著者
佐藤 賢一
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.68-96, 2019-02-01

This paper introduces the collection of traditional Japanese Mathematical books in the library of the University of Tokyo. This collection has 1376 titles gathered from 1891 to 1899 by traditional Mathematicians, HAGIWARA Teisuke and ENDO Toshisada. The author traces bibliographical datum of each title in order to clarify the time of registration.
著者
佐藤 賢一
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.23-33, 2020-02-01

This paper introduces a mathematical puzzle book, Gobanjo, rediscovered on 2008. The radiocarbon dating on this book suggests that this puzzle book had been written on 15th century, which could be the oldest mathematical book in Japan. The Gobanjo shows us 6 types of puzzle utilizing go stones. The author summaries and translates these 6 types of puzzle into modern Japanese, i.e. Hyakugogenzan (Chinese Remainder Theorem), Shihoseki (counting the sides of square), Tonitarazu (addition and subtraction), Sassadate (simultaneous equations), Metsukeishi (guessing a hidden go stone), and Jugodate (3×3 magic square). Hitherto, as we had some knowledge about these puzzles except Metsukeishi, the author presumes the reconstruction of Metsukeishi utilizing the transposed matrix.
著者
佐藤 賢一
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.300105, 2018-02-01

This paper introduces one traditional Japanese mathematical book, Kenki Sanpo (1683) by Katahiro Takebe (1664 - 1739). In this book Takebe solved a problem of area of segment utilizing the approximate formula for the length of arc reduced by means of Lagrange interpolation. The author points out Takebe’s solution was constructed on the base of simultaneous equations which the ancient Chinese mathematician developed on the 1st century A.D.
著者
赤澤 紀子
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.54-61, 2020-02-01

In the New Course of Study from 2020, all elementary school students will experience programming and all high school students will learn informatics. Previously, the importance of informatics education has not been recognized in Japan. However, with this educational reform, it is expected to start to change society’s attitude toward informatics education.Attention has also been focused on university entrance examinations using informatics.Therefore, in this paper, we survey informatics in high school, and university entrance examinations using informatics.In addition, we analyze the content of “high school informatics” and the university entrance exam questions.
著者
横田 理博
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.90-101, 2017-02-01

