著者
柴田 翔平 鳴尾 丈司 加瀬 悠人 稲毛 正也 山本 道治 森 正樹 浦川 一雄 廣瀬 圭 神事 努
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2018 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-18, 2018 (Released:2019-05-25)

The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of the system analyzing pitching data using baseball-type sensor (MAQ) and to measure kinematic parameter (ball velocity, spin rate, and spin axis) of baseball pitches by various pitchers. The accuracy of the developed system using a 3D motion analysis system and the high-speed cameras were examined. The spin axis of pitched ball was calculated from data of 12-axis sensor using the sensor fusion by extended Kalman Filter. The ball velocity and spin rate calculated by MAQ and the 3D motion analysis system showed similar values (ball velocity: r = 0.95 spin rate: r = 0.90). In several data, it was indicated that the spin axis calculated by MAQ, the 3D motion analysis system, and the high-speed camera showed similar values. In addition, there was a correlation between ball velocity and spin rate over the velocity range from 6.7 m/s to 41.0 m/s (n=188). From these results, the developed system can be used to evaluate baseball pitching skill with high accuracy.
著者
三村 泰成
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2018 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.C-41, 2018 (Released:2019-05-25)

In the present study, the rule was defined rationally by making clearly the dynamics phenomenon about an overhand pass. An overhand pass in volleyball is important basic skill. However, the difference between overhand pass and catching isn't also defined by a rule book. Then no one tells the difference clearly. There are no ways but a referee judges by the subjectivity. Therefore we advanced a study by the following procedures. At the first, it was described about elastic rebound of a ball and phenomenon of "volley ball" was made clear. At the second, we defined which overhand pass is elastic rebound using Muscle-tendon complex. At the third, it was evaluated by running a motion analysis. As a result, it was recognized that the motion analysis is equal to the motion of an overhand pass. Finally, we defined about overhand pass rationally using above mentioned results.
著者
北野 敬祐 竹田 正樹 友野 一希 近藤 亜希子 辻内 伸好 廣瀬 圭
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2020 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-4-5, 2020 (Released:2021-06-01)

This paper proposes the estimation method of rotational axis in figure skating jump using inertial sensors. The estimation method of rotational axis consists of components centrifugal, tangential and gravity accelerations and relationship between angular velocity and combining angular velocity, and this method estimates the pitch and yaw angles to the sensor coordinate system from the axis coordinate system and the roll and pitch angles to global coordinate system from the sensor coordinate system. We conducted the measurement experiment the triple flip jumps and the quadruple salchow jumps by the high-level figure skater using inertial sensors, and we estimated the rotational axis in the triple flip and quadruple salchow jumps. These results indicated the change of rotational axis during jump, and we indicated the difference of characteristics by the difference in success of jump.
著者
廣瀬 圭 友野 一希 近藤 亜希子 辻内 伸好 北野 敬祐 竹田 正樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2020 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.B-8-3, 2020 (Released:2021-06-01)

This paper proposes the estimation method of three-dimensional rotational axis in figure skating jump by iterated Extended Kalman filter and quaternion using inertial and magnetic field sensors. This method estimates the posture information to global coordinate system from the sensor coordinate system and the posture information to rotational axis coordinate system from the sensor coordinate system using the iterated Extended Kalman filter, and the direction component represented by quaternion was estimated by using inertial and magnetic field sensors. We conducted the measurement experiment the triple flip jumps and the quadruple salchow jumps by the high-level figure skater using inertial and magnetic field sensors, and we estimated the three-dimensional rotational axis in the triple flip and quadruple salchow jumps. These results indicated the change of rotational axis during jump by the normalized vector and the projection drawing calculated by the estimated three-dimensional rotational axis, and we indicated the high reproducibility in the triple flip jumps and the difference of characteristics by the difference in success of jump in the quadruple salchow jumps.
著者
小池 関也 見邨 康平
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2015 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp._A-24-1_-_A-24-10_, 2015-10-30 (Released:2017-06-19)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the contribution of the whole-body joint torques to the generation of evaluation values during baseball batting motion, such as bat head speed and angular motion of the lower trunk in consideration of the joint torque generating mode. The whole-body segments and bat were modeled as a system of sixteen-rigid linked segments, and constraint axes of the elbow, wrist, knee and ankle joints were modeled with anatomical constraint equations in order to consider the degree of freedom (DOF) of the joint. Each hand was considered to be connected with the bat through zero DOF joint. The equation of motion with respect to the whole-body and bat was obtained by considering modelling errors, such as, residual joint force and moment, and fluctuation of segment's length. The dynamic contributions of the joint moments, motion dependent term and gravity term to the bat head speed and angular motion of the lower trunk were derived from the equation of motion for the system. Furthermore, the joint torque was divided into two components, such as eccentric torque component, which shows negative sign of its torque power, and concentric torque component, which shows positive sign of its torque power. The results obtained in this study showed that 1) motion dependent term was the great contributor to the generation of bat head speed and 2) major contributors to the generation of the bat head speed, such as concentric components of knob-side shoulder abduction torque and torso joint rotational torque were quantified by considering main generating factor of motion dependent term.
著者
近藤 亜希子 友野 一希 北野 敬祐 廣瀬 圭 竹田 正樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2020 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-1-4, 2020 (Released:2021-06-01)

