著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 小池 関也 阿江 通良
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
体力科学 (ISSN:0039906X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.225-232, 2010 (Released:2010-05-27)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on mechanical work of the lower limb joints during baseball pitching in a simulated game. One male college baseball pitcher threw 15 pitches in an inning for 9 innings (135 pitches) in an indoor pitcher's mound with two force platforms. Rest time between innings was 6 minutes. Three-dimensional positions of 47 reflective markers attached to subject were tracked by an optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion System 612, Vicon Motion Systems) with eight cameras (250Hz). For subject 75 fastball pitches (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th innings) were chosen for analysis.As the main results, the hip joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg decreased with increasing the number of pitches. The ankle joint extension absolute and negative work of the stride leg increased with increasing the number of pitches. These results suggest that the hip joint extension torque of the stride leg was needed to maintain for higher performance in baseball pitching.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 小池 関也
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.91-102, 2008 (Released:2017-02-15)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
6

本研究は, 大学野球投手を対象とし, 投球数の増加にともなうキネティクスの変化について検討することを目的とした. 実験試技は, 2台のフォースプラットフォームを埋設した簡易マウンドからストレートを投球するものであった. 被験者には, 10秒間隔で15球投げることを1イニングとし, イニング間に6分の休息をはさみながら9イニング, 計135球の投球を行わせた. 投球数とそれぞれのパラメータから単回帰分析を行い, 回帰係数の有意性について検定を行った (p<0.05). その結果, 投球数の増加にともない, ①踏込脚の股関節伸展の正仕事, 負仕事, 絶対仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ②投球腕の肩関節内旋の正仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ③投球腕への関節力による力学的エネルギーの流れの減少がみられた. ④投球腕の肩関節水平内転の正仕事および絶対仕事が増加する傾向がみられた. 以上のことから, 踏込脚の股関節伸展の仕事の減少は, 下肢のトレーニングの重要性を示唆するものであり, 投球腕の肩関節水平内転の仕事の増加は, “上肢動作に頼った投球動作” を示すものであると考えられる.
著者
阿江 数通 小池 関也 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 川村 卓 金堀 哲也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.559-574, 2017 (Released:2017-12-19)
参考文献数
46

The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic characteristics of the upper body between baseball tee batting and pitched ball batting in order to gain basic knowledge for improvement of batting skill. Ten male collegiate baseball players (age: 20.7±1.1 yr; height: 1.75±0.05 m; body mass: 76.3±7.1 kg; athletic career: 12.7±2.7 yr) participated. They performed 2 kinds of batting: tee batting (TB) and machine-pitch batting (MB) using a pitching machine (approximate ball speed 33.3 m/s), which were set at middle ball height for the strike zone. Three-dimensional coordinate data were acquired with a motion capture system. Kinematic variables such as maximum bat-head speed, swing time, bat angle, joint angles of the upper limbs, and segment angle of the upper trunk were calculated. Differences between TB and MB were analyzed statistically using paired t-test (p<0.05). The maximum bat-head speed was significantly greater in TB than in MB, but swing times divided into 2 phases showed no significant differences between MB and TB. In the first half of the swing, the bat inclination angle was significantly larger in MB than in TB. The joint angles of the barrel-side shoulder abduction, knob-side shoulder adduction and internal rotation were significantly larger in MB than in TB, and those of the barrel-side shoulder internal rotation and individual elbow pronations were significantly larger in TB than in MB. The clockwise rotational angle of the upper trunk was significantly larger in TB than in MB. In the last half of the swing, the joint angles of the barrel-side shoulder abduction, knob-side shoulder flexion and adduction were significantly larger in MB than in TB, and that of the knob-side elbow pronation was significantly larger in TB than in MB. The changes in upper body movement in MB affected the radius of rotation of the bat about the vertical axis to control the bat easily. The movements in the last half of the swing largely resulted from those in the first half of the swing, and did not contribute to timing adjustment. These results indicate that the initial configuration of the bat and upper limbs, and movements at the beginning of the bat swing contribute to the timing adjustment of the bat for a pitched ball. The results of the present study suggest that it could be useful to pay attention to the movement of the bat and upper body in the first half of the swing as TB practice in order to improve timing adjustment.
著者
川村 卓 小池 関也 阿江 数通
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.37-48, 2019-06-17 (Released:2019-06-25)
参考文献数
22

