著者
野中 亮
出版者
京都大学文学部社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
no.6, pp.41-59, 1998-12-25

The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon what the statements refered to the Aum Shinrikyo Affair manifested. On 20 March 1995, 'the Aum Shinrikyo Affair' was happened. In Japan, it was the first case of terror with poison gas, and the first case of terror by cult which caused a calamity that assailed many people. The number of dameged sufferers in this terror is over 5, 000, and eleven persons were killed. Japanese mass medias naturally reported this calamity everyday, but these reports become too excessive gradually. Syoko Egawa -- she was famous for her reportage of the Aum Shinrikyo Affair -- was the most famous 'Aum Watcher'. 'Aum Watcher' means the watch for Aum Shinrikyo, she was regerded the leader of Aum Watchers. In this paper, Syoko Egawa's reportages of the Aum Shinrikyo Affair are used as materials for consideration of the Japanese religious - cultural characteristics. The final purpous of this paper is the reflection on the Japanese religious - cultural characteristics with her texts. We contrust The books by Syoko Egawa with the books by Hiromi Shimada -- he was a university professor, but he was made to give up his job for his statement refered to the Aum Shinrikyo Affair. He estimated Aum Shinrikyo's religious life and practices very highly. His statement was opposed to the statement by Egawa Syoko who criticized the Aum Shinrikyo's conduct of their organization. But it was not discussion that settled this controversy, the event itself -- murder by the Aum Shinrikyo. This incomplete controversy still requires thorough discussion of us. Through this work we show that to consider the problems related to the Aum Shinrikyo Affair is, at the same time, to consider the problems related to the Japanese religious - cultural characteristics.
著者
菊地 夏野
出版者
京都大学文学部社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.129-147, 2001-12-25

This paper aims at reconsidering the view on prostitution during the 1990s in Japan. When people discuss the issue of prostitution in general, they have tended to reduce the problem into whether it is morally right or wrong. Especially in the 90s, it was often discussed around the dualistic notion of "free will versus compulsion", which have prevented us to see what exactly structuralizes the complex relationship between prostitution and the violence against women. Among the dominant discourses on prostitution during this period, there were some varieties. On one hand, there were discourses that condemn prostitution to be perfectly evil. It had become a convention for the anti-prostitution movement to regard prostitution as a greatest violence and discrimination against women. Such scholars as Daisaburou HASHIDUME and Kaku SECHIYAMA, on the other hand, have objected to the idea that prostitution is essentially bad. Their position was to affirm the act as far as it were carried out without violence and discrimination against women. Their debate tells us that, whether they deny it or not, their concern was to condemn whether prostitution is morally right or wrong. Instead, we proposed to ask why it has always been looked at in such a way. In pursuing the question in this paper, we have clarified the processes in which discourses on prostitution inevitably fell into the reductionism. Finally, we turned to the alternative approach to prostitution advocated by Mitsu TANAKA. It is a distinctive approach that turns our attention to the divided status of Japanese women. By making reference to TANAKA's argument, we have investigated a new way to situate prostitution more fundamentally and offered a clue to the situation into which modern Japanese women are put.
著者
山本 耕平 安井 大輔 織田 暁子
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.35-53, 2015-12-25

This paper aims to compare the average incomes of three groups of Japanese university graduates: medical, STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics), and non-STEM/M graduates. Previous studies have shown that graduates of STEM/M (STEM and medicine) earn more than non-STEM/M graduates, and have argued that this difference is because STEM graduates create higher additional value than non-STEM/M graduates. However, those studies did not consider variables that should be important determinants of income in the Japanese labor market. Moreover, there are strong doubts about the interpretation that the higher incomes of STEM/M graduates result from the higher additional value STEM graduates create. Drawing on the 2005 Social Stratification and Social Mobility national survey data, this paper examines whether STEM/M graduates earn more than non-STEM/M graduates, after controlling for other important determinants of income. The results from a multiple regression analysis estimating the effect of STEM/M on income shows that STEM/M graduates earn more than non-STEM/M graduates. When separating medical and STEM graduates, however, the estimated effect of a STEM major is not statistically significant and its value is low (1% higher than non-STEM/M). Moreover, when the sample is divided into men and women, there is a significant gender discrepancy in the effect of a STEM major: male STEM graduates earn more than male non-STEM/M graduates while female STEM graduates earn much less than female non-STEM/M graduates.
著者
山本 耕平
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.139-153, 2009-12-25

