著者
宮地 茉莉 岡崎 健二 落合 知帆
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.737, pp.1871-1880, 2017 (Released:2017-07-30)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

Bangladesh is prone to cyclones due to its social and geographical conditions. In recent years, coastal areas of Bangladesh suffered from the serious damages caused by two devastating cyclones; Sidr in 2007 and Aila in 2009. The government and international cooperation agencies have been tackling with mitigating cyclone disasters, mainly through construction of cyclone shelters, which can accommodate 500-2,500 people per shelter in case of cyclones (Paul et al, 2002). As a result of the construction of approximately 4,000 cyclone shelters, the death toll has been drastically decreasing. However, although these cyclone shelters are used as elementary schools in normal time, not enough consideration are given to be used as temporary living quarters during and after cyclones. At this point, there are only some researches mentioned the use of cyclone shelters during cyclones, whereas they did not focus on how the local people used cyclone shelters as temporary living quarters during post-disaster reconstruction. Dealing with these problems, BRAC University constructed a new type of cyclone shelters in the form of houses named ‘mini shelters’ in order not to evacuate to cyclone shelters when cyclones come. The objective of this research is to contribute the government's cyclone mitigation schemes, especially in terms of the proper utilization during cyclones and the construction of cyclone shelters which can be used in all cyclone prone areas. This research was conducted based on the literature reviews and the field surveys. The literature review revealed the damage of cyclone disasters and the mitigation program in Bangladesh. Field surveys were conducted from August to September 2015 in Padmapukur Union and Hatiya Isaland, which were affected by Cyclone Aila in 2009 and Cyclone Komen in 2015 respectively. Questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 households in Hatiya Island and 66 households in Padmapukur in order to collect detailed information on the use of cyclone shelters during cyclones and post-cyclone reconstruction and actual issues of cyclone shelters. The research findings show that most of people in Hatiya Island made decisions to evacuate to cyclone shelters immediately after they have received cyclone waning signals, while most of people in Padmapukur Union did not evacuate immediately. Most of the evacuees spent their long-term evacuation period for several days to several months in cyclone shelters even after cyclones. It is proven that the cyclone shelters are used as temporary living quarters during post-cyclone reconstruction, although they were designed as evacuation centers only for a few hours during the inundation. Moreover, most of cyclone shelters are used as elementary schools in normal time hence some rooms such as storage rooms and staff rooms are locked during cyclones due to the poor management which led to the low of consideration of these cyclone shelters to be used as evacuation centers or temporary living quarters. Most of people in Hatiya Island are well-prepared for evacuation. The preparation includes packing dry foods and other daily necessities in advance of every cyclone season. Therefore, they are able to properly manage their long-term evacuation period at cyclone shelters. Another finding shows ‘mini shelters’ might be used not only as evacuation centers but also as livestock stores during cyclones. Local people doubt the safety of ‘mini shelters’ because the second floor is made of wood and the height from the ground level to the second floor is only 3.3m lower than the water level of the biggest cyclone's storm surge. In addition, the cost of construction of ‘mini shelters’ are too expensive to construct as houses. On the other hand, ‘mini shelters’ might be useful in remote coastal areas where limited space for cyclone shelters is.
著者
サンドラ・カラスコ 落合 知帆 岡崎 健二
出版者
一般社団法人 地域安全学会
雑誌
地域安全学会論文集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.61-68, 2016

<p>The massive destruction caused by typhoon Washi triggered a large scale resettlement program in the city of Cagayan de Oro, which was based on a top-down approach for decision-making and implementation. As a result there was a limited understanding of the beneficiaries' needs and the local conditions. After beneficiaries' were allocated into the new houses, they expressed willingness to compensate the shortcomings of the provided houses starting with the construction of modifications. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of the designs of the original houses in the way residents built modifications, considering their initial motivations, actual use of modifications, location, and the type of materials used for their construction in four selected villages in Calaanan site.</p><p></p>
著者
藤井 まゆみ 岡崎 健二 牧山 清 久松 建一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本アレルギー学会
雑誌
アレルギー (ISSN:00214884)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.51-62, 2012-01-30 (Released:2017-02-10)
参考文献数
21

