15 9 9 0 OA 大言海

著者
大槻文彦 著
出版者
富山房
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第3巻, 1935
著者
宇都野正武 編
出版者
画報社
巻号頁・発行日
1915
著者
田坂 祐一 田中 亮裕 井門 敬子 田中 守 荒木 博陽
出版者
一般社団法人日本医療薬学会
雑誌
医療薬学 (ISSN:1346342X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.4, pp.208-214, 2014-04-10 (Released:2015-04-10)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
4 or 0

Pharmacists have increased the provision of pharmaceutical care services to patients. However, the financial benefit of various pharmaceutical interventions has not been well described. In this study, we estimated the original economic impact associated with pharmaceutical interventions by an evidenced-based approach.We classified pharmaceutical interventions into 12 items, which included preventions of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and avoidance of drug interaction. The cost saving associated with preventions of serious ADRs was calculated as ¥2,140,000 per case based on the amount of costs that were paid by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Interventions to transvenous antimicrobial therapy were estimated to have a cost saving of ¥190,000 per case based on the literature in Japan. The rates of preventing serious ADRs related to chemotherapy orders, high-risk drugs and others were 5.21%, 3.91% and 2.6%, respectively, based on the literature in the United States. Using this rate, the values of intervention related to chemotherapy orders, high-risk drugs and others were ¥112,000, ¥84,000 and ¥56,000, respectively.The number of interventions was 209 per year, including 3 avoidances of serious ADRs. According to the number of interventions, we calculated that the total cost saving associated with pharmaceutical interventions was ¥22,816,000.This is the first study to estimate the economic impact associated with various pharmaceutical interventions of pharmacists in Japan. Evaluating the economic impact in relation to the pharmaceutical interventions is an important method for assessing the role of pharmacists.
著者
岸本 桂子 羽坂 亜希子 山浦 克典 福島 紀子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.10, pp.1401-1413, 2016 (Released:2016-10-01)
参考文献数
40

Pharmacy is required to shift toward human service such as hearing the complaints of health. But the study about help-seeking behavior to pharmacist is not really investigated. We hypothesized that a decrease in expression visibility, due to pharmacists' typical masks, may negatively impact help-seeker' trust in pharmacist. The sample included 100 drugstore customers aged ≥18 years. Participants were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to two groups: evaluation of clear-masked and normal-masked pharmacists. After viewing a video with either male or female pharmacists wearing either clear or normal masks, participants completed a questionnaire. The primary outcome was trust in pharmacist measured by the Trust Scale and the secondary outcome was impression of the pharmacist measured by nineteen pairs of adjectives. There were no differences by gender on trust scores. Results revealed that both male and female pharmacists who wore clear masks were rated as more trustworthy than normal-masked pharmacists (p<0.001, d=0.903, and p=0.001, d=0.716, respectively). Sixteen of nineteen adjectives reported for pharmacists wearing normal masks indicated greater negative intention than those with clear masks (d=0.431-1.469). In most cases, among pharmacists wearing clear masks, results showed positive correlations between trust and each impression adjective (r=0.279-0.710). Our findings indicate that pharmacists wearing normal masks, which partially hide facial expressions, may decrease customer's trust in pharmacist. Further, normal masks were associated with negative impression. To avoid the inhibition of help-seek behavior, we recommend that pharmacists wear a clear mask and increase non-verbal communication.
著者
池田 勇太
出版者
公益財団法人 史学会
雑誌
史学雑誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.115, no.6, pp.1041-1078, 2006

