著者
榎本 鐘司
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.1-14, 1991-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)
被引用文献数
1

Kakegoe can be translated into "shouting" in English. In the matches of the Modern Kendo, various types of Kakegoe, such as 'Men''Kote''Doo''Yaa''Too', have been used. This study has two purposes. One is to clarify where Kakegoe of Kendo is traced back to, and the other is to point out the erroneous assumptions in the former studies of Budo history in order to offer the study of Budo history a new perspective. The gist of this paper is as follows:(1)In the Edo period, there were various schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe and various ones without Kakegoe. The KASHIMA-KATORI-SHINTO Schools, for instance, handed down Kakegoe. On the contrary, the SHINKAGE Schools and the ITTO Schools, which were the mainstream of Kenjutsu in the Edo period, did not hand it down. (2)The main function of Kakegoe of Kenjutsu in the Edo period was to increase and display the spirit of the performer, and was similar to that of the spells in Esoteric Buddhism. Some acting elements existed in Katas which were practised in the schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe in the Edo period. Because people belonging to these Schools somtimes used Kakegoe for the purposes of giving their opponents the signs of attacking and of expressing their feelings. (3)All schools of Kenjutsu with Kakegoe were local in the Edo period;that is to say, Kakegoe was handed down in the Schools mainly consisting of peasants. Neverthless, their modes of Kakegoe existed in the Shinai-Uchikomi-Shiai-Kenjutsu which became the mainstream of Kenjutsu by the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate and was the original form of the Modern Kendo. (4)It has been considered in the former studies of Kendo history that the Modern Kendo developed from the ITTO Schools and so on which were the mainstream of Kenjutsu in the Edo period. But, the history of Kakegoe tells us that the former studies of Kendo history are one-sided, and that the Modern Kendo can be traced back not only to the samurais' Kenjutsu but also to the Peasants' Kenjutsu.
著者
高橋 敏
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.41-51, 2017 (Released:2018-06-20)

群馬県下には、今日なお上州(上野国)といわれた江戸時代の在村剣術から二五代にわたって受け継が れてきた古武道が確固として命脈を保っている。高崎市吉井町に現存する樋口家と馬庭念流である。兵農 分離の刀狩りで剣術はおろか武器を根こそぎ取り上げられた筈の多胡郡馬庭村に、百姓身分でありながら 道場を構えて根を下ろし、周辺農村から上州一円、北関東、江戸にまで門人を獲得し、最盛期には門人が 数千と豪語された一大流派を築いた。更に明治維新以降の近代化のなかで前代の剣術諸流派が剣道に収 斂・統一される趨勢のなか、脈々と今日まで継承されてきた。そこには江戸時代の上州という風土と社会 が深くかかわっているように思われる。本講は、北関東上州の一農村の田舎剣法から門人数千の一大剣術 流派に発展した馬庭念流を手がかりに二世紀半にも及ぶ未曾有の平和な江戸時代に、身分制度の厚い壁を 破って展開していった武芸について考えてみたい。 上州、関東においては、兵農分離は身分制度として断行されたが、刀狩りは実施されず、武器の所持、 剣術の継承は禁止されることはなく許容された。樋口家は中世以来の在地土豪の権益を失い、公的には百 姓身分になったが、私的な領域においては姓を名乗り、帯刀し、念流を伝授することは黙認された。要は 在地土豪の念流を継承する郷士と馬庭村百姓の二つの顔を持つことになった。 馬庭念流は、江戸時代初頭から四代に長命にして剣技・指導力に優れた当主に恵まれ、北関東を中心に 多くの門弟を集め、江戸にまで進出して道場を経営し、一大流派の結社に発展する。門人は百姓町人のみ ならず、高家新田岩松氏、七日市藩前田氏、小幡藩織田氏、支配領主旗本長崎氏の主従にまで門下の列に 加えている。 なかでも流派念流の結社としての勢力を誇示したのが有名神社の社前において秘剣を披露し、師匠以下 門人名を列記した大額を奉納する儀礼であった。上野四社から江戸神田明神・浅草寺、鎌倉八幡、伊勢外 宮・内宮、遠く讃岐金刀比羅宮にまで足を運び、大枚を投じ奉額している。 このような現象は念流だけではなかった。千葉・斎藤・桃井の江戸三大道場と謳われた民間剣術流派の 盛業に顕著のように、幕藩領主に囲い込まれ、正統とされた剣術が衰退し、民間の剣術がこれに代わって 勃興していったことと軌を一にしたものであった。いわば幕藩秩序そのままの武士が独占する伝統守旧の 剣術から民間の活性化された在村剣術が掘り起こされて、身分制度の枠を打破して、武芸として百姓町人 までが入門、習練する時代が到来したのである。まさに戦国乱世の殺人剣から幕藩領主の子飼いの指南の 剣術を経て、新たに自衛のため、修行のための武芸に生まれ変わろうとしていた。もちろん武芸の大流行 は、念流が江戸から勢力拡大を図る北辰一刀流千葉周作と伊香保神社掲額をめぐって一髪触発のところま でいったように、諸流派の競合・対立を引き起こすことも多々あった。しかし、大勢は総じて流派間の共 存と連携を深めていったことの方が事実である。幕府法令からは民間の帯刀、剣術は厳禁されているが、 時代の武芸熱は冷めるどころか高揚し、諸流派を渡り歩く武者修行の旅が一般化していく。これを可能に したのが諸流派間を結び、連携する一種のネットワークの形成であったように思う。そこには支配秩序に 直結する武士のみならず姓名、諱まで名乗る武士風体の百姓・町人が多く含まれ、身分制度の壁を越えた 一大武芸の文化ネットワークが広がっていた。 剣術、武芸の歴史といえば、権力争奪に絡む殺伐とした合戦、暗殺、仇討ち、テロといった殺人剣を類 推する向きが多いが、平和の時代を背景に自己鍛錬の武芸として定着していったことを見落としてはなら ない。近代剣道に転換する素地はつくられていたのである。
著者
榎本 鐘司
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.21-36, 1994-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)
被引用文献数
1

