著者
窪 誠
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 = Osaka Sangyo University journal of economics (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.1-27, 2016-10

Since Japan's ratification of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights in 1979, the Japanese government has submitted six state reports explaining the human rights situation in Japan. On all occasions the United Nations Human Rights Committee questioned the concept of "public welfare" contained in the Japanese Constitution, suggesting it allowed for a general restriction on human rights in the Constitution. This article clarifies the different viewpoints between the Japanese government and the UNHR Committee as they are found through an analysis of the state reports and the dialogue held between the two parties.
著者
窪 誠
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.1-27, 2016-10

Since Japan's ratification of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights in 1979, the Japanese government has submitted six state reports explaining the human rights situation in Japan. On all occasions the United Nations Human Rights Committee questioned the concept of "public welfare" contained in the Japanese Constitution, suggesting it allowed for a general restriction on human rights in the Constitution. This article clarifies the different viewpoints between the Japanese government and the UNHR Committee as they are found through an analysis of the state reports and the dialogue held between the two parties.Since Japan's ratification of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights in 1979, the Japanese government has submitted six state reports explaining the human rights situation in Japan. On all occasions the United Nations Human Rights Committee questioned the concept of "public welfare" contained in the Japanese Constitution, suggesting it allowed for a general restriction on human rights in the Constitution. This article clarifies the different viewpoints between the Japanese government and the UNHR Committee as they are found through an analysis of the state reports and the dialogue held between the two parties.
著者
斉藤 日出治
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.1-24, 2010-09

Japan occupied the island of Hainandao just before the Asia Pacific War.The Japanese army murdered many Hainandao inhabitants during this occupation. Nevertheless the facts of these massacres have been suppressed and neglected by japanese government and people after the war. We have been researching the facts of the massacres by the Japanese army through interviews with the survivors in Hainandao. As a result we found these massacres did not happen accidentally, but were purposely carried out in accompaniment with the military operations of the Japanese army. These massacres took place continually from February 1939 to August 1945. I analyzed the Military Diary of the Japanese Navy in Hainandao. Recorded in this diary is not only military operations in the narrow sense, but also various government policies. For example, the mining of natural resources, management of land, control of prices, the education for the island inhabitants, and securing human resources. The aim of the Japanese army was to continue its war effort by pillaging resources, food, and using forced labor, among other things. It tried to construct a sphere of self-sustenance by pillage of its occupied countries. Many government policies were necessary to construct this sphere of self-sustenance by pillage. It shows the particularity of Japanese imperialism in comparison with Occidental imperialist practices.
著者
窪 誠
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.111-143, 2014-06

In recent years, public demonstrations targeting vulnerable social groups including non-Japanese and Burakumin (historically discriminated communities and people ascribed to an inferior "caste") occur frequently in Japan. Extremist groups are seen in the streets crying "Kill Koreans", "Go back home Chinese", etc. However, Japan has no legislation regulating these activities, especially when manifested in the form of "hate speech." This article seeks to clarify what hate speech is, with reference to the Council of Europe Manual on Hate Speech, as well as United Nations documents addressing discriminatory or violent outbreaks against particular social groups, for the purpose of contributing to the discussion regarding hate speech regulation in Japan.
著者
加藤 道也
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.123-155, 2009-09

TOKINAGA Urazo, an official serving for thirteen years between 1910 and 1922 in the Japanese Government-General of Korea, visited the US and Europe to study and understand the influence of self-determination advocated by President T. W. Wilson in relation to the Koreans under Japanese rule during World War I. He observed the situation of Ireland under British control and compared its aspects with the Japanese rule over Korea. His conclusion was that Japanese colonial rule of Korea was totally different from the British governance of Ireland. Although he thought that the British were cruel and suppressive, on several points there was a need for the Japanese Government-General of Korea to learn some important lessons from the British failure to establish order in Ireland.
著者
加藤 道也
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.55-93, 2010-09

