著者
古田 雄一 Yuichi Furuta
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.99-112, 2019-03-31

This research note organizes the previous research on school climate, focusing on its effect on youth civic development, mainly based on the U.S. context. Political socialization research, which gives us some theoretical background to understand the relationship between schooling and youth civic development, implies that school influences students’ civic outcome not only through formal curriculum but also through informal/hidden curriculum. Next, various empirical research on school climate is reviewed. Based on the review, I showed that school climate related to civic outcome consists of both classroom-level and schoolwide-level, and its characteristics include general democratic climate and openness to social and political discussion. Such school climate influences students’ civic knowledge, civic disposition, and future social/political participation, and the effects are especially larger for socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Although the effects of school climate alone might be relatively small compared to more direct approach to civic education, we still need further research to investigate how school climate and other civic education initiatives interact each other and influence students’ civic development.
著者
山本 勇次
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 : 大阪国際大学紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.73-84, 2013-01-31

日本人の危機管理意識の脆弱さは、元内閣安全保障室長の佐々淳行氏によって、日本列島の地理的条件、外的緊張と、その反動としての弛緩とを繰り返す歴史的条件、それに「熱しやすく冷めやすい、忘れっぽい淡白な」国民性に理由付けられている。それに対して、井沢元彦氏は、「マイナス予測によるコトダマ反作用の法則」との視点から説いている。またこの問題は、日本人の「転向」研究から丸山正雄や橋川文三は、神道的裸身に外来思想を「着せ替え人形」のごとく着たり脱いだりする日本人の「理論信仰」と「実感信仰」との乖離的共存性からも説明されるであろう。筆者は、マーチとサイモンが言う「認知的合理性の限界」という視点から、この問題を論考してみたい。即ち、日本人は科学的実証で説明不能な現象には感覚的実証ですましてしまうところがある。この日本人の感覚的実証性の底には、神道的な「神頼み」のひとりよがりが流れている。だから日本人は、悪い予測を論じあって周囲の不安を煽るよりも楽観的・希望的観測に賭けて嵐の通り過ぎるのを待とうとする習性が古代から続いている。昨今の「竹島」や「尖閣列島」をめぐる領土問題にしても、日本人の対応は、危機管理意識の脆弱さ、あてのない楽観主義が見え隠れしている。 Japanese weakness in crisis management consciousness has already explained by Atsuyuki Sasa, former Chief of the Cabinet Security Council, as part of the Japanese national character. Motohiko Izawa also clarified this weakness in terms of the law of reaction of the spirit of language (kotodama) to a negative prediction. This problem was also attributed by Masao Maruyama and Bunzo Hashikawa to a crippling of theoretical faith and real faith. In this paper I would like to explain Japanese weakness in crisis management consciousness by means of March and Simon's "limits of cognitive rationality." The Japanese tend to depend upon a sensual positivism whenever a scientific positivism is incapable of elucidating a phenomenon. At the bottom of this sensual positivism there seems an individualistic trust in spiritual beings as shown in Shinto belief. This is why the Japanese are inclined to wait for typhoons to go away instead of ringing alarm bells by stating annoying opinions on the issue to the public.
著者
古賀 敬太 コガ ケイタ Keita Koga
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 = OIU journal of international studies : 大阪国際大学・大阪国際大学短期大学部紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.77-96, 2015-01

Tadao Yanaihara(1893-1961) was a pious Christian, a follower of Kannzo Uchimura. On the basis of his Christian faith, he fought against the imperialistic war and the exclusive hyper-nationalism which oppressed freedom of thought and conscience from 1932 to the end of the war. This article attempts to make clear the character of his conception of pacifism, nationalism, and the Emperor system. He regarded himself as a prophet for Japan and felt a responsibility and mission to warn against the militaristic government and nationalistic people, as Isaiah and Jeremaiah did in the Old Testament.
著者
村田 菜穂子 前川 武
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.113-122, 2019-10-31
著者
堀込 孝二 Koji Horigome
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.135-150, 2019-03-31

I visited the West coast of America, Los Angeles, home of the sports business. There are a variety of professional sports teams in Los Angeles. Baseball (Major League Baseball), Soccer (Major League Soccer) and American football (National Football League) among others. The purpose of this study is to learn about the sports business in America, where participants are able to enjoy sports and attract clients.
著者
古賀 敬太
出版者
大阪国際大学・大阪国際大学短期大学部
雑誌
国際研究論叢 : 大阪国際大学紀要 = OIU Journal of International Studies (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.139-157, 2020-03-31

This article intends to analyze how Yoshio Onishi (1909-1975), interpreted Carl Schmitt's constitutional theory (Verfassungslehre) and adapted it to the analysis of both the Meiji Constitution and the postwar constitution. Especially we pay attention to Onishi's theory of constituent power and constitutional emergency power. He regarded constituent power as not unlimited, but limited by concrete order, especially it's idea and practical norm. And Onishi attempted to limit the enormous and unlimited legal power of Emperor by consulting Schmitt's views on constitutional emergency power in the Weimar Republic. But in the process of wartime system and total mobilization, which was seen in the National Mobilization Act (1938) and the movement of Great Politics Party(1940),he regarded Japan's critical condition as the normalization of exception and departed from his former position. After the world war Ⅱ, he returned to his original position and appealed to the importance of constitutional emergency power, which is not stipulated in the postwar Japanese Constitution. He also tried to legitimatize the radical transformation from imperial sovereignty to the sovereignty of people by appealing to the theory of Schmitt's constituent power. Especially he emphasized the legitimacy of constituent power and insisted that constituent power of people itself is not actual will, but is constrained by the legitimacy of the concrete order.
著者
古賀 敬太
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 = OIU journal of international studies : 大阪国際大学・大阪国際大学短期大学部紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.85-100, 2020-01

