著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.101-111, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
4

The present study aimed to examine the antecedent conditions of pluralistic ignorance and its consequences, especially on individuals’ micro processes. Japanese college students participated in a laboratory experiment and met their partners in another room, these actually being confederates. They were asked to do some choice tasks regarding their preferences of gummy candy flavors. Next, they were led to believe that their partners made choices identical to theirs, and estimated the partners’ preferences. They were then asked to choose one flavor as a reward for themselves and their partners, and to evaluate their preferences again. The result suggested a process of the occurrence and consequences of pluralistic ignorance as follows: (1) People tend to see the choices made by others as reflections of their preferences, even when their own identical choices are made to eliminate dislikable alternatives. (2) They tend to take action as group members to meet others’ preferences, even when those are different from their own preferences. (3) When confronted with the inconsistency between their actions and preferences, people are motivated to justify their actions by changing their preferences.
著者
今瀧 夢 相田 直樹 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.115-125, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
27

The present study examined how leaders’ evaluation and judgment of members are influenced by their “implicit theories” (e.g., Dweck, 1999). Participants were asked to play the role of team leader and then observed a team member performing poorly. They were asked to decide how much reward they should distribute to the failed member and to allocate the remaining time between him/her and a new member who had not yet worked on the task. As a result, participants who believe in malleable abilities (incremental theorists) increased the evaluation of the failed member when that member claimed that he/she made an effort, whereas participants who believe in fixed abilities (entity theorists) evaluated that member based only on outcome. Furthermore, entity theorists expected a new member to achieve an average level of performance and allotted more time to him/her, whereas incremental theorists expected a new member’s performance to be below average. There was no difference between their expectations of the failed member’s next performance. Results suggest that entity theorists may be better than incremental theorists at placing the right people in the right place.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.16-25, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-05)
参考文献数
21

This study investigated factors leading to normative behavior, focusing on residential mobility and reputation estimation. As people in societies with high levels of residential mobility have many chances to build new relationships, it is important for them to establish positive reputations and extend their human resources. However, the incentive to develop a positive reputation may vary depending on the needs and abilities of those engaged in relationship-building. We hypothesized that in societies with high levels of residential mobility, only those who need to build and are capable of building new relationships would follow social norms, when they think it will help to earn a positive reputation from others. On the other hand, people in societies with low levels of residential mobility have few opportunities to build new relationships and thus they may try to avoid negative reputations in order to maintain their current relationships. We hypothesized that in societies with low levels of residential mobility, people would overestimate the possibility of acquiring negative reputations when they deviate from social norms, and they would therefore follow the norms to avoid ending up with negative reputations. The hypotheses were supported by our online survey, in which we focused on normative aspects of participation in community activities.
著者
正木 郁太郎 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1519, (Released:2017-06-07)
参考文献数
39

本研究の目的は,日本社会の特徴を踏まえたダイバーシティ風土の類型化を行った上で,組織制度との関係や,その機能を検討することである。多様な企業に勤める社員618名を対象にオンライン調査を実施し,その結果を分析した。第一に,ダイバーシティ風土として5因子からなる質問項目を作成し,各因子と組織の人事制度の関係を検討した。その結果,柔軟な働き方を促す制度(短時間勤務やフレックスタイム勤務など)がダイバーシティ風土の高さと関係していた一方で,育児休暇制度などの一部の制度には,正負両面の複雑な関係が見られた。第二に,ダイバーシティ風土が持つ,職場の性別ダイバーシティの心理的影響の調整効果を検討した。分析の結果,一部のダイバーシティ風土の知覚が弱い場合には職場の性別ダイバーシティが離職意図や,低いワークモチベーションにつながっていた。これらの結果は,多様な働き方を受容する風土の醸成が重要であることを示唆している。
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.213-233, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
44
被引用文献数
2

