著者
横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.75-82, 2012

Previous research has shown that ingroup cooperation tends to flourish in intergroup conflict situations. However, the free-rider problem remains unsolved, even in intergroup conflict situations. In this study, based on multi-group selection theory and cultural-group selection theory, we hypothesized that conformity (frequency-dependent behavior) may contribute to enhancing ingroup cooperation. The results of an evolutionary simulation revealed that ingroup cooperation and conformity can evolve in situations of intergroup conflict. When such conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and adjust their behavior to ingroup cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. However, no effect of conformity on ingroup cooperation was observed during intense intergroup conflict, even though conformity continued to evolve. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest avenues for future research.
著者
佐倉 統 平石 界 池田 功毅 中西 大輔 横田 晋大 三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 林 香里 武田 徹 水島 希
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2013-10-21

放射線リスクの認知特性と社会内拡散動態を明らかにし、風評被害や差別の抑制に貢献することが目的である。個人の認知的特性を対象とする行動免疫班の実験は、放射線リスクに対する忌避感情が当初の予想より強固で制御困難であることを明らかにした。放射線リスク関連情報のツイッターでの動態を解明するソーシャルメディア班は、放射線についての否定的感情が強力であり、他の災害リスクと異なる拡散パターンを確認した。抑圧的でないリスク管理の方途を考察する社会実装班は、感染症などの過去の風評被害や差別の事例との比較分析やメディア論的考察をおこなった。研究遂行および成果発表は福島の研究者や生活者と共有することを心がけた。
著者
中西 大輔
出版者
広島修道大学
雑誌
広島修大論集. 人文編 (ISSN:03875873)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.193-207, 2004-02-27

This study explored confusion between liking and loving. Rubin (1970) showed that males do not distinguish liking and loving toward their partner in a romantic relationship, while females do. The adaptationist perspective, however, predicts the opposite pattern for males and females who are not yet involved in a romantic relationship. To test the prediction, in this experiment, mutually unknown opposite sex dyads jointly engaged in a problem solving task and then assessed their partner with Rubin's love/like scale. The results indicated that the correlation between liking and loving was higher among females than males. Therefore, the adaptationist prediction was supported. Implications of the present study and possible future research topics are discussed.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17335, (Released:2018-12-25)
参考文献数
27

This study aimed to test the validity of social identity theory (SIT) and bounded generalized reciprocity hypothesis (BGR) to explain ingroup cooperation in real social groups. Each of the validity of SIT and BGR have been discussed by social psychologists for a long time. However, recent studies indicate that both theories could explain ingroup cooperation simultaneously. Nakagawa et al. (2015) showed that ingroup cooperation among Japanese fans of a baseball team was derived from the psychological mechanisms predicted by both theories. The present study tested the reproducibility of these results when the cost of cooperation was emphasized. Japanese fans of all 12 baseball teams (N = 1,635) participated in this experiment. In each scenario, the cost of helping was emphasized, and reciprocal expectation was manipulated by knowledge about the feeling of belonging by participants and their partner’s group. The results showed that ingroup cooperation was shown by the psychological mechanism of BGR more than SIT when the cost of cooperation was emphasized.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
48

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner’s group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.
著者
中西 大輔 井川 純一 志和 資朗
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
感情心理学研究 (ISSN:18828817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.118-127, 2015-03-01 (Released:2015-07-07)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

This study investigates the relationship between confidence and regret. We predicted that high levels of confidence—where confidence is defined as reduced counterfactual thinking—would limit the experience of regret. A previous study by Gilovich & Medvec (1995) found an action/inaction effect, where regret is higher when one fails to act. However, this effect may no longer exist once we conceptually distinguish the decision to act from one's confidence about that decision. The decision to act is usually accompanied with a high level of confidence, and little counterfactual thinking. We hypothesized that regardless of action/inaction, regret will be significantly lower when a decision is made with high confidence. In Experiment 1, participants read a series of scenarios and made a decision. Before receiving feedback on their decision, participants rated their level of confidence about the decision. In Experiment 2, participants read a hypothetical mistake made by an individual and estimated that individual's level of regret. The results support our hypothesis that level of confidence about decisions affects feelings of regret.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18230, (Released:2019-09-20)
参考文献数
39

Two scales have been used to assess burnout in Japan: the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), which was developed in Japan, and the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), which was developed in the US. The MBI-HSS is widely used worldwide, while the JBS is generally used in Japan. We conducted a Web survey to clarify the difference between the two scales among three groups of human service professionals (N = 450). Using multiple analytic methods (e.g., correlation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, commonality regression analyses), we consistently found evidence that the two scales overlapped. Both scales’ structure of emotional exhaustion had high similarity; however, personal accomplishment and depersonalization were not very similar. Furthermore, the JBS was a better fit to the model than the MBI-HSS. These results indicate that the JBS is effective for surveying burnout among Japanese individuals, adding to result from previous studies in Japan; however, the MBI-HSS should be considered for international surveys, highlighting the need for appropriate selection of scales.
著者
中西 大輔 横田 晋大
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.193-199, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
23

