著者
廣田 龍平
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 = Journal of Living Folklore (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.6, pp.113-128, 2014-03

This article critically examines the ontological commitment on which modern folkloristic studies of yokai (a category of mysterious creatures in Japanese tradition) have been established. Academic yokai scholars have assumed that yokai are supernatural beings and that yokai do not exist in mundane form. However, the adequacy of these assumptions when studying the world of people who does not share the same ontological framework as modern scholars has hitherto been of little concern in yokai studies. Through critically examining the discourses and theories that have dominated yokai studies, this article suggests that researchers have failed to understand the perspective of folk who recognize and co-inhabited with yokai.Why have yokai studies assumed this ontological commitment? There is a historical process continuing from the late Edo period on in which intellectuals and urbanites increasingly assumed what is now called yokai to be supernatural and unreal. At the turn of nineteenth century, some scholars who sought to affirm the reality of yokai began to juxtapose the supernatural realm against the backdrop of the rise of modern scientific empiricism in Japan. Furthermore, the presumed supernatural essence of yokai was a perspective that had also slowly been adopted by disbelieving researchers. This article conceives this process as an epistemological rupture by which researchers can only understand different worlds or ontologies through the ontological framework generated after the rupture. This article proposes a "plural ontology" model that makes it possible for researchers to understand the diverse worlds in which people recognize yokai.
著者
佐藤 喜久一郎
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 = Journal of Living Folklore (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.6, pp.77-91, 2014-03

This paper is intended as a sympathetic critique of the cultural activities of Rekijyo-Japanese history buffs. A rekijyo is regarded as female enthusiast who has an obsessive interest in historical figures. Some rekijyos are males, in which case they are often called rekidan. Rekijyos throw themselves into touring historical sites like palaces, temples, graves, and castles, as if they are on a pilgrimage. Sometimes they wear costumes there to portray a certain historical character or role.A rekijyo is also a self-educated amateur historian who attaches great importance to fieldwork. Their pilgrim-like activity is somewhat related to a romantic reaction to their academic or educational history. It is a way for them to resist the formal, dry and unemotional discourse on history that they experienced when they were younger. The prefer to empathize with their favorite historical characters than to analyze them. However, just like other Japanese youth, rekijyo culture is excessively postmodernized. Rekijyo also engage in an endless deformation and imitation of persons from history. Even though their view of history is based on empathy, theif behavior is rooted in modern consumerism. Rekijyo culture is merely otaku consumption, but it is also a form passive resistance against those who set themselves up as authorities on history.
著者
中里 亮平
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 = Journal of Living Folklore (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.2, pp.41-56, 2010-03

Taking the example of the annual Kurayami Festival at the Ookunitama Shrine in Tokyo’s Fuchu city, this thesis will consider the handling of conflicts that arise at the festivals, and also the "rules" of festivals which can be seen from that example. Although various conflicts may arise at festivals, these are handled according to different rules than those applied to conflicts that arise in everyday life. Kurayami Festival, which is also sometimes called the "Argument Festival" , is known for its frequent conflicts. This thesis takes as examples conflicts that have arisen at the Kurayami festival , and clarifies the reasons for the conflicts, how they were handled,and according to which "rules". In addition, by posing the question "why was he hit?", this thesis aims to offer a new viewpoint on the issue of the conflicts that arise at festivals.
著者
加藤 秀雄
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.55-72, 2012

In this thesis, the possibility of the concept of "Tradition" in Japanese folklore studies is discussed. Although the concept of "Tradition" is an important one for folklore studies, it has been misunderstood by many folklorists. The concept of "Tradition" is therefore being criticized by some folklorists in recent years. The purpose of this thesis is to clear up this misunderstanding and to discuss the effectiveness of the concept of "Tradition" in contemporary society. This thesis will refer to the discussion on "Tradition" by Kunio Yanagita and the discussion regarding the recent philosophy of history. These discussions are useful for restructuring the concept of "Tradition." The problem of the concept of "Tradition" in Japanese folklore studies lies in the idea of identicalness and continuity between the culture of the past and that of the present. This idea is, however, dismissed by the discussions on Yanagita and the philosophy of history.
著者
山越 英嗣
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.73-82, 2012

Tattoo as a youth subculture has mainly been discussed by sociologists, but also by the areas of anthropology and folklore. The aim of this article is to make ethnography of young Japanese men who have got tattoos. In some recent studies, it has been theorized that young tattooed Japanese men is considered as consumption or an expression of self-satisfaction. In addition, to have a tattoo is normally thought of as a negative personal characteristic in the Japanese society. However, this article shows that the tattoos have various meanings linked to beliefs, memories, stories and affiliations; and they also build strong relationships among their carriers. We can say they are making their own 'world,' in which they share experiences and history through their tattoos. This fits into the framework of Anthony Giddens. This article argues that the carriers of tattoos overcome difficulties by using their camraderie.
著者
佐藤 喜久一郎
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.6, pp.77-91, 2014

This paper is intended as a sympathetic critique of the cultural activities of Rekijyo-Japanese history buffs. A rekijyo is regarded as female enthusiast who has an obsessive interest in historical figures. Some rekijyos are males, in which case they are often called rekidan. Rekijyos throw themselves into touring historical sites like palaces, temples, graves, and castles, as if they are on a pilgrimage. Sometimes they wear costumes there to portray a certain historical character or role.A rekijyo is also a self-educated amateur historian who attaches great importance to fieldwork. Their pilgrim-like activity is somewhat related to a romantic reaction to their academic or educational history. It is a way for them to resist the formal, dry and unemotional discourse on history that they experienced when they were younger. The prefer to empathize with their favorite historical characters than to analyze them. However, just like other Japanese youth, rekijyo culture is excessively postmodernized. Rekijyo also engage in an endless deformation and imitation of persons from history. Even though their view of history is based on empathy, theif behavior is rooted in modern consumerism. Rekijyo culture is merely otaku consumption, but it is also a form passive resistance against those who set themselves up as authorities on history.
著者
田邊 元
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 = Journal of Living Folklore (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.6, pp.59-72, 2014-03

This paper makes explicit the authenticity and functions for maintaining the traditions of one traditional folk entertainment group. The folk entertainment is "Owara Kaze no Bon" of Yatsuo Town, Toyama Prefecture.Folk entertainment has been very successful as a tourist attraction. The traditions are carried on by a preservation society organization in the town. The problem for the preservation society is that it is short of successors, but it works hard to conduct activities that are rooted in the people of Yatsuo Town themselves. On the other hand, there is another group, which split off from the preservation society due to opposition to changes in the traditions. This group calls its own traditions "an original model." They claim authenticity by refining the performance. Importance is placed on hin (quality of performance) in the skill examinations, and this acts as the function for maintaining the quality of performances. The group consists of people from all over Japan who are not from one locality, as are the preservation society. However, they are accepted as a preservation society by residents living in Yatsuo Town and by tourists. It is neccessary to caryy out research on folk entertainment by taking a fresh look at what we mean by regional characteristics.
著者
廣田 龍平
出版者
現代民俗学会
雑誌
現代民俗学研究 (ISSN:18839134)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.43-53, 2017