著者
Yukiko Imada Masahiro Watanabe Hiroaki Kawase Hideo Shiogama Miki Arai
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15A, pp.8-12, 2019 (Released:2019-06-07)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
13 25

The high temperature event in July 2018 caused record-breaking human damage throughout Japan. Large-ensemble historical simulations with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model showed that the occurrence rate of this event under the condition of external forcings in July 2018 was approximately 20%. This high probability was a result of the high-pressure systems both in the upper and lower troposphere in July 2018. The event attribution approach based on the large-ensemble simulations with and without human-induced climate change indicated the following: (1) The event would never have happened without anthropogenic global warming. (2) The strength of the two-tiered high-pressure systems was also at an extreme level and at least doubled the level of event probability, which was independent of global warming. Moreover, a set of the large-ensemble dynamically downscaled outputs revealed that the mean annual occurrence of extremely hot days in Japan will be expected to increase by 1.8 times under a global warming level of 2°C above pre-industrial levels.
著者
Yukiko Imada Masahiro Watanabe Hiroaki Kawase Hideo Shiogama Miki Arai
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.15A-002, (Released:2019-05-22)
被引用文献数
12 25

The high temperature event in July 2018 caused record-breaking human damage throughout Japan. Large-ensemble historical simulations with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model showed that the occurrence rate of this event under the condition of external forcings in July 2018 was approximately 20%. This high probability was a result of the high-pressure systems both in the upper and lower troposphere in July 2018. The event attribution approach based on the large-ensemble simulations with and without human-induced climate change indicated the following: (1) The event would never have happened without anthropogenic global warming. (2) The strength of the two-tiered high-pressure systems was also at an extreme level and at least doubled the level of event probability, which was independent of global warming. Moreover, a set of the large-ensemble dynamically downscaled outputs revealed that the mean annual occurrence of extremely hot days in Japan will be expected to increase by 1.8 times under a global warming level of 2°C above pre-industrial levels.
著者
Hideo Shiogama Rui Ito Yukiko Imada Toshiyuki Nakaegawa Nagio Hirota Noriko N. Ishizaki Kiyoshi Takahashi Izuru Takayabu Seita Emori
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.75-79, 2020 (Released:2020-05-01)
参考文献数
22

The ensemble average projections of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble show future increases in shortwave radiation at the surface (SW) in Japan. We reveal that the Arctic Oscillation-like atmospheric circulation trends cause cloud cover decreases around Japan, leading to increases in the SW.In many cases, impact assessment studies use the outputs of only a few models due to limited research resources. We find that the four climate models used in the Japanese multisector impact assessment project, S-8, do not sufficiently capture the uncertainty ranges of the CMIP5 ensemble regarding the SW projections. Therefore, the impact assessments using the SW of these four models can be biased. We develop a novel method to select a better subset of models that are more widely distributed and are not biased, unlike the S-8 models.
著者
Hiroaki Kawase Munehiko Yamaguchi Yukiko Imada Syugo Hayashi Akihiko Murata Tosiyuki Nakaegawa Takafumi Miyasaka Izuru Takayabu
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17A, no.Special_Edition, pp.7-13, 2021 (Released:2021-01-28)
参考文献数
34

Impacts of historical warming on extremely heavy rainfall induced by Typhoon Hagibis (2019) are investigated using a storyline event attribution approach with the Japan Meteorological Agency Nonhydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). Control experiments based on JMA mesoscale analysis data well reproduce the typhoon's track, intensity, and heavy precipitation. First, two non-warming experiments are conducted: One excludes both 40-year atmospheric and oceanic temperature trends from 1980 to 2019, and the other excludes the oceanic trend only. A comparison between control and non-warming experiments indicates that historical warming strengthens typhoons and increases the amount of total precipitation by 10.9% over central Japan. The difference between CTL and non-warming experiments without both atmospheric and oceanic temperature trends is larger than that without just the oceanic trend (7.3%). Additional sensitivity experiments without Japan's topography indicate that topography enhances not only total precipitation but also the changes in total precipitation due to historical warming. Through the storyline event attribution approach, it is concluded that historical warming intensifies strength of Typhoon Hagibis (2019) and enhances the extremely heavy precipitation induced by the typhoon.
著者
Takafumi Miyasaka Hiroaki Kawase Tosiyuki Nakaegawa Yukiko Imada Izuru Takayabu
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.125-131, 2020 (Released:2020-07-23)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