In the Edo period the peasants were prohibited by law from possessing weapons. Neverthless, the peasants already practiced Bujutsu in the first half of the Edo period. Documents of the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools in the possession of the Takizawa family in a village in North Shinano have been found and analyzed by the present author. The purpose of this study is threefold:(1)To clarify what kinds of peasant in a village community practice the martial arts of the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools. (2)To clarify what kind of Bujutsu they practice, that is to say, what is the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools. (3)To clarify the purposes for which they practice it. Briefly, the main conclusions were as follows:(1)Many of the peasants that practiced the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools were also the samurais of the lowest rank in the Matsushiro clan, that is to say, they were the marginal people in the villages. (2)The MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools was comprehensive bujutsu which was medieval. It consisted of jujutsu, bojutsu, iai, nawa, and so on. (3)The purpose of the MUSO-JIKIDEN Schools was primarily vocational educaion, but it was pastime and sport for many peasants in the villages.
著者
竹村 匡弥
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.39-53, 2010-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)

There are three traditional accounts as to where Kappa, one of the legendary Japanese folk creatures comes from. From a folkloristics perspective, however, Kunio Yanagita claimed it was a degraded form of a water god. Supposing that claim is true, degradation will be the origin. There is, however, no mention of it in those accounts. In Nihon Shoki, the oldest official chronicle of Japan, there are two mentions of Nomino-sukune. These mentions are part of the "Emperor Suinin Jyou," a collection of events during the reign of Emperor Suinin; one is about the origin of sumo and the other is about the origin of haniwa, earthenware figures. In the early eighth century, "Sumaino-sechie" one of the Imperial Court ceremonies was set on the seventh day of the seventh month and sumo was held on the same day along with the Star Festival. According to the chronicle, "a sumo match between Nomino-sukune and Taimano-kehaya," took place on the seventh day of the seventh month in the seventh year of Emperor Suinin's reign. This intentional setting shows a clear reason for having "Sumaino-sechie" on the seventh day of the seventh month and having a poem-composing ceremony for the Star Festival and sumo on the same day. There must have been some sound reasons, but no documents showing this have not been found. This paper starts examining the intention by assuming that the prototype of the Star Festival was disgrace. The prototype of the Star Festival is the act of sacrificing animals and humans to the water god. In the Jindaiki section of Nihon Shoki. there are some evil acts by Susanoo (a god) mentioned. One of them was the act of throwing a skinned cow into a place where weaving was in process and thus hurt a weaving girl. It can be said that the account was described with the prototype of the Star Festival in mind. The evil acts by Susanoo are the origin of amatsu-tsumi or sin and are regarded as a disgrace, something to be purified. Thus, the prototype of the Star Festival was set as a disgrace. A disgrace means events or acts which are not in compliance with social order and that order is set by the ones in power. In due course, those events or acts will become something that must be purified. This paper lists the outlying regions that don't obey the ruler and the insurrection within the government as these examples. Designating the acts of disgrace gives justification to ruling that region and epuration of the insurrection, solidifying the authenticity of power. The existence of the poem-composing ceremony for the Star Festival on the seventh day of the seventh month can be confirmed by "Manyo-shyu" the oldest collection of poems. Also, the recognition of the prototype of the Star Festival can be confirmed by the fact that it was described as a motif of evil acts by Susanoo. That is, sacrificing