Eighty university students responded to a questionnaire which asked how much importance they placed on fifty-five items regarding conduct, attitude and goal-orientation which are related to ethics and morals. This paper shows the results of the responses and its analysis. It might contribute in some way to the understanding of the ethical consciousness of the university students. Students were asked to rate each item on a 4-point Likert scale from 0 – not important at all to 4 – very important. The question items are as follows: 1. Do not injure others, 2. Do not steal anything belonging to others, 3. Be kind to every person, 4. Get along well with others and keep in harmony, 5. Do not lie (be honest), 6. Trust others, 7. Make a good friend, 8. Help and care for the weak, 9. Obey social rules and keep public order, 10. Be polite, 11. Discriminate between right and wrong, 12. Criticize what is wrong, 13. Punish a bad person, 14. Contribute to your regional community, 15. Contribute to your nation, 16. Act in accordance with how you think society should be, 17. Vote in an election, 18. Be dutiful to your parents, 19. Take care of your family, 20. Respect your elders, 21. Help younger people, 22. Do not boast nor domineer, 23. Have self-confidence, 24. Have pride in yourself, 25. Do not be overconfident, 26. Do not worry about not receiving recognition from others, 27. Be independent, 28. Have a sense of responsibility, 29. Admit your errors frankly, 30. Be serious, sincere and earnest, 31. Be prudent, cautious and careful, 32. Do not be cheated or tricked, 33. Maintain a balanced view (do not be prejudiced), 34. Do not pretend to know something which you actually do not know, 35. Acquire a wide range of knowledge, 36. Acquire technical knowledge and skill in a specialized field, 37. Judge a situation properly in an emergency, 38. Behave in accordance with your faith, 39. Have a consistent faith (do not depart from your principles), 40. Be courageous, 41. Behave positively and actively, 42. Have patience, 43. Make effort (do your best), 44. Keep calm (do not be hot-tempered emotionally), 45. Do not be greedy (be satisfied with your situation), 46. Have a stable peace of mind, 47. Have a flexible mind without any attachment, 48. Be lively and cheerful, 49. Believe in God or Buddha, 50. Maintain your health, 51. Earn a large income, 52. Try to look attractive (take care in how you look), 53. Pursue your own happiness, 54. Make full use of your individuality (personality), 55. Find worth in your life and a reason for living. The result of this questionnaire is as follows: The items which most students felt "very important" are, first, "Do not steal anything belonging to others", second, "Do not injure others", third, "Judge a situation properly in an emergency", forth, "Admit your errors frankly" and "Maintain your health", sixth, "Find worth in your life and a reason for living". The items which most students felt "most important for their own way of life" are, first, "Take care of your family", second, "Make effort (do your best)", third, "Find worth in your life and a reason for living", forth, "Do not injure others", fifth, "Admit your errors frankly", "Behave in accordance with your faith" and "Pursue your own happiness". 倫理・道徳に関わるふるまい方・態度・目標などの55の項目を列記して、それぞれの項目をどの程度重要だと考えるかという問いを提示し、80名の学生に回答してもらった。このアンケートの回答を集計し、分析を試みた。学生の倫理意識の解明のために役立てたい。 質問した項目は下記の通りである。1. 他人に危害を加えない、2. 他人のものを盗まない、3. 誰に対しても親切にする、4. 他人と仲良くし調和を保つ、5. 嘘をつかない(正直)、6. 他人を信頼する、7. よい友達をつくる、8. 弱者を助ける(いたわる)、9. 社会の秩序(ルール)を守る、10. 礼儀正しさ、11. 正しいことと正しくないこととを区別する、12. 正しくないことを批判する、13. 悪人をこらしめる、14. 地域に貢献する、15. 国家に貢献する、16. 社会のあるべきあり方を考え、行動する、17. 選挙に投票に行く、18. 親孝行、19. 家族を大事にする、20. 年長者・先輩に敬意をもつ、21. 年少者・後輩を助ける、22. いばらない、23. 自信をもつ、24. 自分に誇り(プライド)をもつ、25. 自信過剰にならない、26. 他人に認められなくても苦にしない、27. 主体性をもつ、28. 責任感、29. いさぎよさ(自分の失敗を認める)、30. まじめ・誠実・真剣、31. 慎重、32. だまされない、33. バランス感覚をもつ(かたよらない)、34. 知ったかぶりをしない、35. 広い教養を身につける、36. 専門的な知識や技能を身につける、37. とっさの時に適切な状況判断ができる、38. 自分の信念に従って行動する、39. 信念をまげない(一貫させる)、40. 勇気をもつ、41. 積極的に行動、42. 忍耐(がまん)、43. 努力する(がんばる・一生懸命)、44. 感情的にかっとならずに冷静さを保つ、45. がつがつしない(足るを知る)、46. 心の安定、47. こだわりのないしなやかな心をもつ、48. おおらかさ・快活、49. 神や仏を信じる、50. 健康を保つ、51. 高収入を求める、52. 見ばえ(かっこう)をよくする、53. 自分の幸福を追求する、54. 自分の個性を生かす、55. 自分の生きがいをもつ。 次のような結果が出た。「たいへん重要」だと感じる学生が多い項目は、一位「他人のものを盗まない」、二位「他人に危害を加えない」、三位「とっさの時に適切な状況判断ができる」、四位「いさぎよさ(自分の失敗を認める)」、同四位「健康を保つ」、六位「自分の生きがいをもつ」であった。また、「自分にとってとくに重要」だと感じる学生が多い項目は、一位「家族を大事にする」、二位「努力する(がんばる・一生懸命)」、三位「自分の生きがいをもつ」、四位「他人に危害を加えない」、五位「いさぎよさ(自分の失敗を認める)」、同五位「自分の信念に従って行動する」、同五位「自分の幸福を追求する」であった。
著者
奥 浩昭
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.48-60, 2019-02-01

