著者
Fumiro KASHIWAMURA Avarzed AVGAANDORJ Keiko FURUMURA
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.1-7, 2001 (Released:2001-10-27)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
3 12

The body size and weight of 584 Banei draft racehorses at Obihiro Racing Stable in Hokkaido, Japan, was investigated. Almost all the animals (94.7%) were cross-breed heavy draft horses; there were a few Percheron and Percheron grade (4.8%) and a Belgian breed (0.5%). The ages of the animals ranged from 2 to 10 years. Males accounted for 80.3%, females for 17.5%, and 2.2% were castrated. The mean body measurements of 2-year-old Banei draft racehorses were significantly smaller than those of the 3-to 4-year-old or 5-to 10-year-old horses. Hip width, croup width, and rump length of females were greater than those of males. In contrast, males had greater chest width and cannon bone circumference than females. Significant relationships among almost all body measurements were observed. A high correlation was found between body weight and chest girth, croup width and body length. A principle component analysis were applied to investigate the effect of body conformation on racing performance in terms of earnings and the time on the performance test. Performance was significantly related to the principle components of general body size and weight of the horses. The cannon bone, body length, and rump length were suggested to have an effect on earnings per race in 2-year-old male horses. In terms of body size and conformation, the Banei draft racehorses, which are large in general size and well balanced, seemed to show high performance.
著者
Kousuke TANAKA Atsushi HIRAGA Toshiyuki TAKAHASHI Atsutoshi KUWANO Scott Edward MORRISON
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.67-71, 2015 (Released:2015-07-02)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses.
著者
Hajime OHMURA James H. JONES
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.99-103, 2017 (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
4

We investigated changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability as a function of age in newborn foals to old Thoroughbred horses. Experiments were performed on a total of 83 healthy and clinically normal Thoroughbred horses. Resting HR decreased with age from birth. The relationship between age and HR fit the equation Y=48.2X-0.129(R2=0.705); the relationship between age and HR for horses 0–7 years old fit the equation Y=44.1X-0.179(R2=0.882). Seven-day-old horses had the highest HR values (106 ± 10.3 beat/min). The low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) powers increased with age in newborn to old horses. These changes in HR and HR variability appear to result from the effects of ageing. Three- to seven-year-old race horses had the lowest HR values (32.9 ± 3.5 beat/min) and the highest LF and HF powers except for the HF powers in the oldest horses. Race training may have contributed to these changes. Horses of ages greater than 25 years old had the highest HF powers and the lowest LF/HF ratios. In individual horses, 8 of the 15 horses over 25 years old had LF/HF ratios of less than 1.0; their HR variability appears to be unique, and they may have a different autonomic balance than horses of younger age.
著者
Daisuke MIYAKOSHI Hiroyuki SENBA Mitsumori SHIKICHI Masaya MAEDA Ryo SHIBATA Kazuhiro MISUMI
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.67-76, 2016 (Released:2016-06-21)
参考文献数
14

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2–3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2–3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race. At 2 years of age, 198 horses (23.3%, 198/850) did not start a race. Horses with enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones in the fore (9 of 19 horses) and hind limbs (5 of 9 horses) did not start a race at the age of 2 years, and fewer of these horses (fore, P=0.021; hind, P=0.030) started a race at the age of 2 years compared with the population of horses without these radiographic abnormalities. These results suggest that identification of radiographic enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones during training sales could derail the racing debut of horses at the age of 2 years. However, this might not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis and resulting in retirement from racing at 2–3 years of age.
著者
Toshiyuki TAKAHASHI
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.43-48, 2015 (Released:2015-07-02)
参考文献数
8
被引用文献数
1 10

The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse’s final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses’ average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed.
著者
Kayo TERADA
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.4, pp.83-90, 2000 (Released:2001-08-16)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
13 33

The aim of this study was to see if differences in proficiency exist between advanced-and novice-level horseback riders with regard to head movement and EMG activity. Three advanced-and three novice horseback riders rode a horse at a walk, sitting trot and canter whilst their head acceleration and the EMG activity of their rectus abdominis muscle (M. rectus abdominis), erector spinae muscle (M. erector spinae) and abductor magnus muscle (M. adductor magnus) were recorded simultaneously. All results were conducted with Frequency Analysis by the Maximum Entropy Method. At walk, the novice rider showed a frequency distribution dispersion (P<0.1) of the head in the proximal-distal direction which was not observed in the advanced rider, but no distinct primary factors were observed in the muscular discharge frequency distributions-perhaps due to the novice rider's level which was not completely inexperienced. At a sitting trot, unstable movements of the novice rider's upper body were observed in the cranial-caudal direction (P<0.05), mirroring the horse's violent rocking movements. The electromyogram frequency distributions at this gait suggest that the novice rider was unable to balance the erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles, and therefore unable to cope with the unstable movement. It also suggests that there was instantaneous muscular activity of the adductor magnus muscle in order to stabilize the ill-balanced body. At a canter, there were no significant differences in the dispersion of acceleration frequency distribution or in the electromyogram frequency distribution, but although there were no "significant" differences, the results obtained from the advanced rider at this gait showed a dispersion of acceleration frequency distribution that was slightly greater than that of the novice rider. This situation was only observed at a canter. In conclusion, differences exist in the degree of difficulty of coordination between horse and rider according to the gait. In addition, from the results of this study, we can clearly see that differences also exist in the rider's own skill and ability to "maintain posture".
著者
Yusuke HORI Takatoshi OZAKI Yoshimitsu YAMADA Teruaki TOZAKI Heui-Soo KIM Ayaka TAKIMOTO Maiko ENDO Noboru MANABE Miho INOUE-MURAYAMA Kazuo FUJITA
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.31-36, 2013 (Released:2013-09-30)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
2 7