This study examined the flow of energy in the right and left upper limbs of skilled baseball batters during the forward swing motion at different bat head speeds to obtain basic insights that would be useful for batting coaching. The subjects were 23 college baseball outfielders in university teams. The subjects were instructed to hit a ball toward the pitcher from a tee set at a mid-height position. Measurements were taken using 47 points on each subject’s body and 6 points on the bat for a total of 53 points, onto which reflective markers were attached. The 3D coordinates of each marker were measured using a 3D optical motion capture device (Vicon Motion Systems’ VICONMX, 12 cameras, 250 Hz). The variables in the kinetics of each hand were measured using a force detection sensor bat (1000 Hz). The subjects were separated into a faster group of 36.8±0.8 m/s and a slower group of 34.7±1.1 m/s for analysis. In terms of energy transmission, the data revealed that the faster group, in addition to showing additional torque on the knob side shoulder joints, were able to transmit more mechanical energy from the knob side shoulder joints to the end of the upper limbs than the slower group, and that this might be related to an efficient bat head speed. In addition, the faster group showed an increased positive torque power, and transmitted greater mechanical energy to the bat from the hand region. In other words, to prevent mechanical energy from being absorbed while adjusting the bat trajectory near the time of impact, skilled bat control involving movement of the hand joints appeared to determine the bat head speed.
著者
平山 大作 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 小池 関也
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム (ISSN:13487116)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.91-102, 2008

<p>本研究は, 大学野球投手を対象とし, 投球数の増加にともなうキネティクスの変化について検討することを目的とした. 実験試技は, 2台のフォースプラットフォームを埋設した簡易マウンドからストレートを投球するものであった. 被験者には, 10秒間隔で15球投げることを1イニングとし, イニング間に6分の休息をはさみながら9イニング, 計135球の投球を行わせた. 投球数とそれぞれのパラメータから単回帰分析を行い, 回帰係数の有意性について検定を行った (p<0.05). その結果, 投球数の増加にともない, ①踏込脚の股関節伸展の正仕事, 負仕事, 絶対仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ②投球腕の肩関節内旋の正仕事が減少する傾向がみられた. ③投球腕への関節力による力学的エネルギーの流れの減少がみられた. ④投球腕の肩関節水平内転の正仕事および絶対仕事が増加する傾向がみられた. 以上のことから, 踏込脚の股関節伸展の仕事の減少は, 下肢のトレーニングの重要性を示唆するものであり, 投球腕の肩関節水平内転の仕事の増加は, "上肢動作に頼った投球動作" を示すものであると考えられる.</p>
著者
阿江 数通 小池 関也 藤井 範久 阿江 通良 川村 卓 金堀 哲也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.16080, (Released:2017-09-01)
参考文献数
48

The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic characteristics of the upper body between baseball tee batting and pitched ball batting in order to gain basic knowledge for improvement of batting skill. Ten male collegiate baseball players (age: 20.7±1.1 yr; height: 1.75±0.05 m; body mass: 76.3±7.1 kg; athletic career: 12.7±2.7 yr) participated. They performed two kinds of batting: tee batting (TB) and machine-pitch batting (MB) using a pitching machine (approximate ball speed 33.3 m/s), which were set at middle ball height for the strike zone. Three-dimensional coordinate data were acquired with a motion capture system. Kinematic variables such as maximum bat-head speed, swing time, bat angle, joint angles of the upper limbs, and segment angle of the upper trunk were calculated. Differences between TB and MB were analyzed statistically using paired t-test (p<0.05.) The maximum bat-head speed was significantly greater in TB than in MB, but swing times divided into two phases showed no significant differences between MB and TB. In the first half of the swing, the bat inclination angle was significantly larger in MB than in TB. The joint angles of the barrel-side shoulder abduction, knob-side shoulder adduction and internal rotation were significantly larger in MB than in TB, and those of the barrel-side shoulder internal rotation and individual elbow pronations were significantly larger in TB than in MB. The clockwise rotational angle of the upper trunk was significantly larger in TB than in MB. In the last half of the swing, the joint angles of the barrel-side shoulder abduction, knob-side shoulder flexion and adduction were significantly larger in MB than in TB, and that of the knob-side elbow pronation was significantly larger in TB than in MB. The changes in upper body movement in MB affected the radius of rotation of the bat about the vertical axis to control the bat easily. The movements in the last half of the swing largely resulted from those in the first half of the swing, and did not contribute to timing adjustment. These results indicate that the initial configuration of the bat and upper limbs, and movements at the beginning of the bat swing contribute to the timing adjustment of the bat for a pitched ball. The results of the present study suggest that it could be useful to pay attention to the movement of the bat and upper body in the first half of the swing as TB practice in order to improve timing adjustment.
著者
小池 関也
出版者
バイオメカニズム学会
雑誌
バイオメカニズム学会誌 (ISSN:02850885)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.4, pp.221-226, 2013 (Released:2016-04-15)
参考文献数
13

スポーツ動作は,身体各筋の筋張力により生じる関節トルクを主な動力源として発現される高速・高加速な多体系の運動であり,この運動は,多体系としての身体の運動方程式によって支配されている.そこで本稿では,この運動方程式が有する関節トルク入力と身体動作出力との因果関係を利用して,運動の生成に対する,関節トルクの項,重力の項,そして遠心力・コリオリ力からなる運動依存の項などの貢献を定量化する手法について説明するとともに,これら各項の貢献が種目によって大きく異なることを示す.このような定量化は,一見すると複雑な身体運動生成のしくみを簡明に表すこと,そしてパフォーマンス向上に対する力学的な要因を抽出することなどを可能とし,運動のコツを説明することに繋がる.
著者
小池 関也 見邨 康平
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2015, pp."A-24-1"-"A-24-10", 2015-10-30