The present article attempts to clarify the birth of monarchical constitutionalism on the occasion of a debate over a popularly elected parliament in 1874, by focusing on Motoda Nagazane (or Eifu) 元田永孚, who was Emperor Meiji's tutor in Confucianism. The introduction of a constitutional polity in the absence of a government not only displayed the strong character of a modernization measure and was thought to realize a political society supported by the masses and open public opinion, but also a parliament, constitution and separation of the legislative and administrative branches of government were expected to solve real problems that existed in local administration and politics at the time. The article begins with an examination of the actions taken by the Governor of Fukushima Prefecture Yasuba Yasukazu 安場保和 in order to clarify the era's parliamentary movement against the background of local administration and to argue that the fair and just nature (ko 公) of a constitutional polity was thought to be identical to traditional Confucian political ideals. Secondly, the introduction of a constitutional polity at that point in time was not the result of power politics fought along vertical, class lines, but was rather a specific political expression of what the Restoration bureaucracy thought desirable. On the other hand, the introduction of such a polity under well-meaning auspices from above also meant that the bureaucracy did not always seek broad pluralistic opinions on the subject, but rather tended to make policy decisions in a more theoretical manner. The 1874 debate over a popularly elected parliament brought the issue of mass popular political participation to the forefront in terms of "joint rule by king and citizen." It was here that Motoda Eifu suggested that in a monarchical state it was necessary to make a distinction between "public opinion" and "the just argument," arguing that it was the monarch who should employ the latter. Any parliamentary system in which the monarch enjoys ultimate prerogative, moreover, demands that the monarch have the ability to exercise that prerogative properly, which necessitated the development of a system of imperial advisors and educators. At that time there was also the idea that the position of senior political advisor (genro 元老) should be created outside of the cabinet to perform such a function. Motoda, on the other hand, reformed such an idea based on the necessity of a monarch performing his duties with the final say within a constitutional polity. This is why it can be said that both monarchical constitutionalism and the establishment of the emperor's prerogative within it was born out of the 1874 debate over a popularly elected parliament.
著者
海軍電気工業会電気兵装部会 編
出版者
産業図書
巻号頁・発行日
vol.商船の部, 1944
著者
酒巻 秀明
出版者
東京女子大学現代教養学部国際社会学科社会学専攻紀要編集委員会
雑誌
東京女子大学社会学年報 = Tokyo Women's Christian University annals of sociology (ISSN:21876401)
巻号頁・発行日
no.2, pp.1-16, 2014

ウルリッヒ・ベックによれば,近年の政治の停滞は別に驚くべきことではなく,再帰的近代化の進行の結果ということになる.ベックの考える再帰的近代化とは,近代化の後の近代化のことで,近代化でもたらされた変化によって,再び社会の近代化が進むことを意味している.そのため,再帰的とも言われる.そこで本稿では,ベックが再帰的近代化後の政治をどのように捉えているのかが検討される.ベックによれば,一般的に近代社会と考えられている産業社会は,半分モダンな社会でしかなかった.しかし,国民の権利拡大の要求や,経済や科学の潜在力が無視できないほど拡大したことにより,今までの公式的な政治の外側で社会を変化させる動きが強まっている.ベックはこのような動きをサブ政治と呼び,このような事象を理解するためには,政治的なものの再発見が必要と考えている.消費の問題を例にすると,これまでの研究では,一般的に政治に訴えることでの解決が考えられていた.しかし,ベックは経済の中に民主主義的なシステムを持ち込むことで,サブ政治の次元で問題解決が図れるとしている.ベックによると,既存の政治システムですべてをコントロールするのは,もはや無理だと考えられる.そこで,ベックは,これから求められるのは,様々な集団や分野の議論による相互コントロールの仕組みだとしている.This paper will show why Ulrich Beck thinks that the political needs to be reinvented. According to Beck, recent political instability has been caused by reflexive modernization, which he thinks of as the modernization of modernization. It is reflexive becausechanges brought about by modernization lead to further modernization.In his opinion, democracy in modern industrial societies was half modern in two respects. First, other than by voting, citizens had no opportunity to participate in the political decision-making process. Second, there was no need to control the economy and scientific advance democratically, as these activities were still in the early stages and not a threat to society. Nowadays, however, we see people trying to change society directly by using their own powers, not via parliament. In addition, the economy and scientific advances bring new products that could change society entirely. We are facing a new situation, not presupposed by official political undertakings. Beck summarized these "political" activities outside the existing political institutions as subpolitics. What we need now, he thinks, is the reinvention of the political.As an example of his new political theory, his analysis of the consumer movement is compared with traditional theory. While the traditional theory holds that problems of consumption must be solved in the realms of politics, Beck thinks that they must be solved through the democratization of the economy. A democratic mechanism should be installed in the economic system, making the economy a sub-public arena.According to Beck, there is no one simple answer in the era of reflexive modernization and we should leave the ideal of the political center behind. Instead, he proposes a new form of politics, one that facilitates democracy in every social sphere and enables mutual control.
著者
五賀 友継 李 燦雨
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-01-19)
参考文献数
93