YOSHIMURA Gentaro, an government official serving in the Japanese Government-General of Kanto Leased Territory surveyed the British colonial situations including Ireland. He observed the Irish situation under British control and had the important lessons from it. His conclusion was that British governance of Ireland should be seen as a failure because it lacked the mutual trust. He criticized severely the way of British governance in Ireland but did not deny the colonial rule itself. He rather insisted that the Japanese colonial rule as an antidote against the western expansion to Asia and that Japan should take a more leading role in Asia.
著者
木村 敦
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.3, pp.307-327, 2010-06

The aim of this study is to express an opinion about "What is the essence of social welfare", and to clarify "social welfare as a subject of investigation", based on that opinion. Recently, the state of social welfare policy has changed greatly, and the term for a person who receives social welfare benefits has changed from "recipient" to "subject" and then to "user". However, the change in name has not improved the recipients' life circumstances. In short, recent social welfare policy has not contributed to "a better life" for people. In this situation, I think that "social welfare policy theory as social science" is necessary in order to contribute to "a better life" for people, i.e., in order to amend current social welfare policy. The aim of this study was decided based on the reasons above. To achieve this aim of clarification of social welfare as a subject, social welfare provisions from the standpoint of the economic theories of Kazuo Okochi and Shoichi Kohashi are first explained. Then, relying fundamentally on Kohashi's theory, arguments regarding these provisions from the standpoint of sociological / functional / movement theory are explained by way of critique. In conclusion, problems are explained which arise when Kohashi's theory is applied to the practice of social work.
著者
木村 敦
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.3, pp.235-257, 2011-06

Tentatively, I think that the policy of `Promotion of Discharge / Shift to Community' for the mentally disabled being pushed forward by the current government, results in mentally disabled persons being discharge hastily and make the mentally disabled low-wage and unstable worker. This is regarded in this paper as the basic problem. With this basic understanding of the problem, the goal of this paper is to present the three things which will be necessary for `Support for Shift to Community': (1) structure which justifies isolation of the mentally disabled, (2) problems spreading throughout the entire labor market, and (3) the meaning of sending the mentally disabled into the real labor market. To accomplish this goal, the following will be set forth: (1) Statement of the recent trend in the policy of `Promotion of Discharge / Shift to Community' (2) Explanation of the `Return to Society' policy under the Mental Hygiene Law, especially in the 1970s (3) Presentation of disputes concerning `Return to Society', especially critical opinion, from the second half of the 1970s to the first half of the 1980s (4) Confirmation of whether recent disputes over the policy of `Promotion of Discharge / Shift to Community' are adequately based on disputes from the era of Mental Hygiene Law
著者
木村 敦
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.1-17, 2009-09

'Work Support' became the chief matter in the current policy regarding health and welfare services for the mentally disabled. Then, social welfare policy became a part of the policy to create low wage worker and instability employed worker. This represents a basic understanding of the problem, and is the hypothesis of this study. The aim of this study is the presentation of grounds for proving this hypothesis. Concretely, the following statements will be written. 1 The 'change' portion and the 'continuity' portion of treatment principle regarding the mentally disabled(from 'isolation and accommodation' to 'welfare') in the following laws. 1)The 'Law Regarding Custody of the Mentally Ill' 2)The 'Mental Hygiene Law' 3)The 'Mental Health Law' 4)The 'Law Regarding Mental Health and Welfare Services for the Mentally Disabled'. 2 An outline of current work support policy for the mentally disabled. 3 To point out problems based on continuity of treatment principles. 4 To introduce some measures of work which may become key in solving the problems in work support policy. 5 To suggest new concept of income security to the mentally disabled.
著者
木村 敦
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.2, pp.17-33, 2009-02