In this study, we conducted the 3-axis acceleration analysis of figure skating jump using inertial sensors. In the motion measurement of figure skating jump, the measurement area is wide, and the figure skater conducts high speed rotational motion. Therefore, we used the inertial sensor system as simply motion measurement device. We conducted the measurement experiment of the figure skating jump by a high-level figure skater, we obtained the 3-axis measurement information of inertial sensors in the triple flip jumps and the quadruple salchow jumps. The results of combining angular velocity and acceleration indicated the high repeatability. Furthermore, we conducted the 3-axis acceleration analysis in quadruple salchow jumps using the sensor outputs and the self-assessment. The result of high point in self-assessment indicated the high acceleration, and the effect by composite axis component in centrifugal acceleration was indicated. These results indicated the importance of body inclination during the jump motion.
著者
瀬尾 和哉 佐藤 充 鎌田 圭介 小林 拓人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2020 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-3-1, 2020 (Released:2021-06-01)

We developed a new suit for Tokyo 2020Olympic and Paralympic cycling road races. Several clothes were tested by using a truncated cone wrapped with cloth in the wind tunnel. On the basis of the drag measurements, several pilot suits were made. They were tested by using a full-scale mannequin which can pedal the bike in the wind tunnel. Finally, we succeeded in developing the new suit for Tokyo 2020Olympic and Paralympic cycling road races, which is superior to Beijing model.
著者
小山 桂史 加藤 知生 山内 潤一郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2013 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp._213-1_-_213-4_, 2013-11-01 (Released:2017-06-19)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of closed basket weave ankle taping on the vertical ground reaction force and ankle movement during the contact phase before the take-off in vertical jump performance. Twelve healthy young men performed a vertical jump performance on a force plate without (CON) or with ankle taping (closed basket weave technique: CBW) of the right ankle joint. Vertical jump ability was assessed using two styles of vertical jump with no arm swing: a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). From the vertical ground reaction force (GRF), maximum jump height (Ht), vertical impulse (VI), rate of force development (RFD), maximum GRF (GRFmax) during the contact phase before the take-off in jump performance were determined. Also, movement analysis, range of motion (Δ ank) and angular velocity (Vank) of ankle joint were caliculated . Ht and RFD, Δ ank, Vank were significantly lower for CBW than CON in CMJ, but not in SJ. Conversely, VI and GRFmax were not significantly different between the groups in either jump condition. These results suggest that ankle taping impairs countermovement jump performance, due to a decreased ability to rapidly develop large force and plantar-flexion motion on the ground before the take-off.
著者
草深 あやね 小林 裕央 三木 豪 桑田 真澄 工藤 和俊 中澤 公孝 若尾 真治
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2018 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-32, 2018 (Released:2019-05-25)