This micro-ethnographic research focuses on a traditional custom on Toshi Island, in Japan. When first-born sons on the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of neya-ko (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at the house of their neya-oya (quasi-parents) every night until they reach the age of 26. They maintain the quasi-family relationship and help each other all their lives. Why does the neya custom still continue on this island, while most similar customs have already disappeared in other parts of Japan? To answer this question, we conducted participant observations and unstructured interviews. The results suggest that the ecological environment of the island has exerted an important influence on the neya custom. In spite of recent drastic social and economic changes in the islanders’ lives, the neya custom still plays a key role in building sustainability in the community. Based on these findings, we discuss how the multi-layered environments of the island interact with this specific custom that has been fostered through the years.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.29-41, 2017 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
17

本研究の目的は,多元的無知の先行因を検討することである。具体的には,「集団メンバーの行動を観察したとき,その行動が彼ら自身の選好と反していると推測する者ほど,却って当該行動の『規範性』を認知し,それに沿って振る舞う」という仮説を検討した。研究1では大学生の時間厳守規範に焦点を当てて通時的調査を行い,仮説に合致する現象を確認した。研究2では,実験室実験によって当該現象の生起プロセスをより精緻に検証した。参加者は5人1組で実験室に入り,2種類の水を試飲して品質の評定を行うという課題をひとりずつ順番に行った。このとき,すべての参加者が,自分は4番目に配置されていると信じており,先行する3人が「不味い」水を「より高品質である」として選択する様子を観察した。結果,「先行の参加者は(前の人に合わせて)個人的選好と反する行動をしている」と推測する者ほど,当該の行動の規範性を知覚しており,それゆえに自らも規範に沿って振る舞う(「不味い」水を選択する)ことが示された。
著者
村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.113-124, 1996
被引用文献数
2

Many studies of group in social psychology have distinguished "groups" from other aggregates by some peculiar standards and piled up research focusing only on them. In reality, however, there are various aggregates that have many different characteristics. In the course of participant observation and interviewing at a park in early morning, the present study presents an aggregate which exists between group and togetherness situation. The circle of people here had characteristics of a group as follows: 1) it is an organization which has the shared purpose; 2) each member has particular status and role to each other; 3) There are the same norms shared by members. At the same time, however, it also had aspects of a togetherness situation as follows: 1) the membership (whether one is a member or not) is not clear; 2) deviants are not punished; 3) outsiders are not excluded. Based on these findings, the present study tries to document the continuity between group and togetherness situation and to propose a new viewpoint to see a variety of individual's identity which is salient in various aggregates.
著者
村本 由紀子 遠藤 由美
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.15051, (Released:2016-09-10)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
1

This is a micro-ethnographic study focusing on a traditional custom at Tōshi Island in Japan. When first-born sons in the island graduate from junior high school, they form a small group of neya-ko (quasi-brothers) and sleep over at neya-oyas’ (quasi-parents) house every night until they become 26 years old. They keep the quasi-family relationship alive and help each other all through life. We investigated the maintenance process of this cultural custom by participant observations and unstructured interviews. Because of the recent drastic environmental changes around the island, people face difficulties maintaining the custom. In spite of these circumstances, they have been able to maintain the custom not by challenging the environmental changes, but by constantly changing the custom itself to fit the environment. Their flexible decision making may derive from their ecological basis as fishermen. Based on the findings, we discuss the sustainability of cultural customs facing environmental changes.
著者
今瀧 夢 相田 直樹 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1708, (Released:2018-01-31)
参考文献数
27

