著者
横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.75-82, 2012

Previous research has shown that ingroup cooperation tends to flourish in intergroup conflict situations. However, the free-rider problem remains unsolved, even in intergroup conflict situations. In this study, based on multi-group selection theory and cultural-group selection theory, we hypothesized that conformity (frequency-dependent behavior) may contribute to enhancing ingroup cooperation. The results of an evolutionary simulation revealed that ingroup cooperation and conformity can evolve in situations of intergroup conflict. When such conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and adjust their behavior to ingroup cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. However, no effect of conformity on ingroup cooperation was observed during intense intergroup conflict, even though conformity continued to evolve. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest avenues for future research.
著者
佐倉 統 平石 界 池田 功毅 中西 大輔 横田 晋大 三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 林 香里 武田 徹
巻号頁・発行日
2013-10-21 (Released:2013-10-24)

今年度は当プロジェクトが本格的に始動した年度である。最初に全体研究会をおこない(2014年5月)、共通認識を醸成した(「放射能」に対する懸念や恐怖感は地域によらない可能性がある、欠如モデルによるリスクコミュニケーションは逆効果、など)。全体研究会は9月と11月にも行なった。11月は福島大学の研究者との合同研究会をおこない、放射線測定活動を続けている地域の方々と、食品の小売り店を訪問し、生活者から見たときの放射能汚染とそれをめぐる「風評被害」の影響について意見交換をおこなった。行動免疫班は、放射能関連リスクならびに、それ以外のリスク要因に対する認知、感情、ならびに情報源への信頼について、2月(非放射能関連リスク)と3月(放射能関連リスク)の2回に分け1600名に対するWeb調査を実施した。放射能関連リスクについては認知と感情の関連が強く、またいかなる情報源も信頼されていないことが示された。ソーシャルメディア班は震災時に流布したデマツイートを見たユーザのうちどういう人が「RTした(しなかった)」か、その特徴を、ユーザのネットワーク特性によって分析した。分析は今年度はまだ途上であるが、恐怖心を抱いているとRTの回数が多いことが示唆されている。社会実装班は、過去の病気の比較やマスメディアの動向を調査すると同時に、原発震災後の政治的ガバナンスの問題点を論じるシンポジウムをおこなった。演者として事故直後に政権の内部から対処に当たった政治家やアメリカから当時派遣された専門家も含め、日本の危機管理体制の問題点を浮き彫りにする論点が出された。年度繰越し分の研究費によって、これらの成果の一部を国際学会で発表し、また、被災者対象保養キャンプの参加者の放射能汚染の認識を調査した。
著者
中西 大輔
出版者
広島修道大学
雑誌
広島修大論集. 人文編 (ISSN:03875873)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.193-207, 2004-02-27

This study explored confusion between liking and loving. Rubin (1970) showed that males do not distinguish liking and loving toward their partner in a romantic relationship, while females do. The adaptationist perspective, however, predicts the opposite pattern for males and females who are not yet involved in a romantic relationship. To test the prediction, in this experiment, mutually unknown opposite sex dyads jointly engaged in a problem solving task and then assessed their partner with Rubin's love/like scale. The results indicated that the correlation between liking and loving was higher among females than males. Therefore, the adaptationist prediction was supported. Implications of the present study and possible future research topics are discussed.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
48

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner’s group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.
著者
中西 大輔 井川 純一 志和 資朗
出版者
日本感情心理学会
雑誌
感情心理学研究 (ISSN:18828817)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.118-127, 2015-03-01 (Released:2015-07-07)
参考文献数
17

This study investigates the relationship between confidence and regret. We predicted that high levels of confidence—where confidence is defined as reduced counterfactual thinking—would limit the experience of regret. A previous study by Gilovich & Medvec (1995) found an action/inaction effect, where regret is higher when one fails to act. However, this effect may no longer exist once we conceptually distinguish the decision to act from one's confidence about that decision. The decision to act is usually accompanied with a high level of confidence, and little counterfactual thinking. We hypothesized that regardless of action/inaction, regret will be significantly lower when a decision is made with high confidence. In Experiment 1, participants read a series of scenarios and made a decision. Before receiving feedback on their decision, participants rated their level of confidence about the decision. In Experiment 2, participants read a hypothetical mistake made by an individual and estimated that individual's level of regret. The results support our hypothesis that level of confidence about decisions affects feelings of regret.
著者
中西 大輔 亀田 達也
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.469-476, 2001-02-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
37

Effects of stereotypic beliefs were examined in a group problem solving context, featuring full-fledged, face-to-face interaction. Based on formal analysis of group aggregation processes, it was hypothesized that positive and negative impacts of stereotypic beliefs on task performance in problem solving were larger on the group level than on the individual level. In the present study, data from five-person groups working on a series of problem-solving tasks were used to test the hypothesis. Results indicated that stereotypic beliefs indeed exerted “emergent influence” as hypothesized on task performance in the group problem solving. The finding illustrates the importance of socially-shared aspects of stereotypic beliefs, providing a case for the need for “truly social” social-cognition research.
著者
中西 大輔 横田 晋大
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.193-199, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
23