This article intends to analyze how Satoru Kuroda, a distinguished constitutional scholar, interpreted Carl Schmitt's constitutional theory (Verfassungslehre) and adopted it to the diagnosis of the Meiji Constitution and Japanese Constitution. Especially in Carl Schmitt's constitutional theory, we pay attention to Carl Schmit's superlegal constituent power and constitutional emergency power. From the late 1930's, he began to lecture constitutional theory at Kyoto Imperial University. He at first attempted to limit the enormous and unlimited legal power of Emperor. But in the process of wartime system and total mobilization, which was seen in the National Mobilization Act(1938)and the movement of Great Politics Party(1940), he regarded Japan's critical condition as the normalization of exception and legitimatized the interference in the liberty and rights of subjects. Moreover he criticized the liberal and constitutional thought as old-fashioned ideology and attempted to absorb the rights of subjects into the integration of state. But after the world warⅡ, he accepted and legitimatized the radical transformation from imperial sovereignty to the sovereignty of people by appealing to the theory of Schmitts constituent power. He emphasized the legitimacy of constituent power and insisted that constituent power itself is not factual will, but is restrained by the legitimacy or the concrete order.
著者
柴嵜 雅子 Masako Shibasaki
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.99-112, 2018-10-31

Animal advocates are divided on the understanding of the position of humanity in the world; rightists regard Homo sapiens just as one species in the animal kingdom, whereas welfarists maintain that humans stand at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of life. This paper aims to offer some arguments against the latter view. First, the concept of human supremacy is based on Judeo-Christian values,which despite their long tradition in Western society, are not universal and can be seen as preposterous in other cultural settings such as premodern Japan. Second, some welfarists assume that denying humans a special status degrades human dignity and undermines universal human rights. However,as the histories of colonialism, slavery and racism in Christian countries have demonstrated, human exceptionalism does not guarantee that the rights of every person will be protected. Third, our anthropocentric practices have already started to endanger the very survival of humanity on this planet.
著者
田中 美和子
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 : 大阪国際大学紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.39-53, 2005-10-31

'Cockney', one of the least-valued accents in Britain, is well-illustrated in My Fair Lady(1964), which is based on the drama Pygmalion written by Bernard Shaw. In this paper we will focus on what features cockney has, examining the lines by a flower girl, Eliza Doolittle and her father. Accent was one of the factorsthat sustained 'class barriers' especially in those days as Professor Higgins says "'Aoow' and 'Garn' that keep her in her place". We will also consider the role of cockney in the history of English.
著者
村田 菜穂子 前川 武 Nahoko Murata Takeshi Maekawa
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.225-240, 2018-10-31
著者
古殿 幸雄
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 : 大阪国際大学紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.33-48, 2012-01-31

This paper is dedicated to the late Dr. E. M. Goldratt by whose passing I was deeply affected. Dr. Goldratt proposed the Theory of Constraints (TOC). This paper introduces Dr. Goldratt's TOC which is based on the premise that the rate of goal achievement is limited by constraints which it then seeks to identify. TOC is systematized using the following management methods: Throughput Accounting, Process of Ongoing Improvement, Drum Buffer Rope, Thinking Process and Critical Chain Project Management; all of which are examined in this paper.
著者
柴嵜 雅子
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 : 大阪国際大学紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.85-101, 2012-10-31

Official policies on prenatal diagnosis (PND) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in Japan are substantially stricter than in many Western countries due partly to aggressive protests by some activists. They claim that PND and PGD followed by selective termination represent Nazi-like selection and devalue those living with disabilities. There are, however, some flaws in this so-called 'expressivist argument.' First, it grants unwittingly the moral status of born children to pre-embryos and fetuses. Second, it ignores the difference in kind and severity among various impairments which require specific treatment. Third, history shows that PND and PGD have developed hand in hand with the growing support for disability rights. Therefore, fourth, the fact that people with disabilities might feel offended does not suffice as a reason to override the reproductive rights of prospective parents who want to benefit from the modern technologies.
著者
古賀 敬太 コガ ケイタ Koga Keita
出版者
大阪国際大学
雑誌
国際研究論叢 = OIU journal of international studies : 大阪国際大学・大阪国際大学短期大学部紀要 (ISSN:09153586)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.35-54, 2016-03

This article attempts to analyze the conception of democracy and absolute pacifism in Yanaihara's political thought. For Yanaihara democracy didn't mean majority rule or due process ,but meant creation of political subject who bearsresponsibility for his nation. As to his pacifism he refused the role of balance of power in international relations and went too far into the negation of the right of self defense. Since he was skeptical of the conception "justice" in politicalarena, he clearly denied to distinguish just war and unjust war. Yanaihara insisted that democracy and absolute pacifism can be fully realized, when nations experience the religious reformation in their souls. In this sense,democracy and absolute pacifism go hand in hand with spiritual revolutionoccurred by Christianity. It is true that such an approach met with severecriticism, but it's a really interesesting attempt to consider the public role ofreligion, if, we don't confine religion in the private affair.