had a hand in the "Kenjutsu-Jujutsu-Chosa" and was also a foreigner, interacted with in deepening his understanding of kenjutsu and jujutsu. What I have found is that, while it has been argued that the first people to have had a significant influence on Balz, with regard to his thoughts on kenjutsu and jujutsu and his promotion of them, are kenkichi SAKAKIBARA and Jigoro KANO (famous masters of bujutsu [budo] at that time), it can be assumed that their influence became pertinent with regard to kenjutsu after he entered the Sakakibara school for kenjutsu training in April 1883. On the other hand, for jujutsu, we can also consider the years 1878 to 1883, when Balz's companion, Kinnosuke MIURA, who was currently studying Tenjinshinyoryu and was a student of the preparatory department, acted as Balz's interpreter. Miura would have been the first person to offer Balz an understanding of jujutsu, as well as an important person in his life. I think that the role he played as one of the people to have influenced Balz's thinking should be re-evaluated.
著者
中村 哲也
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
no.20, pp.81-94, 2007-03-15

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical meaning of Student Baseball Control Regulations (YAKYU TOSEI REI, SBCR), which was established by Ministry of Education (MOE) to make political adjustment to the modernization of sports in Japan at that time and to "guide" students' thought in the "right" direction (SHISO ZENDO, moral guidance). To do so, relationships between SBCR and two kinds of autonomy in student baseball, one is mainly organized by managers, coaches and alumni of student baseball, the other by players are examined. It tells us how MOE intervened and controlled student baseball under SBCR, how participants of student baseball responded to it, what form of autonomy they tried to establish, and who were the subjects to do it. Based on these facts, I will discuss the effect of SBCR on student baseball in Japan. The conclusion of this paper is as follows. 1. Because of fiscal limit, SBCR allowed student baseball to levy admission fee and hold baseball games which were organized by business companies, while SBCR controlled and conducted managers, coaches, and teachers concerned with student baseball to remove "bad" influence of student baseball and to "guide" students' thoughts into the "right" direction. 2. The control of student baseball under SBCR repressed the possibility of self-government by players and other students. 3. To reduce the amount of admission fee and distribution to each school, MOE intervened student baseball, which was made legal by SBCR. 4. Participants of student baseball resisted intervention of MOE, which led the movement to establish student baseball control association. 5. As student baseball turned into large-scale and became more organized by the participants (not players) of student baseball, players who belonged to Tokyo Big 6 Baseball League resisted managers or "moral guidance" by MOE through baseball. 6. The movement that was aimed at establishing student baseball control association collapsed due to their different perspectives on the relationships between controlling persons and controlled persons. While this movement shows the sense of autonomy in student baseball at that time, it also shows that it was preceded by those who didn't take students' autonomy into consideration. Through these processes, Japanese baseball was being organized by the participants of student baseball, not by the baseball players themselves.