Using evolutionary simulation, Yokota and Nakanishi (2012) have shown that majority syncing (generalized tit-for-tat strategy) is an adaptive strategy in intergroup conflict situations. When intergroup conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and ensure their behavior conforms to other members’ cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. This finding is supported by multi-group selection theory and by cultural group selection theory. However, this model addresses only majority-syncing as a social influence strategy. The current study introduced a minority-syncing strategy to Yokota and Nakanishi’s (2012) model. There were four conditions: Majority-syncing (agents conformed to the majority, but not to the minority), no conformity (agents did not conform), minority-syncing (agents conformed to the minority, but not to the majority), and mixed (both majority- and minority-syncing strategies were used). Computer simulation revealed that the cooperation rate decreased when minority-syncing was introduced. The cooperation rate of the no-conformity condition was higher than of both the minority and the mixed conditions. We discuss the implications of minority-syncing.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.386-395, 2013

This study investigates characteristics of burnout, as related to job descriptions in mental hospitals and presuppositions of the concept of burnout (burnout is caused as a result of having enthusiasm for a job). The results of a questionnaire survey (burnout tendency, Japanese Burnout Scale, enthusiasm for a job in the past, modified Enthusiasm scale) with 781 workers at mental hospitals showed that burnout characteristics varied according to job descriptions. Specifically, psychiatric social workers, medical assistants, and nurses fell into the high-burnout category, whereas doctors, occupational therapists, and pharmacists fell into the low-burnout category. In addition, in order to compare enthusiasm for a job in the past with current burnout tendencies, factor scores for the respective scales were classified into a low group or a high group and were cross tabulated. The numbers in the cells of the groups indicating the opposite of the definition of burnout (low enthusiasm-high burnout tendency, high enthusiasm-low burnout tendency) were larger. This indicates that having enthusiasm for a job is not a direct factor for burnout, which is different from the presupposition about burnout.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)
被引用文献数
1 or 0

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.4, pp.386-395, 2013-10-25 (Released:2013-12-25)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
1 or 0

This study investigates characteristics of burnout, as related to job descriptions in mental hospitals and presuppositions of the concept of burnout (burnout is caused as a result of having enthusiasm for a job). The results of a questionnaire survey (burnout tendency, Japanese Burnout Scale, enthusiasm for a job in the past, modified Enthusiasm scale) with 781 workers at mental hospitals showed that burnout characteristics varied according to job descriptions. Specifically, psychiatric social workers, medical assistants, and nurses fell into the high-burnout category, whereas doctors, occupational therapists, and pharmacists fell into the low-burnout category. In addition, in order to compare enthusiasm for a job in the past with current burnout tendencies, factor scores for the respective scales were classified into a low group or a high group and were cross tabulated. The numbers in the cells of the groups indicating the opposite of the definition of burnout (low enthusiasm-high burnout tendency, high enthusiasm-low burnout tendency) were larger. This indicates that having enthusiasm for a job is not a direct factor for burnout, which is different from the presupposition about burnout.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner's group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.
著者
横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.75-82, 2012-01-31 (Released:2017-02-22)

Previous research has shown that ingroup cooperation tends to flourish in intergroup conflict situations. However, the free-rider problem remains unsolved, even in intergroup conflict situations. In this study, based on multi-group selection theory and cultural-group selection theory, we hypothesized that conformity (frequency-dependent behavior) may contribute to enhancing ingroup cooperation. The results of an evolutionary simulation revealed that ingroup cooperation and conformity can evolve in situations of intergroup conflict. When such conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and adjust their behavior to ingroup cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. However, no effect of conformity on ingroup cooperation was observed during intense intergroup conflict, even though conformity continued to evolve. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest avenues for future research.
著者
中西 大輔 亀田 達也
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.71, no.6, pp.469-476, 2001

Effects of stereotypic beliefs were examined in a group problem solving context, featuring full-fledged, face-to-face interaction. Based on formal analysis of group aggregation processes, it was hypothesized that positive and negative impacts of stereotypic beliefs on task performance in problem solving were larger on the group level than on the individual level. In the present study, data from five-person groups working on a series of problem-solving tasks were used to test the hypothesis. Results indicated that stereotypic beliefs indeed exerted "emergent influence" as hypothesized on task performance in the group problem solving. The finding illustrates the importance of socially-shared aspects of stereotypic beliefs, providing a case for the need for "truly social" social-cognition research.
著者
井川 純一 志和 資朗 中西 大輔 車地 未帆 菊本 修 井手下 久登
出版者
日本バイオフィードバック学会
雑誌
バイオフィードバック研究 (ISSN:03861856)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.97-103, 2010-10-25

不安状態における自律神経機能を客観的に評価する目的で,指尖脈波を用いた心拍変動の分析を行った.対象は,不安状態を主訴に治療中の患者25名(男性6名,女性19名,平均年齢47.7歳).対照群33名(男性6名,女性27名,平均年齢48.7歳)であった.脈波測定装置を用いて低周波(Low Frequency:LF)成分および高周波(High Frequency:HF)成分を抽出し,LF/HFを交感神経,HFを副交感神経指標とした.心理指標としてはSTAIの状態不安と特性不安を測定した.不安群が対照群に比べ,副交感神経指標(HF)が低下する傾向が見られた.また,STAIと生理指標では,特性不安と副交感神経指標(HF)との間に有意な負の相関が認められた.以上のことから,不安状態における自律神経機能は,副交感神経指標(HF)によって客観的に評価できる可能性が示唆された.