Genetic polymorphisms in genes related to neurotransmitters or hormones affect personality or behavioral traits in many animal species including humans. In domestic animals, the allele frequency of such genes has been reported to be different among breeds and it may account for breed differences in behavior. In this study, we investigated breed differences in horses in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), which has been reported to affect horse personality. We collected samples from seven horse breeds including those native to Japan and Korea, and compared the sequence of the DRD4 exon3 region among these breeds. We found that there were two types of polymorphisms (VNTR and SNPs) in the exon3 region, and some of them seemed to be breed-specific. In addition, we found that the allele frequency of G292A, reported to be associated with horse personality, differed greatly between native Japanese horses and Thoroughbred horses. The frequency of the A allele which is associated with low curiosity and high vigilance, was much lower in native Japanese horses (Hokkaido, 0.03; Taishu, 0.08) than in Thoroughbreds (0.62). This difference may account for breed differences in personality or behavioral traits. Further studies of the function of these polymorphisms and their effect on behavior are indicated.
著者
柏村 文郎
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Hippophile (ISSN:18836062)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.27-38, 2002
著者
Amanda YORKE Judith MATUSIEWICZ Barbara PADALINO
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.67-75, 2017 (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
73
被引用文献数
8

This review aims to provide practical outcomes on how to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours (TRPBs) in horses. TRPBs are unwanted behaviours occurring during different phases of transport, most commonly, a reluctance to load and scrambling during travelling. TRPBs can result in injuries to horses and horse handlers, horse trailer accidents, disruption of time schedules, inability to attend competitions, and poor performance following travel. Therefore, TRPBs are recognised as both a horse-related risk to humans and a human-related risk to horses. From the literature, it is apparent that TRPBs are common throughout the entire equine industry, and a YouTube keyword search of ‘horse trailer loading’ produced over 67,000 results, demonstrating considerable interest in this topic and the variety of solutions suggested. Drawing upon articles published over the last 35 years, this review summarises current knowledge on TRPBs and provides recommendations on their identification, management, and prevention. It appears that a positive human-horse relationship, in-hand pre-training, systematic training for loading and travelling, appropriate horse handling, and the vehicle driving skills of the transporters are crucial to minimise the incidence of TRPBs. In-hand pre-training based on correct application of the principles of learning for horses and horse handlers, habituation to loading and travelling, and self-loading appear to minimise the risk of TRPBs and are therefore strongly recommended to safeguard horse and horse-handler health and welfare. This review indicates that further research and education with respect to transport management are essential to substantially decrease the incidence of TRPBs in horses.
著者
Siriwan TANGYUENYONG Fumio SATO Yasuo NAMBO Harutaka MURASE Yoshiro ENDO Tomomi TANAKA Kentaro NAGAOKA Gen WATANABE
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.77-86, 2017 (Released:2017-09-20)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
2

This study aimed to compare body growth, metabolic, and reproductive hormonal changes in trained Thoroughbred yearling horses under different climate conditions with and without light supplementation (LS). Thoroughbred yearlings raised at research centers of the Japan Racing Association in Hokkaido (north) or Miyazaki (south) were divided into control and LS groups. In the LS groups, 44 colts and 47 fillies from Hokkaido and 11 colts and 11 fillies from Miyazaki were exposed to LS with an extended photoperiod of 14.5 hr of daylight and 9.5 hr of darkness. One week before and once a month after LS, circulating total thyroxine (T4), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), prolactin (PRL), cortisol, and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay and fluoroimmunoassay, respectively. Growth parameters, including body weight, height, girth, and cannon bone circumferences, were measured monthly. Hair coat (HC) condition was scored. Under natural conditions, the T4 concentrations of Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher, whereas the IGF-1 (colt) and PRL levels were significantly lower than those of yearlings in Miyazaki. Growth parameters and HC scores were lower in Hokkaido yearlings. With LS, the PRL and P4 concentrations in Hokkaido and Miyazaki were higher, and the first ovarian activity tended to be earlier than in the controls. Only LS Hokkaido yearlings showed significantly higher HC scores than the controls. Comparing the different climates among the LS yearlings, the levels of PRL and P4 and the HC scores in Hokkaido yearlings increased and reached levels similar to those in Miyazaki yearlings. The body weight and girth increment percentages of Hokkaido yearlings in January dramatically decreased and then eventually increased to levels similar to those of Miyazaki yearlings. This suggested that yearlings in naturally colder Hokkaido exhibit higher basal metabolism to maintain homeostasis. However, providing LS may help to improve growth and early development of reproductive function in Hokkaido yearlings to levels equal to those of Miyazaki horses.
著者
及川 正明 笠嶋 快周
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of equine science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.41-56, 2002-06-01
参考文献数
55
被引用文献数
1
著者
Teruaki TOZAKI Mio KIKUCHI Hironaga KAKOI Kei-ichi HIROTA Kazutaka MUKAI Hiroko AIDA Seiji NAKAMURA Shun-ichi NAGATA
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.4, pp.157-164, 2016 (Released:2016-12-15)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
1