The present study examined how leaders’ evaluation and judgment of members are influenced by their “implicit theories” (e.g., Dweck, 1999). Participants were asked to play the role of team leader and then observed a team member performing poorly. They were asked to decide how much reward they should distribute to the failed member and to allocate the remaining time between him/her and a new member who had not yet worked on the task. As a result, participants who believe in malleable abilities (incremental theorists) increased the evaluation of the failed member when that member claimed that he/she made an effort, whereas participants who believe in fixed abilities (entity theorists) evaluated that member based only on outcome. Furthermore, entity theorists expected a new member to achieve an average level of performance and allotted more time to him/her, whereas incremental theorists expected a new member’s performance to be below average. There was no difference between their expectations of the failed member’s next performance. Results suggest that entity theorists may be better than incremental theorists at placing the right people in the right place.
著者
正木 郁太郎 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.12-28, 2017 (Released:2017-09-07)
参考文献数
39

本研究の目的は,日本社会の特徴を踏まえたダイバーシティ風土の類型化を行った上で,組織制度との関係や,その機能を検討することである。多様な企業に勤める社員618名を対象にオンライン調査を実施し,その結果を分析した。第一に,ダイバーシティ風土として5因子からなる質問項目を作成し,各因子と組織の人事制度の関係を検討した。その結果,柔軟な働き方を促す制度(短時間勤務やフレックスタイム勤務など)がダイバーシティ風土の高さと関係していた一方で,育児休暇制度などの一部の制度には,正負両面の複雑な関係が見られた。第二に,ダイバーシティ風土が持つ,職場の性別ダイバーシティの心理的影響の調整効果を検討した。分析の結果,一部のダイバーシティ風土の知覚が弱い場合には職場の性別ダイバーシティが離職意図や,低いワークモチベーションにつながっていた。これらの結果は,多様な働き方を受容する風土の醸成が重要であることを示唆している。
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子 笠原 伊織
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0946, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
23

This study investigated how social norms are maintained in societies with different degrees of relational mobility. We hypothesized that (1) in high relational mobility societies, where they need to present their attractiveness to be chosen as a relational partner, people would follow social norms when they thought it would earn them a positive reputation from others; (2) in low relational mobility societies, where they need to avoid isolation in closed relationships, people would follow social norms when they thought they would be rejected by others if they did not. We also examined to what extent their reputation estimation was accurate. In particular, normative aspects of participation in community activities were investigated using a social survey. As we predicted, the more the respondents in low relational mobility societies feared rejection by others, the more they followed norms regarding participation in community activities. They tended to assume that others would give a lower evaluation to a nonparticipant than they do, which means that they may maintain the norms as a result of “pluralistic ignorance.” On the other hand, we did not find a significant interaction effect between perceived relational mobility and expectation of a positive reputation. This was explained by the respondents’ tendency to underestimate the possibility of earning a positive reputation by participating in community activities.
著者
正木 郁太郎 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.46-55, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
2

Although past research has pointed out the importance of the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational learning, there is little consensus regarding how they are influenced by one another. In the present research, we attempted (1) to differentiate two components of organizational learning (i.e., single-loop and double-loop learning) and (2) to figure out the effect of organizational commitment, especially “organizational identification” (one of the two sub-factors of the affective commitment) on each of the two components. We conducted an empirical study using mail survey data randomly sampled in Tokyo. As we predicted, organizational learning behaviors consisted of two discriminating components. We also found that organizational identification had a positive effect on single-loop learning but no significant effect on double-loop learning. Furthermore, emotional attachment to the organization (the other sub-factor of the affective commitment) had no significant effect on organizational learning. The result suggests that organizational identification plays an important role to promote organizational learning, whereas emotional attachment does not.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1602, (Released:2017-06-07)
参考文献数
17

