著者
鈴木 文子 池上 知子
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.183-190, 2015

From the perspective of social identity theory, some social psychologists have suggested that heterosexual men espouse negative attitudes toward gay men as a defensive mechanism against threats to their gender self-esteem. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether this gender self-esteem defense theory of sexual prejudice applies among heterosexual men and women in Japan. Our results in principle supported the gender self-esteem defense theory for heterosexual men. For heterosexual women, however, the results tended to be contradictory to the theory. The more positive heterosexual women's gender self-esteem was, the less negative was their attitude toward lesbians. But this link tended to disappear when they were informed that no biological differences exist between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Our findings suggest that heterosexual men and women maintain their gender self-esteem in different manners: Heterosexual men maintain positive gender self-esteem by embracing negative attitudes toward gay men, but heterosexual women do not. Heterosexual women's gender self-esteem may be related to expressing tolerance for sexual minorities.
著者
Philip G. ZIMBARDO
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.125-133, 1995-12-15 (Released:2016-12-04)

A situationist perspective on the causes of anti-social behavior by individuals and violence sanctioned by nations is illustrated through experimental research and social-historical analyses in which "ordinary," good men and women are induced into behaving in evil ways. This social psychological view is contrasted with the more traditional dispositional focus on the internal, or personality-based, causes of anti-social behavior. The research foundation of this article demonstrates the Lewinian principle that it is possible to investigate social phenomena vital in the "real world" using experimental procedures. The presentation features my laboratory and field studies on deindividuation, aggression, vandalism, and the Stanford Prison Experiment, along with a process analysis of Milgram's obedience studies, and Bandura's analysis of Moral Disengagement. This body of research demonstrates the under-recognized power of social situations to alter the mental representations and behavior of individuals, groups and nations. The immediate context for this talk will be the current epidemic of violence in the U.S. My paper is an elaboration of the slide-based lecturegiven to the Society of Japanese Social Psychology in Osaka, 1994.
著者
K.K. Upali Ananda KUMARA
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.1, pp.57-65, 1987-11-20 (Released:2016-11-22)

This study examines the relationship between employee consciousness of the job-related atmosphere and motivation at work. Expectancy theory is used here to develop a framework for the analysis of possible effects. Supportive supervision (`S') and social support of co-workers (`C') are identified as two major factors of employee consciousness of the job-related atmosphere. Employee job awareness regarding its pleasantness and acceptability (`J') is considered here as a moderating variable for the relationship of `S' and `C' with motivation. Several hypotheses are developed upon possible relationships of the above three factors (`S', `C', & `J') and employee motivation. These hypotheses suggest the existence of positive effects of supportive supervision and co-worker social support and their moderating effects due to the pleasantness and acceptability of the job on motivation. A questionnaire survey administered to Japanese manufacturing employees considerably supported the validity of hypotheses. Particularly, the result suggests that the supportiveness of supervision is highly effective in improving employee motivation when the job is perceived rather unacceptable.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner's group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.86-98, 2014

In this study, hoarding tendencies were defined as the trait through which many possessions were accumulated and could not be discarded because of their subjective meaning. Two internet surveys were conducted. In Study 1, a hoarding tendency scale for non-clinical individuals was developed, with questionnaires sent to 410 participants. In Study 2, animistic thinking was taken up as one of the determinants of hoarding, and the relationship between animistic thinking and hoarding tendencies was investigated. Two hundred and thirty-four participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings were as follows: (1) The results of factor analysis indicated that the hoarding tendency scale consisted of six factors (28 items), such as "having too many things" and "avoidance of discarding things." These subscales indicated the common and particular attitudes of hoarders toward their possessions. (2) The hoarding tendency significantly correlated with compulsive buying. This result indicated that the hoarding tendency scale demonstrated sufficient criterion-related validity. (3) Animistic thinking, especially "part of the possessor" and "the anthropomorphication of possessions," had a significant effect on hoarding tendencies.
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.213-233, 2015

This micro-ethnographic research focuses on a traditional custom on Toshi Island, in Japan. When first-born sons on the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of <i>neya-ko</i> (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at the house of their <i>neya-oya</i> (quasi-parents) every night until they reach the age of 26. They maintain the quasi-family relationship and help each other all their lives. Why does the <i>neya</i> custom still continue on this island, while most similar customs have already disappeared in other parts of Japan? To answer this question, we conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews. The results suggest that the ecological environment of the island has exerted an important influence on the <i>neya</i> custom. In spite of recent drastic social and economic changes in the islanders' lives, the <i>neya</i> custom still plays a key role in building sustainability in the community. Based on these findings, we discuss how the multi-layered environments of the island interact with this specific custom that has been fostered through the years.
著者
大坪 庸介
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.191-212, 2015

This article attempts to obtain a better understanding of human reconciliation processes by integrating the social psychological perspective with an evolutionary perspective. The evolutionary literature on reconciliation suggests that benefits accruing from one's association with a partner (relationship value) and uncertainty about the partner's intention (intentional ambiguity) are two crucial determinants of reconciliation processes. Empirical evidence confirms the importance of these two factors. First, research on forgiveness from the victim's perspective showed that relationship value increases forgiveness, whereas intentional ambiguity (<i>i.e.</i>, whether the perpetrator intends to exploit the victim again) decreases forgiveness. Second, research on apology perception from the victim's perspective showed that costly apologies, as compared to no-cost apologies, reduce intentional ambiguity and thereby effectively convince the victim of the perpetrator's benign intent. Third, research on apology-making from the perpetrator's perspective revealed that relationship value and intentional ambiguity (<i>i.e.</i>, whether the victim intends to continue/terminate the relationship) increases the probability of costly apology-making. These three lines of research provide support for evolutionary hypotheses about human reconciliation processes.
著者
尾崎 拓 中谷内 一也
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.175-182, 2015

A recent controversy in the literature on protection behavior is whether individuals' heightened risk perception boosts precautionary behavior toward disasters. We conducted a preliminary experiment (<i>n</i>=108) where risk perception and response efficacy were manipulated based on protection motivation theory (PMT). Contrary to the prediction of PMT, neither variable prompted actual preparedness behavior. In the main experiment (<i>n</i>=113), we examined the effects of two social factors (an informational variable and a relational variable) on preparedness behavior. Descriptive norms, defined as information about majority behavior, were manipulated as the informational variable. The possibility of exchanging stored food was manipulated as the relational variable. Descriptive norms influenced actual food storage behavior, but potential for food exchange did not. Participants' attitude and intention to store food were not influenced by the two variables, suggesting that descriptive norms directly influence preparedness behaviors.