Transcriptome analyses based on DNA microarray technology have been used to investigate gene expression profiles in horses. In this study, we aimed to identify exercise-induced changes in the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral blood of Thoroughbred horses using DNA microarray technology (15,429 genes on 43,603 probes). Blood samples from the jugular vein were collected from six horses before and 1 min, 4 hr, and 24 hr after all-out running on a treadmill. After the normalization of microarray data, a total of 26,830 probes were clustered into four groups and 11 subgroups showing similar expression changes based on k-mean clustering. The expression level of inflammation-related genes, including interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL-1R2), matrix metallopeptidase 8 (MMP8), protein S100-A8 (S100-A8), and serum amyloid A (SAA), increased at 4 hr after exercise, whereas that of c-Fos (FOS) increased at 1 min after exercise. These results indicated that the inflammatory response increased in the peripheral blood cells after exercise. Our study also revealed the presence of genes that may not be affected by all-out exercise. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood cells could be used to monitor physiological changes induced by various external stress factors, including exercise, in Thoroughbred racehorses.
著者
Teruaki TOZAKI Fumio SATO Mutsuki ISHIMARU Mio KIKUCHI Hironaga KAKOI Kei-ichi HIROTA Shun-ichi NAGATA
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.107-114, 2016 (Released:2016-09-30)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1 4

Ligand-dependent nuclear receptor compressor-like (LCORL) encodes a transcription factor, and its polymorphisms are associated with measures of skeletal frame size and adult height in several species. Recently, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BIEC2-808543 located upstream of LCORL was identified as a genetic diagnostic marker associated with withers height in Thoroughbreds. In this study, 322 Thoroughbreds-in-training were genotyped for BIEC2-808543 to evaluate the association between genotype and body composition traits, including body weight, withers height, the ratio of body weight to withers height, chest circumference, and cannon circumference. Of these, withers height and cannon circumference were significantly associated with LCORL genotypes throughout almost the entire training period in males and females. Animals with a C/T genotype had higher withers height (maximum differences of 1.8 cm and 2.1 cm in males and females, respectively) and cannon circumstance (maximum differences of 0.65 cm and 0.48 cm in males and females, respectively) compared with animals with a T/T genotype. These results suggested that the regulation of LCORL expression influences the skeletal frame size in Thoroughbreds and thus, indirectly affects the body weight. Although LCORL and BIEC2-808543 would be useful for selective breeding in Thoroughbreds, the production of genetically modified animals and gene doping based on genetic information should be prohibited in order to maintain racing integrity.
著者
Yousuke MAEDA Michiko HANADA Masa-aki OIKAWA
出版者
日本ウマ科学会
雑誌
Journal of Equine Science (ISSN:13403516)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.81-97, 2016 (Released:2016-09-30)
参考文献数
141
被引用文献数
11

This report describes the descriptive epidemiology of racing fractures that occurred from the 1980s to 2000s on racetracks of the Japan Racing Association (JRA). The incidence of racehorse fractures during flat racing was approximately 1–2%. Fractures occurring during a race are more likely to occur in a forelimb. Fractures mostly occur at the third and fourth corners of oval tracks and on the home stretch. They also occur more frequently at the time of changing the leading limb. Comparison of the incidence of racing fracture between before and after reconstruction of the geometrical configuration of a racetrack revealed that there was an outstanding reduction in the number of serious fractures in the year before and after reconstruction. It was postulated that the improvement in racing time, possibly influenced by reconstructing the geometrical configuration of the racetrack, was connected to the reduction in the number of fractures. Of non-biological race- and course-related factors, type of course (dirt or turf), track surface condition, differences between racecourses, and racing distance significantly influence racing time. By using an instrumented shoe, vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) on the forelimb during galloping and the relationships between a rough dirt and woodchip track surface and a smooth dirt and woodchip surface were measured. Relating the incidence of racing fractures with track conditions in general showed that track surface has significant effects on the incidence of fracture, with the incidence of fractures increasing as track conditions on dirt worsen and a tendency for the incidence of fractures to decrease as track conditions on turf worsen. It seems probable that track condition in general may affect the incidence of fracture. The incidence of fracture in horses during both racing and training decreased as the years progressed.