本研究の目的は,多元的無知の先行因を検討することである。具体的には,「集団メンバーの行動を観察したとき,その行動が彼ら自身の選好と反していると推測する者ほど,却って当該行動の『規範性』を認知し,それに沿って振る舞う」という仮説を検討した。研究1では大学生の時間厳守規範に焦点を当てて通時的調査を行い,仮説に合致する現象を確認した。研究2では,実験室実験によって当該現象の生起プロセスをより精緻に検証した。参加者は5人1組で実験室に入り,2種類の水を試飲して品質の評定を行うという課題をひとりずつ順番に行った。このとき,すべての参加者が,自分は4番目に配置されていると信じており,先行する3人が「不味い」水を「より高品質である」として選択する様子を観察した。結果,「先行の参加者は(前の人に合わせて)個人的選好と反する行動をしている」と推測する者ほど,当該の行動の規範性を知覚しており,それゆえに自らも規範に沿って振る舞う(「不味い」水を選択する)ことが示された。
著者
村本 由紀子 山口 勧
出版者
The Japanese Group Dynamics Association
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.1, pp.65-75, 1997-06-30 (Released:2010-06-04)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
24 24

本研究は, 日本人の帰属における自己卑下・集団奉仕傾向の共存を実証することを目的に行われた。検証された仮説は以下の通り。(1) 集団の中の個人は, 自らの遂行については自己卑下的帰属を行い, 内集団の遂行については集団奉仕的帰属を行う傾向が見られる; (2) 仮説 (1) の傾向は内集団の他者に好印象を与えるための自己呈示戦術と考えられるため, 内集団成員の前で公に帰属を表明するときに, より顕著に現われる。成功状況を扱った実験1・失敗状況を扱った実験2の結果, いずれも, 仮説 (1) の通り, 帰属における自己卑下と集団奉仕傾向が実証された。この傾向は集団内の他者の自尊心への配慮の表れであると同時に, 集団を単位とした間接的な自己高揚の方策として捉えることができる。また, 仮説 (2) については2つの実験の結果は一貫していなかったが, いずれの結果も, 集団奉仕的帰属が, 単なる内集団他者への自己呈示戦術ではなく, より内面化された傾向であることを示唆するものであった。
著者
鈴木 啓太 岡 蒼透 村本 由紀子
出版者
人間環境学研究会
雑誌
人間環境学研究 (ISSN:13485253)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.83-88, 2018 (Released:2018-12-21)

Previous research of implicit theories has revealed that when a person needs to evaluate others ability, incremental theorists (who believe ability is malleable) tend to value effort, whereas entity theorists (who believe ability is fixed) tend to value results. However, recent research shows that entity theorists tend to search and find the most appropriate task for themselves on task performance, suggesting that it would be more important among entity theorists than incremental theorists to make precise evaluation of ability. Based on this assumption, we hypothesised that, when entity theorists need to evaluate other's ability, they would use the information of whether he/she made enough effort or not. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a paper and pencil experiment by using a vignette of a figure who is preparing for exam, in which we manipulated (1) the amount of effort the figure made and (2) whether the figure's grades improved or not. We measured to what extent participants would attribute the outcome to the figure's ability and effort, and how much effort they would request to the figure for his future performance. As a result, entity theorists attributed the outcome to the figure's ability when his grades improved with little effort or did not improve despite his effort. Also, entity theorists requested the figure to make further effort when he did not work hard and his grades did not improve. These results suggest that entity theorists evaluate other's ability not just by outcome but by paying attention to the information of his/her effort.
著者
今瀧 夢 相田 直樹 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
2018

<p>The present study examined how leaders' evaluation and judgment of members are influenced by their "implicit theories" (<i>e.g.</i>, Dweck, 1999). Participants were asked to play the role of team leader and then observed a team member performing poorly. They were asked to decide how much reward they should distribute to the failed member and to allocate the remaining time between him/her and a new member who had not yet worked on the task. As a result, participants who believe in malleable abilities (incremental theorists) increased the evaluation of the failed member when that member claimed that he/she made an effort, whereas participants who believe in fixed abilities (entity theorists) evaluated that member based only on outcome. Furthermore, entity theorists expected a new member to achieve an average level of performance and allotted more time to him/her, whereas incremental theorists expected a new member's performance to be below average. There was no difference between their expectations of the failed member's next performance. Results suggest that entity theorists may be better than incremental theorists at placing the right people in the right place.</p>