animals and humans, which are ceremonies for a water god, become disgraceful. The origin of a water god degrading into Kappa is found here. Originally, "Sumaino-sechie" has been thought to have started as "the rite for governing outlying regions." This paper, however, regards it as a disgrace from the correlations between the beginning of "Sumaino-sechie" and "a sumo match between Nomino-sukune and Taimano-kehaya." If the origin of "Sumaino-sechie" is regarded as disgrace, it can be viewed as "the rite to remain in power against insurrection within the government" in addition to the traditional assumption as "the rite to subject the outlying region." It can be said that the intention for setting the sumo match on the seventh day of the seventh month was to show legitimacy for governing the outlying region.
著者
小野瀬 剛志
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.61-71, 2002-03-08 (Released:2017-03-18)

The purpose of this study is to point out some problems pertaining to the viewpoint of "Japanese sports ideology" through this baseball controversy and to grasp the new viewpoint. The first point is that Japanese sports ideology tends to be described as a tradition-bound way of thinking. We discuss an aspect of baseball ideology that has been created while adjusting to some situations. The second point is that "play element" is said to be lacking in Japanese sports ideology. We discuss how it has been an important factor in the spread of baseball in Japan.
著者
中嶋 哲也
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.27-40, 2011-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the ideology of Budo was changed after the Japan-China War in 1937. Specifically the discussion is focused on both Taro Inaba and Yasutaro Fujio's criticisms of Jigoro Kano's opinion of Kodokan. At the "Kodokan Excommunication" case in 1937, Kodokan judo was rejected due to the criticism Inaba, and Fujio was a member of the punishment council. The concept of Kodokan advocated by Kano, "Seiryokuzenyo (the way to use most efficiently the body and spirit of human being)" and "Jitakyoei (the way to live together in mutual prosperity)", aimed to contribute to the international society after World War I. But the concept was criticized by Fujio and Inaba from the standpoint of "Nihon-Seishin (Japanese spirit)". "Nihon-Seishin" as proposed by Fujio and Inaba, emerged in the background of the National Spiritual Mobilization just after the Japan-China War. Kano originally disliked "Nihon-Seishin", but the situation changed in1938 such that Kano held a meeting on "Nihon-Seishin" and was obliged to say in public that he was trying to encourage "Nihon-Seishin". It may be said that the event marked the beginning of a rejection of the character of internationalism in Kodokan as "Jitakyoei" due to the xenophobia nature of "Nihon-Seishin". In conclusion, we comment on how the ideology surrounding Kodokan was henceforth changed.
著者
石井 克
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.67-82, 2016 (Released:2017-06-08)

The purpose of this study is to clarify a modern sports ideology expressed in newspaper articles by focusing on their use of the term “Athlete”, which steadily increased in the Japanese media since around 1990. Firstly, it tried to explain why the term “Athlete” became a frequently used term by the media. The study considered it to the fact that the term was used by the UNESCO in the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport in characteristic ways, especially, in its Article 7 supplemented in 1991. Based on it, Japanese newspaper articles (Asahi and Yomiuri) in the 1990’s were analyzed. The findings indicate an emergence of new sports ideology, such as “Equality of pro-competition and non-competition”,“ Equality in the competition of healthy people and people with disabilities”“, Selfmanagement of the body”,“ Expansion and improvement of sports rights” and“ Sports as a selfexpression” in the Japanese media. The use of the term “Athlete” symbolizes the change in the recognition and category of modern sports, and opened a new discursive space. It also suggests a new perspective of sports, and international elements.
著者
山田 貴史
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.45-57, 2004-03-20 (Released:2017-03-18)