This article aims to demonstrate three significances of tanka poems by HONGO Sumie (1934~), who has lived for sixty years in Nishijin, Kyoto: the significance of her poems in depicting the glory and decline of Nishijin fabric industry and the ever-inspiring historic places of and figures in Kyoto; the beauty and artistry of her poems in exploiting a variety of rhetorical expressions; the possibility of making ordinary Japanese people realize the beauty and richness of the Japanese language. Among her conspicuous rhetorical expressions is the use of onomatopoeia like saya-saya, light and rhythmic sounds of a bamboo or a small waterfall, describing a Nishijin fabric machine and a small waterfall in a well-known garden in Kyoto. Another is the frequent use of hikari or light, referring to encouraging aspects of the world around her. In a tanka poem her late husband is associated with light (hikari) and a shield (tate). Not well-known to the tanka-related people, the poet deserves, the author believes, to be accepted as a distinguished Nishijin- and Kyoto- related poet. (Kyoto and Nishijin need a poet who gives literary description of its glorious culture and history.) Her use of uta-kotoba or words frequently used in tanka poems like modasu or 'to remain silent' might enable ordinary Japanese people to be impressed with not-daily-used beautiful Japanese expressions, thereby being more interested in their native language.
著者
矢崎 和幸
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.100-105, 2018-02-01

The department of the Academic Engineering Services at the University of Electro-Communications has been offering the SD (Staff Development) meeting for the Academic Engineers since 2011. In 2015, the chairperson of the SD committee was changed. The committee members decided to focus on “ methodology of improving and practical support for laboratory class learning ” as the main subject for SD. In this paper, we report the SD activities from 2011 to 2016. Especially, we detail these activities since 2015.
著者
笹倉 理子
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.68-72, 2020-02-01

“Since 2016 the global school for high school students has been held as an educational program conducted by three national universities in Western Tokyo(TUFS, TUAT, and UEC). In March 2019 the school took place with the theme of “SDG14”, “SDG15” and we designed the school program in UEC that covers environmental techniques from basics to practice. Here we report the teaching materials by using a CO2 sensor and micro:bit, and how our program was carried out.
著者
奥 浩昭
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.48-60, 2019-02-01

This article aims to demonstrate three significances of tanka poems by HONGO Sumie (1934~), who has lived for sixty years in Nishijin, Kyoto: the significance of her poems in depicting the glory and decline of Nishijin fabric industry and the ever-inspiring historic places of and figures in Kyoto; the beauty and artistry of her poems in exploiting a variety of rhetorical expressions; the possibility of making ordinary Japanese people realize the beauty and richness of the Japanese language. Among her conspicuous rhetorical expressions is the use of onomatopoeia like saya-saya, light and rhythmic sounds of a bamboo or a small waterfall, describing a Nishijin fabric machine and a small waterfall in a well-known garden in Kyoto. Another is the frequent use of hikari or light, referring to encouraging aspects of the world around her. In a tanka poem her late husband is associated with light (hikari) and a shield (tate). Not well-known to the tanka-related people, the poet deserves, the author believes, to be accepted as a distinguished Nishijin- and Kyoto- related poet. (Kyoto and Nishijin need a poet who gives literary description of its glorious culture and history.) Her use of uta-kotoba or words frequently used in tanka poems like modasu or ‘to remain silent’ might enable ordinary Japanese people to be impressed with not-daily-used beautiful Japanese expressions, thereby being more interested in their native language.
著者
横田 理博
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.15-35, 2015-02-27