The aim of this study is four points as follows. Those are, 1 To examine and clarify the characteristic of problems in living of people with mental retardation , as compared with the other kind of disabilities. 2 To examine and clarify the process for detarmine the benefi t by Law to Support Independence of the Persons with Disabilities, and whether it adapt to people with mental retardation. 3 To reexamine the position of social welfare in whole system of social security, to think about the way to support for people with mental retardation with getting back a fundamental place. 4 To suggest, as far as possible, a substitute way to measure the degree of hardship of people with mental retardation with problems in living, beeing based on examinations and clarifi cation 1~3 mentioned above.
著者
木村 敦
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.275-294, 2013-10

Recently, especially since 2000, social welfare has in nature become a substitution for social policy. This has clearly become stronger in comparison with the previous period. To keep this tendency in check, it is important that social welfare movements collaborate with labor movements. Although the latter movement was explained to a certain extent in KIMURA (2011), discussion to establish this larger claim in this book is insufficient. The tasks of this paper are, first, to prove that social welfare systems have increasingly substituted for social insurance systems (labor insurance system) from 2000 onward; second, to clarify the social significance of this substitution; and third, to propose a solution for reducing the use of social welfare as a substitution.
著者
大東 辰起
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 = OSAKA SANGYO UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.35-63, 2017-06-30

Private sector funding was used in the government’s economic stimulus package after thecollapse of the Bubble economy (1991-1993). As a result, outstanding local bonds increased,and differentials expanded due to erosion of borrower credibility in the market. In March 1999, Japan Rating and Investment Information Inc. reported for the first time theJapanese municipal bond rating. In November 2006, Yokohama City obtained R & I. Withthis Japan has rapidly facilitated the use of municipal bond rating. Accordingly, much previousresearch has predicted that the acquisition of municipal bond rating will increase. However,this is not the case at present. Here the municipal bond rating is examined, and the following three issues are discussed.The first is the relationship between implicit security and municipal bond rating. I show thatfor local governments ratings are not essential, because of the macro and micro revenueprotection under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The second is that municipal bond ratingsdone for local governments do not properly reflect financial benchmarks, resulting in a lackof confidence for these ratings. The third is that investor’s trust in municipal bond rating isquestionable. The discussion clarifies the need for rating companies to disclose accurate information,and the necessity for dialogue with the parties concerned for higher evaluation from localgovernments and investors.
著者
斉藤 日出治
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.365-380, 2006-06-30

Mouffe C., English political philosopher, indicates that conflicts among social groups lie at the root of socialization. She locates the concept of "politcal" in the level of the conflicts of people, in distinction from normal term of politics.Nevertheless, under the rule of neoliberalism after cold war, the concept of political is concealed and rejected, and the antagonism is excluded from politics. Politics is esteemed as dialogue among reasonable individuals. She calls this concept of politics "post politics". She makes a critical comments for second modernization by A. Guiddens or W. Beck and "Empire" by Negrit A./ Hardt M. as example of post politics.The subject of this thesis is to inquiry the critics for "post politics" by Mouffe. C. and to examin the signification of biopolitical production by Negrit A./ Hardt M.Negrit A./ Hardt M.don't refuse the conflicts of social groups, on the contrary, as a result of extending these conflicts outside nation-state, war is becoming not the state of exception but the state of normal of everyday life. Therefore politics is located in the extension of war. Nevertheless, these conflicts breed many kinds of collaboration, for the sake of development of knowledge, information, communication, etc., that is to say "common", Cosequently a focal point of social coflicts is how to organize these many kinds of "commn".Negrit/Hardt also propose absolute democracy in exchange for representative democracy. They define abusolute democracy as politics to organize "common" and try to delve the concept of democracy.
著者
木村 敦
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.89-109, 2014-06

The aim of this paper is presentation of essay toward construction `Social Scientific Socialwork Theory' or integration social welfare policy theory and social welfare support skill theory. For that, following works will be done. Namely, 1) The reviews of typical research results toward construction `Social Scientific Socialwork Theory' up to today. 2) To abstract the common element from theories in 1) 3) To point out the insufficiency on theory up to today 4) Consideration on necessary supplementation to construct `Social Scientific Socialwork Theory'
著者
大東 辰起
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.29-55, 2016-10

