- vol.32, no.3, pp.99-112, 2019-03-31
This research note organizes the previous research on school climate, focusing on its effect on youth civic development, mainly based on the U.S. context. Political socialization research, which gives us some theoretical background to understand the relationship between schooling and youth civic development, implies that school influences students’ civic outcome not only through formal curriculum but also through informal/hidden curriculum. Next, various empirical research on school climate is reviewed. Based on the review, I showed that school climate related to civic outcome consists of both classroom-level and schoolwide-level, and its characteristics include general democratic climate and openness to social and political discussion. Such school climate influences students’ civic knowledge, civic disposition, and future social/political participation, and the effects are especially larger for socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Although the effects of school climate alone might be relatively small compared to more direct approach to civic education, we still need further research to investigate how school climate and other civic education initiatives interact each other and influence students’ civic development.