Using evolutionary simulation, Yokota and Nakanishi (2012) have shown that majority syncing (generalized tit-for-tat strategy) is an adaptive strategy in intergroup conflict situations. When intergroup conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and ensure their behavior conforms to other members’ cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. This finding is supported by multi-group selection theory and by cultural group selection theory. However, this model addresses only majority-syncing as a social influence strategy. The current study introduced a minority-syncing strategy to Yokota and Nakanishi’s (2012) model. There were four conditions: Majority-syncing (agents conformed to the majority, but not to the minority), no conformity (agents did not conform), minority-syncing (agents conformed to the minority, but not to the majority), and mixed (both majority- and minority-syncing strategies were used). Computer simulation revealed that the cooperation rate decreased when minority-syncing was introduced. The cooperation rate of the no-conformity condition was higher than of both the minority and the mixed conditions. We discuss the implications of minority-syncing.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔
出版者
日本パーソナリティ心理学会
雑誌
パーソナリティ研究 (ISSN:13488406)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.27.3.6, (Released:2018-12-11)
参考文献数
29

本研究では,グリット(Grit:根気・一貫性)とバーンアウト傾向(情緒的消耗感・脱人格化・個人的達成化の低下)及び社会的地位との関係について,対人援助専門職(医師,看護師,介護福祉士(男性233名,女性217名))を対象に検討した。Gritと社会的地位に関連が認められるのであれば,職業威信スコアの最も高い医師のGrit得点が最も高くなると予測したが,Gritの間に職種間の差異は認められなかった。一方,管理職と非管理職を比較したところ,一貫性において管理職のほうが高い値を示した。また,Gritがバーンアウト傾向に与える影響について検討したところ,根気は脱人格化及び個人的達成感の低下,一貫性は情緒的消耗感及び脱人格化を抑制していた。分位点回帰分析を用いた検討では,これらのGritのバーンアウト傾向抑制パタンは症状の増悪に伴って変化するものの,どのパーセンタイルでもバーンアウトを増加させる要因にはならないことが明らかとなった。
著者
中西 大輔 亀田 達也
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.469-476, 2001-02-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
37

Effects of stereotypic beliefs were examined in a group problem solving context, featuring full-fledged, face-to-face interaction. Based on formal analysis of group aggregation processes, it was hypothesized that positive and negative impacts of stereotypic beliefs on task performance in problem solving were larger on the group level than on the individual level. In the present study, data from five-person groups working on a series of problem-solving tasks were used to test the hypothesis. Results indicated that stereotypic beliefs indeed exerted “emergent influence” as hypothesized on task performance in the group problem solving. The finding illustrates the importance of socially-shared aspects of stereotypic beliefs, providing a case for the need for “truly social” social-cognition research.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.386-395, 2013

This study investigates characteristics of burnout, as related to job descriptions in mental hospitals and presuppositions of the concept of burnout (burnout is caused as a result of having enthusiasm for a job). The results of a questionnaire survey (burnout tendency, Japanese Burnout Scale, enthusiasm for a job in the past, modified Enthusiasm scale) with 781 workers at mental hospitals showed that burnout characteristics varied according to job descriptions. Specifically, psychiatric social workers, medical assistants, and nurses fell into the high-burnout category, whereas doctors, occupational therapists, and pharmacists fell into the low-burnout category. In addition, in order to compare enthusiasm for a job in the past with current burnout tendencies, factor scores for the respective scales were classified into a low group or a high group and were cross tabulated. The numbers in the cells of the groups indicating the opposite of the definition of burnout (low enthusiasm-high burnout tendency, high enthusiasm-low burnout tendency) were larger. This indicates that having enthusiasm for a job is not a direct factor for burnout, which is different from the presupposition about burnout.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.1, pp.87-92, 2019 (Released:2019-04-25)
参考文献数
27

This study aimed to test the validity of social identity theory (SIT) and bounded generalized reciprocity hypothesis (BGR) to explain ingroup cooperation in real social groups. Each of the validity of SIT and BGR have been discussed by social psychologists for a long time. However, recent studies indicate that both theories could explain ingroup cooperation simultaneously. Nakagawa et al. (2015) showed that ingroup cooperation among Japanese fans of a baseball team was derived from the psychological mechanisms predicted by both theories. The present study tested the reproducibility of these results when the cost of cooperation was emphasized. Japanese fans of all 12 baseball teams (N = 1,635) participated in this experiment. In each scenario, the cost of helping was emphasized, and reciprocal expectation was manipulated by knowledge about the feeling of belonging by participants and their partner’s group. The results showed that ingroup cooperation was shown by the psychological mechanism of BGR more than SIT when the cost of cooperation was emphasized.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.386-395, 2013-10-25 (Released:2013-12-25)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
1

This study investigates characteristics of burnout, as related to job descriptions in mental hospitals and presuppositions of the concept of burnout (burnout is caused as a result of having enthusiasm for a job). The results of a questionnaire survey (burnout tendency, Japanese Burnout Scale, enthusiasm for a job in the past, modified Enthusiasm scale) with 781 workers at mental hospitals showed that burnout characteristics varied according to job descriptions. Specifically, psychiatric social workers, medical assistants, and nurses fell into the high-burnout category, whereas doctors, occupational therapists, and pharmacists fell into the low-burnout category. In addition, in order to compare enthusiasm for a job in the past with current burnout tendencies, factor scores for the respective scales were classified into a low group or a high group and were cross tabulated. The numbers in the cells of the groups indicating the opposite of the definition of burnout (low enthusiasm-high burnout tendency, high enthusiasm-low burnout tendency) were larger. This indicates that having enthusiasm for a job is not a direct factor for burnout, which is different from the presupposition about burnout.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner's group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.