著者
寺内 直子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.51-80, 2007-02

Gagaku 雅楽, which is the oldest genre of Japanese traditional music preserved in the Court rituals, has experienced a rapid and drastic change after 1970s. This article will study the new movements of gagaku as artistic music by analyzing the National Theatre's activities in the last four decades and evaluate them in the history of gagaku and western contemporary artistic music. There are three new streams in gagaku for a wider public appreciation after 1970s ; 1) surviving traditional repertoire, which can be found in the standard score Meiji sentei-fu 明治撰定譜 kept by Kunaicho gakubu 宮内庁楽部 (Music Department of Imperial Household Agency) and 'reconstruction' of the lost pieces, 2) collaborative works with western artistic music ; and 3) a fusion with pop music. Kokuritsu gekijo 国立劇場, or National Theater Japan, produced a series of Gagaku kouen 雅楽公演, or gagaku concerts, as one of the important programs, in which 'reconstruction' of ancient pieces and instruments have been staged as well as the traditional (classical) repertoire since its open in 1966. Gagaku concerts tried various new experiments under the name of 'reconstruction' and made a great contribution to the development of contemporary artistic music, as opposed to the generally accepted image of gagaku such as 'eternal classics' or 'noble unchanged music'. This paper will clarify how Theater's gagaku concerts have provided an important place for collaborative creation of traditional gagaku and western avant-garde music, focusing on the contents of and the producer's intention for the 'reconstruction' project of the Theater.
著者
三上 剛史
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.93-116, 2007-12

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the sociological significance of "Liebe als Passion" written by Niklas Luhmann. Luhmann, a sociologist, is known for having opened up a new type of systems theory. Though he wrote many enlightening books, reference is rarely made to "Liebe als Passion" in sociological research. On the one hand, as love research, this book was probably too complicated. On the other, it was peculiar as a practical example of systems theory. But Luhmann himself considered this book central to his work. Indeed, this book might be rather eccentric as love research. However Luhmann's study of love is highly suggestive when forecasting future society and the relations between individualized persons. There are many points in this work meriting study especially with regard to the nature of individualized consciousness.
著者
金野 美奈子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.29-49, 2007-02

ジェンダーに関する規範理論と実践はジェンダー平等の概念と不可分であるが、ジェンダー平等をどのように概念化するのがふさわしいかは社会の歴史的状況によって異なる。本稿は、とりわけ先進諸国において過去30年ほどの間に顕著に現れてきた様々な多元主義状況、なかでも近年重要性を高めてきていると言われるワーク・ライフスタイル選好にかんする個人間の多元性に着目し、現代にふさわしいジェンダー平等の概念はどのようなものかを検討するものである。まず、このような多元性についてのこれまででもっとも包括的な議論である、キャサリン・ハッキムの選好理論をとりあげ、日本においても近年、この選好理論を支持するデータが得られつつあることを見る。次に、このような現代的状況にふさわしいジェンダー平等の概念として、多元主義的ジェンダー平等の概念を素描する。ジェンダー平等の多元主義的概念化とは、人々のワーク・ライフスタイル選好の根幹にジェンダー関係をめぐる世界観があることに着目し、これらの異なったジェンダー的世界観を生きる人々の間の平等を構想するものである。これに対しては、従来のフェミニズムの立場からいくっかの批判が予想される。ここでは主な批判として、「選好」に基づく概念化に対する批判、および多元主義的概念化に対する批判(特定のワーク・ライフスタイルモデルの優越性や不適切性の指摘、および統計的差別問題の指摘)を取り上げ、それぞれ妥当性を検討する。最後に、多元主義を真に可能にする社会的意味世界の構築という観点から、本稿で素描されたジェンダー平等概念にもとつく規範的社会理論がとりうる方向性を展望する。
著者
小笠原 博毅
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.101-114, 2008-07