The purpose of this study is to contribute to clearing up the confusion about early period of KEIRIN, betting on bicycle races, in Japan (1948〜53). In this study, I studied the causes at the stadium riots and the social background in Japan during the early period of KEIRIN. The paper is organized in the following way. First, Several studies have been made for riots in KEIRIN stadiums. I examined the riots more closely. Second, I explained how "Bicycle Racing Law" which Law is the leg to foundation for KEIRIN was enacted. Third, I explained how KEIRN was managed at the time by local Japanese governments. Fourth, I described why the cyclist, the promoter and the audience were related to KEIRIN. The main results of this research are four points of the following. 1 I found out some causes except for the explanation until now. For example, a problem about a tipster by the promoters was founded. 2 Before enacted the "Bicycle Racing Law" which Law is the leg to foundation for KEIRIN, there was no debate in the Diet about essential matters such as how to manage the enterprise. Because the period until KEIRIN was founded was short and it began with the purpose of making up for lack the annual revenue of local Japanese government in the income of KEIRIN. 3 The local Japanese governments began KEIRIN without careful preparation. 4 The groups (cyclists, spectators, and promoters) were at odds. The audience had the purpose of the KEIRIN of the living costs working and the suppressed frustrated cancellation. Most of cyclists were thinking of the cyclists as the unused occupation.. The promoters had the purpose of the KEIRIN of the finance complementing.
著者
阿部 武尊
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.15-25, 2016 (Released:2017-06-08)

The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of labor negotiation by Japan Professional Baseball Players Association in order to capture the change of the status of the players, who are the important persons concerned in the professional baseball world. This article focuses the period from 1985, when the Japan Professional Baseball Players Association (JPBPA) was established to 1993, when a free agent (FA) system was introduced. Recognized as a labor union by the Labor Relations Commission, the JPBPA obtained their legal right that they could negotiate with the Nippon Professional Baseball organization (NPB). As a result, the JPBPA succeeded in the improvement of the working conditions as they had wished since its foundation. In addition, JPBPA managed to reach the introduction of the FA system, which permits the freedom of the transfer of the player. However, due to the interest of each baseball clubs the players as combatant could not involve in decision making directly. As a result, the introduced FA system was different from the system that the JPBPA required in 1991, and limited players could exercise the right. However, the introduction of the FA system could be regarded as an epoch-making, in that it enables the players to negotiate with the baseball clubs equally viewpoint with the NPB by the freedom of the transfer of players being permitted. Furthermore, we should pay attention to having gained such rights by the JPBPA under the condition which the NPB seems to lead the process of the negotiation.
著者
月嶋 紘之
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.1-14, 2008

'Football Spectators Act 1989' was expected to be a strong fort against football violence in England. The purpose of enforcement of this decree was to eradicate all "hooligans" in all the stadiums inside and outside of England, which was one of the points of the greatest concerns for the British Government's policies. However this law betrayed the hope of the British Government and this led to an institution of a change in the law. The purpose of this study is to examine the matters skeptically and consider the reason why this law did not satisfy the policy by referring to a concept of "Gewalt" propounded by Walter Benjamin (1892-1940). The conclusions of this study follow below. 1. In this Act, legal definition about physical exertion displayed by spectators in stadiums was absolutely unconcerned. On top of this, the Crown Court was authorized as making every judgment that was based on their own criteria. 2. According to the concept of "Gewalt" by Benjamin, the power of "Gewalt" is indispensable in a law-enforcement. Therefore, this act was enforced by the power of "Gewalt", that is the British Government itself. However, Benjamin also reveals that a law never presents a valid reason for making every decision. 3. To enforce a law has a pursuit of personal interests and it always has to remain skeptical. Intensification of "hooligan" activities since 1970s and eruption of violence such as "Heysel tragedy" in 1985 were regarded as "crisis" for the British Government, since "hooligans" breached their ideals in English football.
著者
高橋 幸一
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.1-14, 2016 (Released:2017-06-08)