Kitaro Nishida (1870-1945), a philosopher, served as a teacher at Yamaguchi-Kotogakko, a college under the old system, from 1897 to 1899. In this article, I will explore how Nishida lived and what he contemplated during his stay in Yamaguchi. In the first section, I explain about the school where he worked and discuss where he lived. Then, I will inquire into his diaries, letters and articles, in the second, third and fourth sections respectively. Reading his diaries during his stay in Yamaguchi, you gain a strong impression of his will, which he used to focus his consciousness as part of his Zen training to live an ascetic life. He also enjoyed climbing mountains, seeing waterfalls and playing a kind of football. His daily experience in nature and his practice of contemplation provided a context for his ideas about experience and the knowledge of reality. In the sixteenth century, Francis Xavier visited Yamaguchi. He spent more time propagating Christianity in Yamaguchi than anywhere else he visited in Japan. In the Meiji Era, Amatus Villion, a missionary, searched for the place where Xavier lived and found it in 1893. According to Nishida’s letter to his friend, while he was in Yamaguchi he was deeply impressed by the words, “Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?” which is written in the sixth chapter of The Gospel according to Matthew. This helped him get rid of his dissatisfaction and complaints and feel easy and peaceful. Yasunosuke Yamamoto published an article in 1898 called “Religion and Reason”. According to it, every religion has it’s own >creed<, which is identified with a dogma. Men who believe the creed have >beliefs<. The emotions that drive us to seek spiritual peace hinder the development of reason in a religion and so men accept a creed blindly and irrationally. Yamamoto expressed a view that we should not be restrained by our >emotions< and should develop our >reason< in our religion. Nishida objected to Yamamoto’s view of religion. In the same year, he published an article, “My comment on Mr. Yamamoto’s article titled ‘Religion and Reason.’ ” He says, “It is not true that a creed precedes a belief, but it is true that a belief precedes a creed.” We can escape from the limited world, go into the unlimited world, unify with the Absolute and experience “the reason why the reality of the active universe as a whole is what we see.” Nishida called this kind of >intuitive understanding< a >belief<, which is most important for him. The >belief< is originally beyond words but becomes expressed as a >creed< with concepts and words, which is not so important for him. His view of religion attaches greater importance to the intuitive and emotional understanding than to the only intellectual knowledge and understanding. Nishida found in the center of religion a desire to escape from the limited world and unify with the Unlimited. He regarded God not as transcendent out of the cosmos but as working immanently in the midst of the cosmos. Such a view of religion during Nishida’s stay in Yamaguchi was expressed also in Study on the Good (Zen no Kenkyu) which was published in 1911. 哲学者、西田幾多郎(1870~1945年)は、明治30(1897)年から明治32(1899)年まで、旧制の山口高等学校の教師を務めた。本稿は、山口時代の西田がいかに生き、いかに思索していたのかについて考察する。第一章では、西田の職場である「山口高等学校」とはどのような学校なのかを述べ、そして、西田が山口のどこに住んでいたのかについての情報を整理する。そのあと、彼の日記・書簡・著作に順次目を向ける(第二・三・四章)。 山口滞在中の彼の日記には、禅の修行、そして自分の生活を禁欲的に律することへと意識を集中しようという決意がみなぎっている。その一方で、山に登ることや滝を見ることやサッカーをすることを楽しんでいる。そのような日常の経験が彼の思索の背景にある。 山口は、16世紀にフランシスコ・ザビエルが日本で最も長い期間滞在し布教した土地であり、1893年、ヴィリオン神父の尽力によって、ザビエルの住居の場所が発見された。西田が友人に宛てた書簡によれば、彼は山口で「マタイによる福音書」第六章の「あなたたちのうちの誰が、思い煩ったからといって、自分の背丈を一尺ほどでも伸ばせるであろうか」という言葉に感動し、それによって、いろいろな不満が解消し、心が安らかになったという。 ところで、山本安之助は「宗教と理性」という論文を1898年に発表した。それによれば、いずれの宗教にも「信条」(教理)があり、信者はこれを信仰する「信念」をもっている。安心を求める感情が、宗教において理性が働くことを阻害し、人々は盲目的・非合理的に信条をうけいれる。山本は、宗教において、「感情」に束縛されずに「理性」を働かせなければならないという「啓蒙」的な主張を表明している。 この山本の宗教論について西田は反発し、同じ年、「山本安之助君の『宗教と理性』と云ふ論文を読みて所感を述ぶ」と題する論文を発表する。西田は「信条ありて而して後信念あるにあらず、信念ありて而して後信条あるなり」と言う。つまり、彼にとって何より大事なのは、有限界を脱して無限界に超越して絶対的なるものと一体化し、「宇宙実在が全体として活動する所以のもの」を「感得」することとしての「信念」であった。「信念」が概念化され言葉となった「信条」はそれほど重要ではない。宗教において、このような「感得」や「感情」を重視する一方で、「智識」や「理解力」は重視されない。 有限世界を脱して無限なる力に合一することを宗教の中心に置き、神はこの宇宙の外に超越しているのではなく、この宇宙のただなかで働いていると考える西田の山口時代の宗教観は、1911年に発表される『善の研究』でも継承されることになる。
著者
笹倉 理子 赤澤 紀子 吉田 史明 鈴木 勝
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.61-67, 2019-02-01