The purpose of this study was to verify the precision of different simulation methods to extrapolate vertical pitch location with the use of some dynamic parameters at ball release measured by TrackMan, and to determine dynamic parameters to predict pitch location. Ball trajectory was calculated by the equation of motion with three different numerical analysis methods (Euler, Runge-Kutta, Dormand Prince) and the vertical pitch location was compared with the measured values. The total number of pitches was 137 pitches. Dormand Prince method showed the smallest errors (5.8 ± 1.4 cm) compared with Euler (6.8 ± 1.4 cm) and Runge-Kutta (6.7 ± 1.4 cm) methods, indicating Dormand Prince was the highest precision method to extrapolate pitch location, but all methods could extrapolate it below the size of ball. Simulation with Dormand Prince method and multiple regression analysis revealed that elevation pitching angle and ball velocity more predicted vertical pitch location rather than other parameters. Furthermore, regression equation structured by these parameters could predict the pitch location with error by less than 10.0 cm (9.5 cm). These results indicate that the elevation pitching angle and ball velocity, i.e. velocity vector of ball, affected the determination of pitching location.
著者
波多野 元貴 鈴木 重行 松尾 真吾 片浦 聡司 岩田 全広 坂野 裕洋 浅井 友嗣
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2012 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.430-435, 2012-11-14 (Released:2017-06-19)

The purpose of this study was to clarify the time course of the stiffness of the hamstrings, range of motion (ROM), stretch tolerance, and isometric peak torque (IPT) of knee flexor after a 5-min static stretching for hamstrings. In 24 participants, static passive torque, representing resistance to stretch, was also measured using an iso-kinetic dynamometer and decreased after stretching on all of experiments. On three different days, dynamic passive torque (DPT) and IPT were measured before and 10, 20 or 30 min after stretching. As a result, ROM and maximal DPT were significantly increased and also IPT was significantly decreased at 10, 20 and 30 min (P< 0.05, respectively) after stretching. Although the stiffness was significantly decreased at 10 and 20 min after stretching (P< 0.05, respectively), this effect recovered within 30 min. These results showed that the retention time of the effect of stretching on stiffness was shorter than the retention time on ROM, stretch tolerance, and IPT.
著者
塩谷 義
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2018 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.C-21, 2018 (Released:2019-05-25)

The turning in the ballroom dancing is analyzed in the mechanical point of view, comparing the left turn and the right turn. Reverse Turn and Natural Turn in Waltz are taken as examples. In the syllabus of ballroom dancing, the both turns are described as just exchanging the terms “right” and “left” each other. However, in fact some different feelings exist in the left and the right turns. This causes mainly come from the couple holding form which is a characteristic of modern ballroom dancing. The movements of dancers during the turns are mechanically analyzed focusing the moving paths of the dancers and the inertia forces in the direction of the partner during the turn. The results show different patterns of movements and forces in the left and the right turns. The parameters affecting the left and right difference are also shown, suggesting improvement ways of the dancers’ movements. The left and right difference caused by the Line of Dance is also explained.
著者
原田 雅隆 増田 新 小林 創 澁谷 颯之
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2018 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.B-28, 2018 (Released:2019-05-25)

In recent years, the number of patients with low back pain has increased, and it is a problem in various aspects such as health and economics. It is caused by a mechanical load acting on the muscles and the spine in the lumbar part. To reduce the risk of back pain, a support wear that reduces the load on the lumbar spine during flexion has been suggested by our group. This paper presents a dynamic model to calculate the load on the lumbar vertebrae. Especially, ligament tension considering Flexion Relaxation Phenomenon (FRP) which has not been considered so far and intra-abdominal pressure using two dimensional image information were modeled. First, the degree of FRP was measured from the myoelectric potential information of the back muscle in different bending postures. Next, we modeled the ligament tension using the results. Finally, the intra-abdominal pressure was incorporated into the model to calculate the compression force of the lumbar spine, and the experiment to estimate the lumbar load was performed. As a result, the experiment show that the load of the lumbar spine increases markedly due to FRP and this model is effective in calculation of the lumbar load compared to results of actual measurements of internal pressure.
著者
三上 隆 納土 賢悟 山代 和明 幾久 健 小山 遥陽 杉山 直磯 来田 宣幸
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2018 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.B-14, 2018 (Released:2019-05-25)

We have spent to walk the majority of the activities of daily living. We can reduce the burden on the foot by putting insoles in the shoes. In addition, insoles are used as part of rehabilitation. It can be proposed for the maintenance of a healthy life by studying the effect on the body due to the shape of the insole. This study focused on the thickness of the insoles and aimed to clarify the influence on the body when to use different insoles of the toe portion and the heel portion. Experimental subjects were opened with resting stance posture, both feet standing position and one-foot standing position. The condition of the insole was 5.5 ㎜ and 7.5 ㎜ in the thickness of the toes, and the heels were 5.0 ㎜ and 7.5 ㎜ in thickness. The experimental participants were four men in their twenties. The measuring device was a force plate. The sampling rate was 1000 Hz. From the result of the total trajectory length, it was confirmed that the center of gravity fluctuation becomes smaller by the insole.
著者
廣瀬 圭 岩渕 琢磨 千葉 遥 近藤 亜希子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2017 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-33, 2017 (Released:2018-05-25)