Synopsis: Drawing upon five ways that could provide a better understanding of contemporary Japanese society, this paper attempts to tentatively construct views that clarify how specific cultural currents affect our lives under the neo-liberal political and economic condition. These five ways do not regard the field of culture as self-evident. Culture should not be prioritised in social analysis. Even if culture could be considered as relatively autonomous, in what condition can we say so? What force can make it possible to represent culture as relatively autonomous? The important task I would like to propose here is to re-address contemporary Japanese culture as an ensemble of uncertain practices. First, the 1980s is considered as the period that has generated a particular pattern of cultural nationalism among intellectuals. Second, the global trend of 'made-in-Japan' worked as a potential campaign for promoting the neoliberal fashion of cultural production. Third, ai, sorrow/love, is valuable to analyse who is 'in' and who is 'out' of a community that can enjoy a specific kind of love, that is, nationalism. Love without sorrow to others, I suggest, could inevitably lead to drawing a rigid line between 'in' and 'out'. Fourth, ido, moving/sameness-difference makes it possible for us to see the way that the irresistible trend of migration has long been a part of Japanese society. However, this obvious history of moving is submerged by the recent cultural nationalism into the logic of sameness-difference. Those who do not move are 'same' while moving generates difference. Then, the communality among those who do not seem to move is expected and presumed. Fifth and last, the warning words of the African-American savant W.E.B.DuBois in 1930s remind us that Japan has been ceaselessly involved in the global modern geopolitics of 'colour line', the racialised division, since her modernisation. Although this history is not properly recognised, DuBois is useful to reexamine this historical negligence. It is particularly true to those who believe that contemporary Japan has little to do with race and racism. Instead, they are keen to problematise 'race' as exception, the thing that rarely matters in the traditionally tolerant cultural environment. Introducing the Tokyo municipal governor Ishihara Shintaro's deliberately racist speech, I examine the ways in which 'race' comes to occupy the central part among political relations rather than to be an occasionally discussed, peripheral and simple political issue.
著者
三木原 浩史
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.41-58, 2005-09

"Mon Emouvant Amour", c'est une chanson avec les paroles et la musique de Charles Aznavour. Il l'a chante parlant par gestes fascinants, c'est-a-dire avec la langue des mains, au theatre de l'Olympia a Paris en 1980 et a eu un tres grand succes. Voila l'histoire : Un brave homme sympathique aime une jeune fille qui est tres jolie, mais sourde-muette. Il lit dans ses regards et ses sourires interpretant ce qu'elle veut dire par ses mains. Quand elle lui murmure de bout des doigts : "je t'aime", il est tout a fait emu, mais quant a lui, il n'a aucun moyen de parler a son aimee; elle lui semble tout etrangere, malgre qu'elle soit tout pres de lui. Alors il se decide a apprendre a son tour le langage des mains. Us reussissent tous les deux a jouer une pantomime. C'est ainsi que leurs deux coeurs se fondent en un seul. Quel miracle ! Ce miracle de pantomime evoque en nous l'opera "La Muette de Portici" (1829, livret de Eugene Scribes) mis en musique par Daniel-Francois-Esprit Aubert. Que l'heroine, fille de pecheur de Portici, est muette, cela a un effet important, agite, touche et gagne le coeur comme "Mon Emouvant Amour". Or, Charles Aznavour, auteur-compositeur-interprete, est ne a Paris en 1924. il est fils d'Armeniens emigres de Turquie. C'est pouquoi il l'a ecrit sur la musique de G.Garvarentz "Ils sont tombes" a la memoire des Armeniens massacres.
著者
宇津木 成介
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.73-91, 2007-12