“High School Student Global School” conducted by Three National Universities in Western Tokyo is an interdisciplinary sciences-humanities program for senior high school students to build global talent that integrates both sciences and humanities. This report presents the educational program implemented thus far by the University of Electro-Communications in High School Student Global School.
著者
上野 友稔
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.55-59, 2015-02-27

The University of Electro-Communications, by using the discovery service "Summon" of ProQuest, started to provide "Global Material Search (Beta)" from April 2014. By using the "Global Material Search (Beta)", users can search academic materials including books, journals, electric journals, databases, and so on at our university. In this paper, we introduce the history and features of the "Global Material Search (Beta)". In addition, we discuss a development to be able to search by integrating the paper materials and electronic materials, such as books and journals, and two suggestions about the academic search system, such as the service improvement by visualization of subscription information of the electronic resources and the search improvement of the introduction of personalized search.
著者
高田 亨 中村 仁 鈴木 勝
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.167-172, 2010-02-15

The report management system was introduced into the Physics Laboratory class in the first-year curriculum. This class is a compulsory subject, and plays an important role in the education of our university. However, the management of students’ reports puts a heavy load on staff, associated with the lack of experience on experiment. We developed a new management system in order to reduce the load of report management. This system also enables us to grasp the status of students’ activities for the Physics Laboratory class in real time.
著者
三浦 清美
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.61-71, 2013-02-01

The author in this bulletin provides the translations of two medieval Russian apocryphas ; "The Resurrection of Lazaro" and "The Trees of Crosses".Apocrypha is in biblical literature works outside an accepted canon of scripture. It refers to a body of esoteric writings that were at first prized, later tolerated, and finally excluded. Apocrypha arrived in medieval Russia through the Slavonic translation of Byzantine literature. "The Resurrection of lazaro" is supposed to have been written between the end of 12th century and the beginning of 13th century exactly in Russia. In this work such well-known characters and prophets of the Old Testament as Adam, Moses, David and so on, having suffered in Hell, ask Lazaro, who would be resurrected, to entreat Jesus Christ to pick them out of Hell. Jesus Christ granted their entreaty and went down to Hell to save them. "The Trees of Crosses" is rather complicated because various elements of plural stories are gathered together like a patch work and as a result lack consistency. When and where this work was composed is not exactly comprehensible. This work appeared in the 14th century in Bulgarian and Serbian manuscript tradition and only at the end of the 15th century in Russian. At the base of the work there is the plot that the tree, which caused Adam to have been exiled from Eden, became the trees of the Crosses, by one of which Jesus Christ was crucified. This apocrypha seems to have shown that the original sin of the mankind had been saved by the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
著者
島内 景二
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.55-82, 2003-07-31

