著者
阿藤 誠 津谷 典子 福田 亘孝 西岡 八郎 星 敦士 田渕 六郎 吉田 千鶴 岩間 暁子 菅 桂太 中川 雅貴 曺 成虎
出版者
早稲田大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01 (Released:2013-05-15)

研究成果の概要(和文):本研究では第一に男性の未婚化・晩婚化は非正規雇用の増大により引き起こされ、女性の未婚化・晩婚化は高学歴化に伴う賃金稼得力の上昇と関係がある。第二に結婚や家族に対して非伝統的な価値意識を持つ人ほど出生力が低く、反対に伝統的な意識を持つ人ほど出生力が高い。第三に男性と比べて女姓は結婚・出産を経験すると家事や育児を極めて多く遂行するようになる。第四に高齢の親に対しては男性よりも女性の方が心理的、経済的支援をより多く行っており、特に配偶者の親よりも自分の親に対して顕著である。また、孫がいない夫婦より孫のいる夫婦の方が祖父母から様々な支援をより多く受けていることが明らかとなった。
著者
阿藤 誠 津谷 典子 福田 亘孝 西岡 八郎 岩間 暁子 田渕 六郎 星 敦士 菅 桂太 中川 雅貴
巻号頁・発行日
2009 (Released:2009-04-01)

本研究は、国連欧州経済委員会により組織された「世代とジェンダー・プロジェクト(GGP)」に参加し、各国共通のパネル調査(GGS)を実施し、各国共通枠組みに従って社会経済・家族政策等に関する時系列データを収集することによって、日本の少子化の背景要因を比較分析し、少子化是正のためには、仕事と子育ての両立支援、長時間労働慣行の是正、若者の非正規労働化の是正、子育ての経済支援が有効であるとの結論をえた。
著者
阿藤 誠
出版者
日本社会学会
雑誌
社会学評論 (ISSN:00215414)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.4, pp.91-97, 1981-03-31

In the recent issue of this Journal, Mr.Yoshiki Kikuchi wrote about the rapid fertility decline since 1973 in Japan. He implied in it that the recent low fertility in Japan, measured by total fertility rates, reflected the decrease in birth intention of the average married couple toward less than two children. Based on the assumption that fertility behavior of Japanese women changed fundamentally in 1970's, he attempted population projections in which he assumed women would have only 1. 5 children on average in the future Japan.<BR>In my judgement, such argument is totally unwarranted. There has been no significant change in the legal status and the extent of actual prevalence of birth control measures in around early 1970's. In this respect Japanese situation is completely different from the Western countries where the diffusion of modern contraceptive methods and the liberalization of induced abortion presumably contributed to the recent fertility decline there.<BR>No evidence has shown that Japanese married couples have changed their fertility dramatically toward less than two children. Mean number of children ever born for 1955-1965 marriage cohorts were almost invariably about 2.2 and the total intended number of children was also 2.2 on average for more recent marriage cohorts.<BR>Although such social and economic changes as industrialization, urbanization, the rising aspirations for living, and the rise of educational level, may have been conducive to the long-run low fertility in Japan, they cannot explain the recent abrupt decline in period fertility rates. Also, there has been no significant change in married women's status either within or out of home.<BR>The major reason for the recent decline in period fertility rates is the simultaneous rise in the mean age at marriage for both sexes since 1973, which is, in turn, not only due to the abrupt shrinkage of the size of younger age cohorts in the marriage market after the "baby boom" cohort, but also due to the recent rise in the proportion of women entering colleges. Fragmentary data seem to indicate that marital fertility itself has declined recently, but this should be interpreted not as the decline in completed fertility but as the temporal decline due to the spacing of childbearing.