The aim of this study was to clarify the establishment and development process of Dai Nippon Kyudo Kai (DNKK), which existed from the Meiji to the pre-war Showa era, and its organizational forms. The tasks of the study were to elucidate the establishment and developmental process of the DNKK based on the historical characteristics of the organization, which can be divided into 6 periods. The organizational forms were examined based on the articles of incorporation, and the trends of membership and branch distribution were also clarified. The results were as follows: 1)The DNKK was established as Seinen Kyujutsu Kai under the Toshizane Honda school in 1909, and shortly renamed the Dai Nippon Kyujutsu Kai. When it became an incorporated foundation in 1919, it was renamed the DNKK. The kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected at the time of its foundation. 2)The DNKK increased its membership by developing its publishing arm, and promoted kyujutsu and kyudo as part of the regular curriculum in the school. 3)Division among DNKK members in 1915 and the death of Toshizane Honda in 1917 led to a schism of Toshizane Hondaʼs pupils, which resulted in diffusion of the Toshizane Honda method among kyudo players. 4)The DNKK was renamed kyudo from kyujutsu when it became an incorporated foundation in 1919. They considered kyujutsu to be a subject within kyudo. 5) The massive promotion of the DNKK was financially supported by kyudo shops. 6)Analysis of the articles of incorporation showed that the kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected in the policy of the DNKK through a mechanism based on the opinions of the board of councilors. 7) The conflict with Dai Nippon Butoku Kai over kyudoyosoku resulted in further expansion of the DNKK because of the massive promotion program against them, and a medically negative interpretation to kyudoyosoku evident at the Tokyo Provisional First Army Hospital. 8)Kako Neya decided to step down in 1943, and the activity of the DNKK was substantially terminated in 1944 due to the influence of war. 9)The cumulative total DNKK membership was 22,769 between June 1912 and October 1943. The membership trend was affected by various external factors. 10)A total of 426 branches were established domestically and internationally. The trend of branch establishment was similar to that of membership, and 75% of branches were located in Eastern Japan. The DNKK aggressively promoted overseas expansion.
著者
須藤 靖
出版者
一般社団法人日本物理学会
雑誌
日本物理学会誌 (ISSN:00290181)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.2, pp.87-94, 2015-02

物理学会誌の記事のほとんどは難しい.私の知る限り少なくとも30年以上前から編集委員会の方々が編集後記で繰り返し,わかりやすい記事をと訴えかけ,かつそれに向けた不断の努力をされてきたにもかかわらず.多分にこれは,非専門家のためにではなく,身近な専門家の顔を浮かべながら執筆してしまう著者のせいである.これが良いことか悪いことかは自明ではないが,著者が「釈迦に説法」を避けるべく書いた解説が,大多数はその分野の非専門家である平均的物理学会員にとって「馬の耳に念仏」になってしまい,ほとんど読まれなくなっているとするならば,あまりにももったいない.一般相対論の研究者ではない私が本特集の序論的解説を依頼されたのは,まさにそのためであろう.というわけで,今回は学生時代に一般相対論の講義は受けたもののほとんど覚えていない,という平均的物理学会員を念頭においた平易な,といっても一般向け啓蒙書とは異なる解説を試みたい.したがって,もしも「釈迦に説法」あるいは「厳密には正しくない」と感じられた方がいたならば今回の試みは大成功だと言える.該当しそうな方はただちに本解説をスキップして以降の記事に進まれることを強くお薦めする.
著者
小林 麻衣 堀毛 一也 北村 英哉
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
22