How many basic emotions are? As William James suggested, we may have an endless list of words expressing emotional states if we enumerate them. In this article the author briefly introduced "seven (basic) emotions" which seem to be based on Buddhism. Charles Darwin provided 37 affective words in eight chapter titles in his "On the expression of the emotions in man and animals." To the contrary J.B. Watson argued he found only three basic emotions X,Y, and Z in his "Behaviorism." James listed seven names of emotions in his 1884 article, and eight names in his 1892 textbook. Only anger and fear appeared in the both lists. He thought that "the varieties of emotion are innumerable," so he seemed to try not to talk about each emotion but to explain emotion per se. Researchers like Wundt have suggested the dimensional structure of emotion. Later, Plutchik introduced his three dimensions theory of emotions and maintained that there are 8 primary emotions and they compose other emotions as three primary colors do. His dimensional view of emotions seems to be the opposite to the one that we humans have a set of basic instincts and each emotion connects to the instinct. James' view of emotion could be understood on a sort of physiological continuum, he also subscribed the idea that humans have discrete instincts. Watson, criticizing James, followed the way suggested by James, that emphasizes the stimulus arousing the emotional response. Although he did not deny the basic action parts observed in the newborn child, he did deny the importance of human instinct which was laid a great importance by McDougall. Woodworth showed that 58 emotional words could be classified into 11 classes. He also indicated that there might be six categories of emotions using Feleky's data. The six categories showed a similar circular structure proposed by Plutchik. In sum, most common number of basic emotions will be 6 to 8. The modern theories of basic emotions should be compared with the older philosophical views of emotions speculated by Tomas Aquinas, Descartes, and Spinoza who proposed 3 to 6 basic emotions that humans have.
著者
三浦 伸夫
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.67-103, 2007-07

In the first half of the fourteenth-century Oxford many scholars developed the theory of motion in medieval cultural context. The most important figure among them is Richard Swineshead. His opus mains, "Book of Calculations", had a great influence into many scholars in Paris, especially Oresme. They discussed the spaces moved by mobile. For their discussion they used mathematical technique, summation of infinite geometrical series, by adding proportional parts infinitely. In the early sixteenth-century many Iberian students visited Paris to study theology under Scottish John Major, and learned also Aristotelian physics as students of faculty of arts. Some of them developed further the mathematical devices. The most conspicuous figure of this school, Alvaro Thomas, who was born in Lisbon probably during the second half of the fifteenth-century, wrote a voluminous treatise "Book of the Triple Motion" at Paris in 1509. This is a kind of sophism treatise popular in Oxford in the fourteenth-century and perhaps used as a textbook of logical reasoning at the faculty of arts. In this article, first, an overview of the contents of the book is presented and the mathematical techniques used there are discussed. This book elucidates the Mertonian theory of motion discussed in Swineshead's treatise, but went over that text, for he had focus upon pre-infinitesimal calculation. Secondly, novelties introduced by Thomas are discussed, that is the summation of infinite geometrical series of Oxford school. His impressive originality in the theory of series is that even if the exact numerical value was not known, he believed that he could evaluate it by estimations of upper and lower values which had been already known. He also calculated series by dividing it into two series which were easily calculated. However it is reasonable to think that he might use geometry in working his mathematics even if his description was rhetorical. He did not show general rules for solving series. And he usually did not use geometrical figures. His intuitive technique appeared in the later Iberian scholars and had an influence even upon Latin America.
著者
三浦 伸夫
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.65-106, 2006-01

Arabic Mathematics has been characterized as algebra. Compared with this, Arabic geometry had not influence on the later mathematics, and has not been studied so much. However without this geometry, no solution of cubic equations has not completed in Arabic mathematics. We sketch here the synopsis of the geometrical works of Abu Sahl al-Quhl (second half of the tenth century), "one of the most eminent mathematicians in Iraq", and investigate the origin and development of his geometrical ideas. Thirty three mathematical works are attributed to him, and almost of them are geometrical. His ideas were from Archimedes, Euclid and Apollonius. The opus magnum of the last one is indispensable for al-Quhl's works, and in the field of conic sections he contributed much. He completed the lacuna of the Greek mathematics, and developed it further. For showing this aspect four treatises are presented with partial translations. "On Tangent Circles" investigated Apollonian circle problems further, and "On the Trisection of Angle" solved the famous problem by Apollonian conic sections. "On the Motion" was a unique treatise in Arabic mathematics, for it dealt with infinity which had been avoided in Greek mathematics. "On the Perfect Compass (an instrument to draw conies by continuous moving)" gave an idea on the new classification of curves, which anticipates the seventeenth-century European mathematics. The problems and method which he used seems to be analytical and purely Greek, and he might be called as the last Greek-style mathematician. The atmosphere where he studied shows that Arabic science developed under a kind of patronage, and the manuscripts containing his treatises shows that Greek geometry was well established at his times. In conclusion, geometry flourished in Arabic world of the tenth century, and its results were over the Greek ones, and might be compared to the early modern mathematics in Europe.