The aim of this paper is to reexamine what kind of insight the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) provides us concerning our understanding of science. SSK has definitely described some crucial dimensions of science which traditional sociology and philosophy of science had not taken notice of. However, it seems that SSK doesn't offer any clear implication for our understanding of scientific rationality. I consider this equivocalness a significant problem to be solved, since some claims raised by SSK provide the background assumptions for much of recent research in Science Studies, like the Science, Technology and Society (STS). To make clear what implications are to be brought out from the claims of SSK about the social dimensions of science, I incorporate some recent arguments of Social Epistemology. Recent studies in Social Epistemology show interesting facts concerning the relationship between the social dimensions of science and scientific rationality. Focusing on Philip Kitcher's discussion about the division of cognitive labor and Miriam Solomon's "Social Empiricism, " I argue that the social dimensions of science sometimes make scientific decision-making rational, and sometimes they do not: it is entirely contingent how the social dimensions of science affect the results of scientific activities. In conclusion, I argue that we should not use the claims of SSK about the social dimensions of science as theoretical bases for our evaluation of science, but just as a tool for identifying various factors underlying decision-making processes. I suggest that this interpretation of the claims of SSK offers a better way to utilize our knowledge of social dimensions of science in Science Studies.
著者
井口 暁
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.55-74, 2015-12-25

A purpose of this article is to articulate what Niklas Luhmann's political theory attempted by critically reviewing Stefan Lange's Niklas Luhmanns Theorie der Politik: Eine Abklärung der Staatsgesellschaft, 2003. In part 2 of this article, the author examines Lange's evaluation that Luhmann's argument contains normative biases, especially a preference for functional differentiation behind his valuational diagnoses and advice to concrete political practices, and therefore fails his coherent systems theory and "scientific" discussion. The author conversely argues that Luhmann's argument does not deviate from his framework and scientific discussion for the following reasons. First, Luhmann not only evaluates functional differentiation as a form compatible to more massive complexity than others but also he pointed out its negative consequences, such as escalating ecological destruction, alienation of human beings from society, etc. Therefore, he does not normatively prefer functional differentiation. Second, Luhmann's frameworks such as evolutionary theory and that of operational closure are not incompatible to giving valuation and advice but that the latter is embedded in former. On the one hand, his evolutionary theory contains valuational aspects in terms of both the positive function of certain "evolutionary achievement" as problem solving and its negative consequence that may promote further evolutionary processes. On the other hand, the idea of operational closure never excludes giving advice as a form of "structural coupling" between scientific and political systems. Third, Luhmann's valuational diagnoses and advice to political practice does not deviate from Max Weber's argument on "scientific criticism of value judgments." Luhmann analyzes other factual possibilities of political practices and he evaluates the factual function or effectiveness of political practice for such political systems based on an idea of the plurality of "system reference." Furthermore, he examines the question how far certain practice accommodates the given conditions of a political system and is realizable. This "realistic" view in evaluation is compatible to the scientific condition that Weber argued. For these reasons, Luhmann's argument is not deviant from his systems theory and general scientific discussion. The article concludes that Luhmann attempted to construct scientific and practical political theory that can evaluate certain political practices without adopting certain normative evaluation scales.
著者
朴 沙羅
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.89-115, 2014-12-25

Oral history is one of the major research methods in both humanities and social sciences such as anthropology, history, and sociology. The characteristics have been discussed, and methodology has been accumulated over decades. This research note tries to grasp major research topic and research projects in oral history and tries to figure out what kind of research projects have been regarded as "oral history". In contrast to the previous literatures on oral history, this note does not look at methodological discussion but at actual research projects and articles by region. After grasping overall conditions of oral history research past around 50 years, I analyze rough trends according to survey population and research intention.
著者
松谷 実のり
出版者
京都大学大学院文学研究科社会学研究室
雑誌
京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.49-68, 2014-12-25

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the academic significance of studies on the new migration of young Japanese workers and propose a plausible approach to study of such migration. Migrants moving through various channels, having different motivations or lifestyles have emerged under the impact of globalization. This paper focuses on a new type of "locally employed" Japanese workers that are usually hired as local staff by overseas Japanese companies. In order to map this emerging migration in the context of migration studies, I introduce the concept of "middle class migrants." The prevailing image of migrants has been polarized to lower class and vulnerable labor migrants and privileged and freemoving elite migrants. Using the term of middle class migrants, I refer to various types of migrants of relatively affluent background yet not limited to the small number of mobile elites. The middle class migrants are relatively privileged in comparison to the lower migrants. Nevertheless, at the same time, we need to consider the systematic and institutional restrains they have to face as migrants and thus their vulnerability in some aspects as well. Increasing presence of middle class migrants brought by the advancing globalization calls for more empirical studies. Locally employed workers are an adequate example of middle class migrants with double aspects. We can address the lacuna in previous studies on middle class migrants through the empirical research on locally employed workers as both privileged and vulnerable migrants. However, existing literature on middle class migrants prefer to emphasize social or cultural factors rather than testing political or economic frameworks, mainly because of the assumption that they face less problems in political, economic, and institutional spheres. In order to acknowledge and scrutinize both the privileged and vulnerable aspects of their existence, we need to apply a system approach to the migration process.