This paper proposes the estimation method of seating face geometry using belt-shaped inertial sensors system. This method uses the sensor fusion for posture estimation and the forward kinematics for position calculation. The sensor fusion estimates the Roll and Pitch angles using gyro sensor and acceleration sensor outputs, and the effect of drift error is reduced. The estimated geometry information is validated using the calibration device designed by CAD, the results indicated the effective accuracy. Furthermore, we conducted the measurement experiment using three sensor systems in dynamic condition. The results indicated the face geometry in settling and floating conditions. This system can be used to represent the face geometry in static and dynamic conditions.
著者
波多野 元貴 三浦 亜友 森安 健太 西脇 剛史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2015 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp._B-15-1_-_B-15-7_, 2015-10-30 (Released:2017-06-19)

In strength training, squat exercise is a representative example of lower extremity training. As target muscles of squat exercise are mainly knee extensrs and hip extensors, it is well-known that posture can effect on the main muscles activities. In addition, it is pointed out that injuries on squat exercise such as patellar tendinitis and low back pain are caused by the wrong posture. Therefore, it is important to design shoe function considering safety posture, effective load, and stability. However, athletes and trainee tend to do barbell squat exercise with various types of shoes such as weight lifting specific shoes, versatile training shoes, and indoor athletic shoes. Hence shoe heel-heights, which are derived from sole thickness difference between rearfoot and forefoot, are widely different from almost 0mm to over 20mm and might change the effect of training. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the shoe heel-height on squat motion. Firstly the motion analysis was conducted and it was confirmed that low heel-height structure leads anterior projection of the knee and high load on knee joint. In contrast, high heel-height structure causes trunk forward tilting and high load on hip joint. Secondly, the relationship between experience of the exercise and shoe heel-height was investigated using beginner and experienced subjects. Judging from the results, it was concluded that shoe heel-height makes influence on squat motion especially posture and load for beginners and stability for experiencesd subjects.
著者
見邨 康平 小池 関也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2016 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-34, 2016 (Released:2017-06-19)

Motion-dependent term (MDT), which consists of centrifugal force, Coriolis force and gyroscopic effect moment expressed in the equation of motion for a multi-link system, plays significant roles in the generation of bat head speed through not instantaneous effect but cumulative effect of the exerting joint torques in baseball batting. According to our previous studies that calculate dynamics contributions of the whole-body joint torques considering generating factor of the MDT, the forward/backward rotational torque (FBR torque) at torso joint plays a significant role in the generation of bat head speed. These studies, however, show that the lower limb joint torques do not contribute directly to the bat head speed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to make clear the functional roles of the lower limb joint torques considering the cumulative effect of exerting joint torques. The whole-body with bat was modelled as a system of sixteen-rigid linked segments. The contributions of the lower limb joint torques to the exerting FBR torque at torso joint were quantified through dynamic contribution equation, which relates lower limb joint torques to the torso FBR torque, derived from both dynamics joint force contribution equation of whole-body system and equilibrium balance equation with respect to rotational movement of the lower trunk segment. The results obtained in this study show 1) lower limb joint torque, especially flexion/extension torque at both hip joints, is a large contributor to the generation of the torso FBR torque, and 2) lower trunk inertial force term and other terms are small contributors to the FBR torque. The development of this analytical method would enable us to quantify the contribution of the lower limb joint torques.
著者
河村 隆 野内 知樹 降旗 克行 栗林 直樹 青柳 匡尚 中﨑 滉平 北橋 尚浩 鈴木 智 飯塚 浩二郎
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2016 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.C-20, 2016 (Released:2017-06-19)

Curling is one of the winter sports called chess on ice. Athletes are required high level skill and smart strategy. This paper deals with curling phenomenon of rotation stone on the ice.To Understand this phenomenon, polypropylene and Teflon sheet makes low friction environment, and curling stone experiment was carried out. Then curling stone phenomenon was reproduced on force plate instead of ice.