【背景・目的】静岡県伊東市におけるスギ・ヒノキ科花粉飛散数を10年間計測した.花粉症の予防・治療に役立てたい.【方法】ダーラム型花粉捕集器を伊東市内3階建ビル屋上に設置し,花粉飛散数を測定した.その結果と気象情報を表計算ソフトMicrosoft Excelを用いて統計処理・解析を行った.【結果】春季の初観測日,飛散開始日,飛散終了日の平均値はそれぞれ1月3日,2月6日,5月12日であった.総花粉飛散数は平均5683個/cm^2であった.前年初冬の花粉飛散数と翌年春季の花粉飛散数は相関がある.春季の花粉飛散数は日々の気象に左右される(大雨や季節外れの大雪で,花粉飛散数は減少する).【結語】地域におけるスギ・ヒノキ科花粉飛散数計測と気象観測から花粉症の予防と治療に役立つ情報を提供できる.
著者
岡崎 健二 田阪 園子 寺田 裕佳 斉藤 大樹
出版者
一般社団法人日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.667, pp.1593-1600, 2011-09

Transactions of AIJ. Journal of architecture, planning and environmental engineeringIn order to reduce the damage caused by earthquakes, it is crucial to convince people that the investment in safer housing will eventually prove to be worthwhile. As the choice regarding housing safety is made based on people's earthquake risk perception, we conducted a field survey in Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan in 2007, and Turkey, Philippines, Fiji, and Japan in 2008, to better understand the seismic risk perception of residents concerning housing safety and willingness to retrofit their houses, using a similar questionnaire. The survey targeted approximately 800 households in each country. We examined the comparison of the differences in people's earthquake risk perception. The excerpt of the findings shows that, in Indonesia, Nepal, Turkey and Japan, people rely more on engineers in disaster risk management and earthquake safety measures, while in Pakistan, people rely more on masons or governments, and people rely more on their family and friends in Fiji and Philippine. Another finding shows that in Indonesia and Pakistan, people are ready to pay more to protect their house property, while people are ready to pay more to protect their family in Nepal, Turkey and Japan. Thus, the result will help the stakeholders to develop disaster risk management policies and initiatives that would fit into people's risk perception, which is different from country to country, from community to community.
著者
岡崎 健二 楢府 龍雄
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.619, pp.257-262, 2007
被引用文献数
3

2004年末に発生したスマトラ島沖の地震及び津波により、インドネシアのアチェでは、約22万人が死亡・行方不明、住宅約27万戸が全半壊という甚大な被害を受けた。現在、住宅再建を中心に復興の努力が続けられているが、アチェ復興庁(BRR)による復興プロジェクトの調整は必ずしも順調ではなく、また大量の建設需要に伴う材料不足・労働力不足等により、再建住宅の質の低下も懸念される。地震国であるインドネシアにおいて、耐震性のある住宅を建設し、地震に強い地域社会をつくるまたとない機会でもある。このため、政策研究大学院大学及び独立行政法人建築研究所の共同調査研究として、インドネシアのバンドン工科大学の協力により、住宅(RCフレームのレンガ造が主流)を中心とする建築物の再建の実態を明らかにするため、現地調査、材料試験、構造安全性の評価、ワークショップの開催等を行った。この結果は、以下のようなものである。1.被害地域のニーズを的確に把握しないまま各種の復興プロジェクトが実施されている。また、インフラの配慮がない住宅建設プロジェクトもある。この結果、完成しても入居者がいないといったことが見受けられる。2.援助機関の指示により材料や部品を輸入している場合、将来の維持管理に問題が残る。3.骨材の粒度分布、水セメント比等が不適切なため、コンクリートやモルタルの強度が十分ではない。鉄筋についても、建築基準を満たしていない場合が多い。煉瓦の質も不十分で、水で溶けた煉瓦も見受けられた。このため構造安全性に問題があり、将来の地震時の甚大な被害が懸念される。4.十分な知識と技能を持たない建築労働者により、住宅の質が低下している。5.工事監理も適切に行われていない。災害復興のため、通常であれば必要な建築許可も不要である。6.構造解析のケーススタディ(弾性範囲のモーダル・アナリシス)によれば、適切な設計、材料、施工により、アチェの厳しい条件下であっても、インドネシアの基準類に適合した構造は実現可能である。今後、復興住宅の建設に関して、住民の意識向上、関係主体間の連携の強化、建築技術の普及、建築基準の遵守などに早急に取り組む必要がある。