Heavy precipitation in Japan is caused by various phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and the Baiu front, and shows regional-scale variation. Here we investigate extremely heavy precipitation events exceeding the 100-year return period in the Kanto area and future projections of such events using large ensemble climate simulations for periods of several thousand years. To understand these extreme events, associated sea level pressure anomalies over Japan and the surrounding region are classified into four clusters. These cluster means are characterized by (1) a strong anomalous cyclone, (2) a weak anomalous cyclone, (3) an anomalous cyclone accompanied by an anomalous anticyclone to the north, and (4) an anomalous anticyclone to the north. The cluster with a strong anomalous cyclone is accompanied by widely distributed heavy precipitation, and its area-averaged precipitation is predicted to be more enhanced under global warming than that of other clusters, partly because of an increase in the strength of strong tropical cyclones approaching Kanto. The cluster dominated by an anomalous anticyclone is characterized by localized heavy precipitation in the plains area. The relative frequency of this cluster will increase, whereas that of other clusters will decrease under global warming.
著者
Takafumi Miyasaka Hiroaki Kawase Tosiyuki Nakaegawa Yukiko Imada Izuru Takayabu
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-022, (Released:2020-06-22)
被引用文献数
1

Heavy precipitation in Japan is caused by various phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and the Baiu front, and shows regional-scale variation. Here we investigate extremely heavy precipitation events exceeding the 100-year return period in the Kanto area and future projections of such events using large ensemble climate simulations for periods of several thousand years. To understand these extreme events, associated sea level pressure anomalies over Japan and the surrounding region are classified into four clusters. These cluster means are characterized by (1) a strong anomalous cyclone, (2) a weak anomalous cyclone, (3) an anomalous cyclone accompanied by an anomalous anticyclone to the north, and (4) an anomalous anticyclone to the north. The cluster with a strong anomalous cyclone is accompanied by widely distributed heavy precipitation, and its area-averaged precipitation is predicted to be more enhanced under global warming than that of other clusters, partly because of an increase in the strength of strong tropical cyclones approaching Kanto. The cluster dominated by an anomalous anticyclone is characterized by localized heavy precipitation in the plains area. The relative frequency of this cluster will increase, whereas that of other clusters will decrease under global warming.
著者
Hideo Shiogama Rui Ito Yukiko Imada Toshiyuki Nakaegawa Nagio Hirota Noriko N. Ishizaki Kiyoshi Takahashi Izuru Takayabu Seita Emori
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-013, (Released:2020-03-30)

The ensemble average projections of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble show future increases in shortwave radiation at the surface (SW) in Japan. We reveal that the Arctic Oscillation-like atmospheric circulation trends cause cloud cover decreases around Japan, leading to increases in the SW. In many cases, impact assessment studies use the outputs of only a few models due to limited research resources. We find that the four climate models used in the Japanese multisector impact assessment project, S-8, do not sufficiently capture the uncertainty ranges of the CMIP5 ensemble regarding the SW projections. Therefore, the impact assessments using the SW of these four models can be biased. We develop a novel method to select a better subset of models that are more widely distributed and are not biased, unlike the S-8 models.
著者
Hideo Shiogama Yukiko Imada Masato Mori Ryo Mizuta Dáithí Stone Kohei Yoshida Osamu Arakawa Mikiko Ikeda Chiharu Takahashi Miki Arai Masayoshi Ishii Masahiro Watanabe Masahide Kimoto
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.225-231, 2016 (Released:2016-08-07)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
4 19

We describe two unprecedented large (100-member), long-term (61-year) ensembles based on MRI-AGCM3.2, which were driven by historical and non-warming climate forcing. These ensembles comprise the “Database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF)”. We compare these ensembles to large ensembles based on another climate model, as well as to observed data, to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on historical changes in the numbers of record-breaking events, including: the annual coldest daily minimum temperature (TNn), the annual warmest daily maximum temperature (TXx) and the annual most intense daily precipitation event (Rx1day). These two climate model ensembles indicate that human activity has already had statistically significant impacts on the number of record-breaking extreme events worldwide mainly in the Northern Hemisphere land. Specifically, human activities have altered the likelihood that a wider area globally would suffer record-breaking TNn, TXx and Rx1day events than that observed over the 2001-2010 period by a factor of at least 0.6, 5.4 and 1.3, respectively. However, we also find that the estimated spatial patterns and amplitudes of anthropogenic impacts on the probabilities of record-breaking events are sensitive to the climate model and/or natural-world boundary conditions used in the attribution studies.
著者
Hiroaki Kawase Munehiko Yamaguchi Yukiko Imada Syugo Hayashi Akihiko Murata Tosiyuki Nakaegawa Takafumi Miyasaka Izuru Takayabu
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17A-002, (Released:2020-12-24)