Since the bubble economy collapse, local bond funds have drawn attention due to the increase of outstanding local bonds. One of the local bond funds is government funding. Local governments annually obtain great amounts of funds from government funding, which is known to be good, as long term, stable money. Previous research has shown the following issues. The first issue is the local government's control through government funding, and distribution of government funding as financial support by concentrating funding in weak local governments. A secondary issue is the relaxation of fiscal discipline due to receiving bonds as an easy solution to obtaining funds. This paper reveals that these issues are no longer current problems.Since the bubble economy collapse, local bond funds have drawn attention due to the increase of outstanding local bonds. One of the local bond funds is government funding. Local governments annually obtain great amounts of funds from government funding, which is known to be good, as long term, stable money. Previous research has shown the following issues. The first issue is the local government's control through government funding, and distribution of government funding as financial support by concentrating funding in weak local governments. A secondary issue is the relaxation of fiscal discipline due to receiving bonds as an easy solution to obtaining funds. This paper reveals that these issues are no longer current problems.
著者
林田 治男
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.157-179, 2010-02

Most gauges of Japanese railways except the Shinkansen are 3 feet 6 inches. This is called narrow gauge as opposed to standard gauge(4 feet 8.5 inches), and is sometimes called `Colonial' gauge, because many British colonies, such as South Africa and New Zealand, adopted it. Of course the gauges of most countries are standard. Many Japanese writers have attempted to explain the process of adoption of this gauge, but no one has been able to establish it, because there are few Japanese records that describe the story of the gauge in detail at the beginning stage. Mr. Horatio Nelson Lay, who offered to construct and finance the railways for the Meiji government in 1869, met Mr. Edmund Morel at Point de Galle in Ceylon on 21^<st> February, 1870. Morel proposed the narrow gauge, and Lay accepted at this meeting. After returning to London, Lay conveyed this story to the editor of The Engineer. In the 1^<st> April issue, the reporter wrote, "It will be a 3 ft. 6 in. gauge railway." Using these materials, I infer the story of the selection of the Japanese gauge by Morel and George Preston White, who was the consulting engineer in Britain employed by Lay. In this article I explain when, where, and how the Japanese gauge was chosen and by whom. Additionally through reference to the Fairlie System and communication between Lay and Morel, I attempt to explain the reason that gauge was chosen.
著者
林田 治男
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.19-70, 2009-09

Edmund Morel, the first Engineer-in-Chief of Imperial Railways of Japan, has been respected in Japan. At the beginning of the Meiji era, he proposed to Hirobumi Ito, the Second Assistant Minister of Finance, to establish a ministry for public works, a institution of higher education, and to use domestic products. His propositions were adopted by the Japanese Government immediately and contributed to development of Japanese society. Unfortunately he died 30 years before the opening of the Railway. He was engaged in his duty for only 19 months. Therefore, almost all Japanese has appreciated his accomplishments and felt saddened by his early death. Many Japanese writers make reference to his career, such as when and where he was born, what he studied at college, how he practiced as an engineer before coming to Japan, why he came to Meiji Japan, and who his wife was. It is very curious that almost all of them have provided incorrect accounts with scarce sources or no evidence. On the contrary, Mr. Yoshihiko Morita traces his career using the original documents and succeeds in correcting previous accounts. I corroborate Mr. Morita's assertions and further augment his findings on Morel's career, specifically regarding family environment, school record, and practical engineering. In this article I refer to the preceding writings on Morel's career chronologically by field, and point out the wrong descriptions. I investigate why they failed to explain his career correctly and followed incorrect versions without questioning their veracity. We must utilize and verify the relevant original records and make references definitely.
著者
加藤 道也
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.1, pp.37-60, 2007-10