It can no longer be believed that the Greeks were unique in their agonal spirit. Many scholars argue that competition is typical of ancient societies. The purpose of this paper is to examine sport in the Mycenaean civilization. However, it is necessary to clarify whether the Minoans influenced the Mycenaean sports. Minoan civilization The Minoans mainly practiced bull leaping and boxing. Bull leaping in particular was the most popular sport among the Minoans. The noble participants had to leap over bulls. Though it is supposed that the bull leaping is, like boxing, a kind of competitive sport, there is no certain evidence. On the other hand, the boxers weared a metal helmet protecting the head and face. The purpose of this dangerous boxing is uncertain. We cannot clearly decide whether the boxing and bull leaping are initiation ritual, or secular activity. Some scholars believe that the Minoan sport influenced the Myceaean and Greek sports. The Mycenaeans adopted only the bull sport. The helmeted boxers and bull leaping are unknown in Greek art. Mycenaean civilization Many archaeological evidences confirm the existence of horse-drawn chariots in the ancient Near East, but they were used in war and hunting. Although F. Starke’s new interpretation of the Kikkuli Text was accepted by a few scholars, he wrongly interpreted the Text. Hittites did not enjoy chariot racing. It seems to be possibility that chariot racing was performed by the Myceaeans. However, a few archeological evidences only suggest the sport. The issues of prizes remain unsolved. It is not clear whether the Mycenaean chariot racing influenced Homer. It is clear that sports were part of the funeral ceremony held in honor of the dead. It seems to be reasonable to suppose that the Mycenaeans had funeral games with armed combat, bull leaping and possibly chariot racing. However, some scholars argue that boxing and bull leaping are not funeral game, but initiation ritual in the Aegean civilization. It is the present conditions that opinions about sports in the Mycenaean civilization are argued variously because there is no certain evidence.
著者
薮 耕太郎
出版者
スポーツ史学会
雑誌
スポーツ史研究 (ISSN:09151273)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.43-56, 2012-03-31 (Released:2017-03-18)

This paper is to inquire the whereabouts and significance for the diffusion routes of Jiu-Jitsu (traditional Japanese martial arts) since the turn of the last century from the 19^<th> to 20^<th> century, by viewing through the two Americans, Risher W. Thornberry and John J. O'brien, from the time of having learned Jiu-Jitsu in Nagasaki foreign settlement and to their 30 years of activities after returning to the U.S. One of the main assignments to examine in studies of sport and physical education in late years is to take stock of an ethnocentric interpretation by approaching to the history of propagation abroad of Budo (a collective term of modernized Japanese martial arts) with special focus on bilateral cultural relationship. This paper approaches the following two points accordingly: i) To inquire the chance of the foreigners to encounter Japanese culture, the first point is to analyze the meaning of cultural exchange on local level by looking into Nagasaki foreign settlement. ii) To inquire the social factor of O'brien to get comprehensive sphere of activities by looking into his movement after returning to the U.S. iii) To review into the actual conditions for acceptance of Jiu-Jitsu as military martial arts through the activities of Thornberry at the camp, and study about figuration of cultural succession on the basis of the relationship between after retired him and his pupil. The conclusions of this paper are shown as followings. Firstly, the particular social situation of Nagasaki foreign settlement provided an opportunity for the Americans to accept Jiu-Jitsu. Moreover, according to Thornberry's textbook he had retained cultural identity of Jigo-Tenshin-Ryu (one of the styles of Jiu-Jitsu), but on the other hand the potentiality for this identity to fade out was already there. Secondly, O'brien's textbook points out that a fusion of Jiu-Jitsu and Physical Culture, and this mixture was variously symbolized through the local media. Furthermore, his recreational activities contributed to construct various diffusion routes. Thirdly, Thornberry's Jiu-Jitsu was accepted as military martial arts as the camps demand. On the other hand the succession of Thornbery's Jiu-Jitsu to his disciple Samuel K. Linck indicates that the first did not quite lose the identity of Jigo-Tenshin-Ryu. However, Linck did not succeed Thornberry's Jiu-Jitsu entirely, thus there was a chance of resulting the alternatives. To sum up my main points, the successors were connected one another through Jiu-Jitsu, but the binding force was limited. Thus various requests from the local society were subsumed in the process of succession, and in this meaning its mechanism is not accumulated very easily. However, this kind of flexibility played a role of having made their Jiu-Jitsu well known into the local population.