This two-part study aimed to examine the effects of temptation coping strategies on self-control when faced with a conflict between academic goals and temptations. The results of Study 1 indicated that the general use of temptation coping strategies promoted goal pursuits. Study 2 investigated whether differences in the difficulty of goal achievement had an effect on the effectiveness of temptation coping strategies. Goal Verification, Temptation Avoidance, and Goal Execution, which are subscales of the Scale of Temptation Coping Strategies in Academic Situations, were effective strategies to facilitate self-control regardless of the difficulty of goal achievement. However, Mood Changing, which is another subscale of the Scale of Temptation Coping Strategies in Academic Situations, was a strategy that did not affect self-control. These findings indicated that the temptation coping strategies were largely effective in academic situations. The implications of adaptive self-control are also discussed.
著者
安藤 英由樹 平松 誠治 加藤 厚生
出版者
特定非営利活動法人 日本バーチャルリアリティ学会
雑誌
日本バーチャルリアリティ学会論文誌 (ISSN:1344011X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.4, pp.245-248, 1998-12-31 (Released:2017-02-01)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
1 or 0

We developed a system that makes viscous sensation to the human legs in mud like wet rice field. In the first half of this paper , we mentioned a structure and a system of the force display device to the legs and its motion. In the latter half part, we mentioned some results of the experiment to evaluate comparative with real mud rice field. As the experimental results , we confirmed that the result next to real thing and almost subjects could fell it as (environment of) mud rice field.
著者
新井無二郎 著
出版者
大成書院
巻号頁・発行日
1936
著者
河上 春香
出版者
美学会
雑誌
美学 (ISSN:05200962)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.49-60, 2016 (Released:2018-01-01)

This paper examines the political situation of surrealism in Czechoslovakia in 1930s. In Czechoslovakia, Surrealism was developed in the close relationship with communism. For ideological and other reasons, the Prague movement emphasized a dialectical way of thinking. In other words, Surrealism was considered to be a process whereby reality and the self were apprehended through the synergistic and dialectical relationship between deliberate (conscious) and involuntary (unconscious) acts. In addition, surrealism was undergirded by the rule of “recounting truth”. According to Michel Foucault, “recounting truth” involves defining an autonomous position vis-a-vis one's relationship with truth – in other words, it is a technique of governing the self. Karel Teige describes Surrealism as an artistic and practical means for revolutionaries to establish the self. However, attempting to connect Communism and Surrealism is forced: while the Communist ideology attempts to enforce one extreme form of “truth” in order to control people, the “truth” presented by Surrealism is something ever-changing and varying from person to person. By linking Surrealism and Socialist realism, Teige attempted to suggest that Communist culture should develop diversity and complexity. However, with Stalinism wielding power in Czechoslovakia, that idea was only possible for a brief time.
著者
柴 裕之
出版者
白山史学会
雑誌
白山史学 (ISSN:03859460)
巻号頁・発行日
no.49, pp.17-39, 2013-05
著者
Tetsuya Minegaki Shota Yuzuki Rieko Hakui Naoko Fujii Miki Hamada Miki Wakabayashi Masayuki Tsujimoto Kohshi Nishiguchi
出版者
Japanese Society of Drug Informatics
雑誌
Iyakuhin Johogaku (ISSN:13451464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.97-103, 2017 (Released:2017-12-27)
参考文献数
8

Objective: A simple suspension method in our previous study indicated that the amount of amlodipine recovered from a Norvasc®OD tablet was decreased by simultaneous suspension of a Magmitt®tablet containing magnesium oxide, due to the increase in pH.  However, it is still unclear whether this incompatibility arises in both brand name and generic tablets because the tablets may have different additives and mechanical properties.  In this study, we evaluated the degree of incompatibility between Magmitt®tablets and a range of amlodipine besylate tablets, including original and generic versions.Methods: Twenty-four kinds of amlodipine besylate tablets were used.  Magmitt®and amlodipine besylate tablets were suspended in warm water (55°C), and 10 min or 2 h later, the amount of amlodipine in the suspension was measured by HPLC-UV.Results: For almost all tested tablets, the recovery amount of amlodipine was significantly decreased in the presence of Magmitt®, and the amount recovered varied significantly between the types of amlodipine tablets.  However, Magmitt®tablet had little effect on the recovery of amlodipine from two specific brand tablets.Conclusions: An incompatibility between Magmitt®and most types of amlodipine besylate could be observed, although the degree of incompatibility depended on the brand of amlodipine.  These results are useful for the proper use of drugs.