Impacts of historical warming on extremely heavy rainfall induced by Typhoon Hagibis (2019) are investigated using a storyline event attribution approach with the Japan Meteorological Agency Nonhydrostatic Model (JMA-NHM). Control experiments based on JMA mesoscale analysis data well reproduce the typhoon's track, intensity, and heavy precipitation. First, two non-warming experiments are conducted: One excludes both 40-year atmospheric and oceanic temperature trends from 1980 to 2019, and the other excludes the oceanic trend only. A comparison between control and non-warming experiments indicates that historical warming strengthens typhoons and increases the amount of total precipitation by 10.9% over central Japan. The difference between CTL and non-warming experiments without both atmospheric and oceanic temperature trends is larger than that without just the oceanic trend (7.3%). Additional sensitivity experiments without Japan's topography indicate that topography enhances not only total precipitation but also the changes in total precipitation due to historical warming. Through the storyline event attribution approach, it is concluded that historical warming intensifies strength of Typhoon Hagibis (2019) and enhances the extremely heavy precipitation induced by the typhoon.
著者
Yoshimitsu CHIKAMOTO Masahide KIMOTO Masayoshi ISHII Masahiro WATANABE Toru NOZAWA Takashi MOCHIZUKI Hiroaki TATEBE Takashi T. SAKAMOTO Yoshiki KOMURO Hideo SHIOGAMA Masato MORI Sayaka YASUNAKA Yukiko IMADA Hiroshi KOYAMA Masato NOZU Fei-fei JIN
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90A, pp.1-21, 2012 (Released:2012-06-07)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
14 23

Sea surface temperature (SST) predictability in the Pacific on decadal timescales is examined in hindcast experiments using the coupled atmosphere-ocean model MIROC with low, medium, and high resolutions. In these hindcast experiments, initial conditions are obtained from an anomaly assimilation procedure using the observed oceanic temperature and salinity while prescribing natural and anthropogenic forcing based on the IPCC concentration scenarios. Our hindcast experiments show the predictability of SST in the western subtropical Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the tropics to the North Atlantic. Previous studies have examined the SST predictability in the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, but SST predictability in the western subtropical Pacific has not been evaluated. In the western Pacific, the observed SST anomalies in the subtropics of both hemispheres increased rapidly from the early 1990s to the early 2000s. While this SST warming in the western subtropical Pacific is partly explained by global warming signals, the predictions of our model initialized in 1995 or 1996 tend to simulate the pattern of the SST increase and the associated precipitation changes. This large climate change around the late 1990s may be related to phenomena such as the recent increase in the typhoon frequency in Taiwan and the weakened East Asian monsoon reported by recent studies.
著者
Hideo Shiogama Masahiro Watanabe Yukiko Imada Masato Mori Youichi Kamae Masayoshi Ishii Masahide Kimoto
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.122-126, 2014 (Released:2014-08-02)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
8 31 1

A severe heat wave occurred in the southwestern United States (US) during June and July 2013. To investigate the effects of natural variability and anthropogenic climate change on this event, we generated large ensemble simulations of possible weather using the MIROC5A climate model forced by “historical external forcing agents, sea surface temperature (SST) observations and sea ice (SIC) observations” both with and without human influence. It was suggested that both the anthropogenic warming and an atmospheric circulation regime related to the natural variability of SST and SIC made the heat wave event more likely. On the other hand, no significant human influence was found in atmospheric circulation patterns. These results were robust for two different estimates of anthropogenic signals on SST and SIC.
著者
Masato MORI Masahide KIMOTO Masayoshi ISHII Satoru YOKOI Takashi MOCHIZUKI Yoshimitsu CHIKAMOTO Masahiro WATANABE Toru NOZAWA Hiroaki TATEBE Takashi T. SAKAMOTO Yoshiki KOMURO Yukiko IMADA Hiroshi KOYAMA
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.91, no.4, pp.431-452, 2013 (Released:2013-09-06)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
5 10

In line with the experimental design for near-term climate prediction toward the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we perform ensembles of initialized decadal hindcast and near-future projection using three versions of the coupled atmosphere-ocean model MIROC. In the present study, we explore interannual and multiyear predictability of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP) using the initialized hindcasts and examine global warming impacts on TC activity in the near-future on the basis of near-future projections up to 2035. The hindcasts of year-to-year variation in TC number capture the observed values reasonably well. Moreover, interannual variability of TC genesis and occurrence frequency associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation are found to be predictable, mainly through better prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) and large-scale vorticity anomalies in the lower troposphere. These results indicate that the models can reproduce the major basic mechanisms that link TC genesis with large-scale circulation. Skillful prediction of TC number is likely difficult on multiyear timescales, at least based on our hindcasts, but through initializations, the three-year-mean hindcasts from 1998 onward reasonably capture observed major characteristics of TC activity associated with Pacific climate shift during the late 1990s. Near-future projections (2016-2035) suggest significant reductions (approximately 14%) in TC number, particularly over the western part of the WNP, even under scenarios in which projected global warming is less prominent than that at the end of this century. This reduction is likely due to the suppression of large-scale lower tropospheric vorticity and relative humidity and the enhancement of vertical wind shear. The projected SST exhibits a more pronounced warming over the eastern tropical Pacific than over the western region and accompanies the weakening of Walker circulation via redistribution of tropical convection activity, which appears to be responsible for the change in the large-scale fields in the WNP.