Kako Tsurudo (1855-1931) was a bosom friend of Mori Ogai (1862-1922). They were in the same class of the medical department of Tokyo University, and both became army doctors.Kako had the confidence of Ogai and therefore he took down Ogai's deathbed injunctions.Why was Ogai deeply attached to Kako? The friendly feeling between Ogai and Kako is the same as the feeling between Ariwara-no-Narihira and Ki-no-Aritsune in " Ise-Monogatari"Kako and Ogai were both tanka poets. They organized "Tokiwakai", a tanka association headed by Yamagata Aritomo.First, This paper showed a complete list of Kako's tanka works from "Tokiwakai Eiso".Secondly, it found several distinctive features of Kako's tanka.Lastly, in analizing many letters Ogai sent to Kako, it indicates Ogai and Kako's great literary accomplishments.
著者
佐々木 豊史 宮崎 浩一
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.21-32, 2005-01-31

In this article, we examine whether bad news on a company impacts on the correlations betweenthe equity return of the company and those of other companies based on the Japanese equity datain 1997, when some of major financial institutions bankrupted. We define "contagion" or "exclusion" as a significant increase or decrease, respectively, in the correlation after the announcement of thebad news. Our major findings are (1) whether the effect of the bad news is "contagion" or "exclusion" basically depends upon the nature of the bad news, (2) heteroskedasticity in thecorrelation has some influence on the identification of the bad news effect and it is important toadjust the heteroskedasticity in the correlation to correctly identify the effect.
著者
三浦 清美
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.145-165, 2010-02-15

The author in this bulletin provides translations of four literary works, which reflect medieval Russian thoughts in the period of so-called Mongol-Tatar yoke (usually considered from 1238th to1480th). The first we provide is composed of five sermons of Serapion of Vladimir. They accounted for the cruel aggressions of Mongol-Tatars as a punishment from God and invoked penitence of their contemporary. The second work is “the Tale of Mercury of Smolensk”. Mercury was believed to have repulsed single-handed the cloud of Mongol-Tatars from Smolensk. The third is“the Tale of Kitezh”. The town of Kitezh was believed to have disappeared during the attack of Mongol-Tatars. The fourth is “the Tale of Assassination of the Prince of Chernigov Michail and His Aristocrat Feodor”, who are assassinated because of the refusal of Tatars'customs in their court.
著者
三浦 清美
出版者
電気通信大学
雑誌
電気通信大学紀要 (ISSN:09150935)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.21-47, 2016-02-01

Apocryphas are, in biblical literature, works outside accepted canon of the scripture. They arrived in medieval Russia through Slavonic translation of Byzantine literature. The author in this bulletin provides the translations and the commentary of following five medieval slavonic apocryphas. Their outlines are as follows:(1) A Story of Akir the wise: Akir, an able minister and counsellor of Assyrian Empire, had been plotted by his nephew and sentenced to death by his king. However, a friend of Akir gave him shelter in his own house. In absence of Akir an Egyptian pharaoh gave hard problems to the Assyrian king and threatened to send troops if Assyrians could not solve them. The Akir's friend confessed to their king that Akir was alive and Akir, who was then forgiven, solved the pharaoh's problems. Akir took revenge on his nephew. The minister Akir was mentioned in "the Book of Tobit" of the Old Testament.(2) An Eriphery's Story of twelve Fridays: Friday is a special day for Christians because Jesus Christ was crucified on Friday. This story explains why and how in a calendar twelve special Fridays should be venerated.(3) A Story of Melchizedek: Melchizedek, "a king of justice" in Hebrew, is an enigmatic character in Holy Scripture. This story describes how Melchizedek was born and hidden in the background of Holy Scripture.(4) An Aphroditian's Story: The episode of the arrival of three magi is popular theme of the New Testament. This story is based on that episode of the Holy Scripture, and describes how in the East, that is, in Persia three wise men came to be sent to Bethlehem to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. (5) A Story on the King Abgal: Abgal, a king of Edessa in Osroena kingdom, was suffering from leprosy, and wished Jesus Christ to come to Edessa to realize a miracle. Jesus, instead of himself coming, sent him a towel, with which Jesus wiped his face and in which the shape of his face was left. This was believed in the Christian world to be the first icon of the Savior. This story is the incarnation of the idea on icons "acheiropoietos = made not by human hands".