In the interwar years, Japan shared a concern common to many Western industrialized nations to seek balance of payments and employment stability on the basis of a gold standard system at the pre-war parity. In order to do so, governments introduced a mild deflationary policy but only to be suffered from stagnation of economy and employment. After Japan returned to the gold standard in 1930, exchange rate began to rise and it threatened a decrease of export level. Domestic demand declined and job losses spread to the chemical and heavy industries and to the mining industry. But with the government determined to continue fiscal and monetary restriction, merely awaiting a recovery from depression, both firms and farms lost their trading strength and unemployment grew. The combination of the Manchurian Incident and the Britain's decision to abandon the gold standard convinced Japan that maintaining the pre-war gold par was impossible and in December 1931, the Japanese gold standard was abandoned. After 1932, military expenditure was increased and it effected on employment of the skilled workers. But the improvement of employment was limited to the casual workers as the relatively poor recovery of agricultural production reversed the shock absorber effect of the agricultural sector pushing casual workers into industrial cities.
著者
粟谷 佳司
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.105-116, 2005-02

This paper argues the question of 'space' on Media and Cultural Studies especially from Jody Berland's reconsideration to Toronto Communication School like Marshall McLuhan or Harold AJnnis. In addition, we consider her insight into the problem of Globalization between the USA and Canada. McLuhan was criticized as technological determinism from Raymond Williams. Berland, However, reconsiders McLuhan's media theory and Innis's communication theory in terms of her "cultural technologies" and "social space" . The concept of "cultural technologies" means the combination culture with technology that derived from dialogue with McLuhan. She called "social space" from reading of Henri Lefebvre's 'the production of space'. From this point of view, we discuss the emergency of Canadian culture by the impact on global American hegemony.
著者
林田 治男
出版者
大阪産業大学
雑誌
大阪産業大学経済論集 (ISSN:13451448)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.2, pp.181-213, 2006-02-28

我が国の鉄道建設が具体化したのは,明治2年末の英国人;レイとの100万ポンドの借款契約とそれに基く建設計画である。この契約においては,外国人の雇用権,必要資材の購入権,組織の指揮命令権など悉くレイの手中にあった。幕末混乱期に外国奉行;小笠原長行が,米国人;ポートマンへ鉄道敷設権を付与した問題の処理に当って,維新政府担当者が日本側自主権の確保に苦心しながら交渉していたのと対照的である。錯雑した状況の中で,日本政府はレイが指名した代理人;トロートマンとの面会拒否,建設資金の「ロンドンでの公募」を廉にしたレイ契約の破棄宣告,オリエンタル銀行への問題処理の委託およびレイ契約の代理継承という一連の行動によって,徐々に鉄道建設・運営に関する管轄権,および外国人の雇用権を確保していった。これらの過程のうち本稿では,レイ借款が解約されていく状況を中心にその理由を明示しつつ詳述する。前兆として1870年4月(明治3年)からの,トロートマンへの異様な応対や,4月の英国公使;パークスの書簡から,その気配が察知できる。6月時点での「公募」情報入手後の日本政府の行動は,実に水際立っていた。レイがロンドンで「関税と鉄道収入を担保に」「300万ではなく100万ポンドを」(計画路線全体の建設資金としては300万ポンド程度必要で,100万にポンドに対しては担保が過大である)「公募」(少数の有力な資本家から内輪にではなく)したこと,および日本政府へは12%で貸付け,英国では9%で募集したことが資金提供者と建設担当者という二重の地位を使い分けた背信行為であることを論拠として日本側は解約を主張した。自主権の確保という重要な点は,表立って議論されていない。自主権確保を前面に押し出して解約あるいは契約内容の変更を要請しても,日本側に勝ち目はほとんどなかった。最終的にレイとは示談が成立し,オリエンタル銀行がその任務を引き継ぎ,鉄道建設に当たっていくこととなった。