著者
和田 哲也 友添 秀則
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育學研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.5, pp.337-348, 1994-01-01

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the activity of kenjyutsu, the traditional physical culture in Japan, practiced as a match or sport in the latter period of Edo era. The object of this study was Sekiguchi-school of Takeda family that was transmitted in the Yoshino River area in the province of Awa (Tokushima prefecture) . The authors investigated the actual condition and character of kenjyutsu in those days using the historical materials of "nogeiko" (the outdoor meet of kenjyutsu) of the school. The findings of this study were summarized as follows : 1) The "taryu-jiai", in which kenjyutsu had come to be practiced as a match in the latter period of Edo era, was carried mainly by the common people rather than the people in the class of samurai and was activated all over the country. 2) "Nogeiko" of Sekiguchi-school of Takeda family was intended to open to the public from the beginning, and it was planned elaborately and practiced systematically. Almost all of the matches in the "nogeiko" were practiced by one person against one, though these were practiced with some formations supposing an actual battle, and there were "metsuke"(referee) who judged victory or defeat. 3) These matches were practiced under the free and large-hearted atmosphere beeing unbound to the ethical idea of Confucianism, and this "nogeiko" had a character of an amusement or pleasure of the common people. 4) This case means that kenjyutsu was practiced as an activity of a match or sport, whose style agreed with several melkmarls pointed by Guttmann, in the province far from the governmental center of this country. This is assumed not to be particular in the area of Tokushima prefecture but to be general in the localities of this country in those days. 5) Practice of kenjyutsu as a match or sport like this and accumulation of the experience,which became a basic condition to accept modern sports since Meiji era in japan, seems to make the rapid diffusion of it easily.
著者
和田 哲也
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.27-35, 1981-10-30 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
33

Iai originated in the practical combative techniques known as battd (striking instantly with a sword while rapidly unsheathing it in one stroke) which were born during the ages of civil and martial disorder. These martial techniques, batto, as they yielded to the necessities of the subsequent ages of peace underwent drastic transformations in terms of both the way the techniques were preformed and their ideological forntations, and gradually developed into what is now known as iai. Within the process of this development, in terms of physical technique, the trend toward the practice of the art from a sitting posture occupies a central position. This central position is shared on the mental side with the philosophical reorientation of the art toward one possessing the fundamental nature of being directed toward a defensive response to a sudden and unexpected attack such as what might occurr even in an orderly society. This kind of iai, in both its physical and intellectual characteristics, was well suited to the peaceful social conditions of Tokugawa society. Iai was the model martial art for an age of social order. By developing in this way, undergoing many technical vicissitudes, the adoption of sitting in the formal posture of seiza, the use of the samurai's uchi-gatana (long sword worn through the belt with edge upwards) instead of the soldier's tachi (long sword slung from the belt with edge downward), and assuming the character of a mental discipline practiced without an opponent, iai eventually realized its standard form which has been preserved down to the present time.