The purpose of this study was to quantify the contribution of the whole-body joint torques to the generation of evaluation values during baseball batting motion, such as bat head speed and angular motion of the lower trunk in consideration of the joint torque generating mode. The whole-body segments and bat were modeled as a system of sixteen-rigid linked segments, and constraint axes of the elbow, wrist, knee and ankle joints were modeled with anatomical constraint equations in order to consider the degree of freedom (DOF) of the joint. Each hand was considered to be connected with the bat through zero DOF joint. The equation of motion with respect to the whole-body and bat was obtained by considering modelling errors, such as, residual joint force and moment, and fluctuation of segment's length. The dynamic contributions of the joint moments, motion dependent term and gravity term to the bat head speed and angular motion of the lower trunk were derived from the equation of motion for the system. Furthermore, the joint torque was divided into two components, such as eccentric torque component, which shows negative sign of its torque power, and concentric torque component, which shows positive sign of its torque power. The results obtained in this study showed that 1) motion dependent term was the great contributor to the generation of bat head speed and 2) major contributors to the generation of the bat head speed, such as concentric components of knob-side shoulder abduction torque and torso joint rotational torque were quantified by considering main generating factor of motion dependent term.
著者
見邨 康平 小池 関也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
シンポジウム: スポーツ・アンド・ヒューマン・ダイナミクス講演論文集 2016 (ISSN:24329509)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.A-34, 2016 (Released:2017-06-19)

Motion-dependent term (MDT), which consists of centrifugal force, Coriolis force and gyroscopic effect moment expressed in the equation of motion for a multi-link system, plays significant roles in the generation of bat head speed through not instantaneous effect but cumulative effect of the exerting joint torques in baseball batting. According to our previous studies that calculate dynamics contributions of the whole-body joint torques considering generating factor of the MDT, the forward/backward rotational torque (FBR torque) at torso joint plays a significant role in the generation of bat head speed. These studies, however, show that the lower limb joint torques do not contribute directly to the bat head speed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to make clear the functional roles of the lower limb joint torques considering the cumulative effect of exerting joint torques. The whole-body with bat was modelled as a system of sixteen-rigid linked segments. The contributions of the lower limb joint torques to the exerting FBR torque at torso joint were quantified through dynamic contribution equation, which relates lower limb joint torques to the torso FBR torque, derived from both dynamics joint force contribution equation of whole-body system and equilibrium balance equation with respect to rotational movement of the lower trunk segment. The results obtained in this study show 1) lower limb joint torque, especially flexion/extension torque at both hip joints, is a large contributor to the generation of the torso FBR torque, and 2) lower trunk inertial force term and other terms are small contributors to the FBR torque. The development of this analytical method would enable us to quantify the contribution of the lower limb joint torques.
著者
小池 関也 見邨 康平
出版者
一般社団法人 日本機械学会
雑誌
Dynamics & Design Conference 2016 (ISSN:24242993)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.506, 2016 (Released:2017-06-19)

Previous studies, which calculate dynamic contributions of the whole-body joint torques to the generation of bat head speed by using the equation of motion for whole-body with bat system, showed that the motion-dependent term is the largest contributor to the generation of the bat head speed at the ball impact, and also showed that joint torques of the upper limb joints and the torso joint are the main contributors to the head speed with consideration of the generating factors of the motion-dependent term. These results do not tell us the roles of the lower limb joints in the bat head speed generating mechanism. So in order to quantify the roles of the lower limb joints in the mechanism, we quantify the dynamic contributions of the whole-body joint torques to the generation of forward/backward rotational motion of the lower trunk segment during baseball batting motion. Five collegiate baseball players participated in this experiment. They performed hitting a teed ball as strong as possible. Kinetic data of each hand and each foot were obtained by using an instrumented bat equipped with 28 strain gauges and 3 force platforms, respectively. From the results, the flexion/extension torque of both hip joints showed the largest contribution to the forward angular velocity of the lower trunk segment against the large negative contribution due to the torso joint torque. This result indicates that these hip joint torques play an important role to exert large rotational torque at the torso joint, and these hip joint torques show indirect contributions to the bat head speed.
著者
福田 崇 宮川 俊平 小池 関也 藤谷 博人 山元 勇樹
出版者
筑波大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2014-04-01

加速度計による頭部作用力の測定から、頭部衝突数において、1名の大学アメリカンフットボール選手で1回あたりの練習時と試合時の衝突数はそれぞれ14.3回と18.1回であった。また頭部衝突時の平均最大直線加速度は、練習時19.04±10.1G、試合時20.82±12.1Gであり、試合時は練習時よりも有意に高い頭部作用であることを本邦で初めて報告した。しかし、実際に脳振盪に至ったデータは収集できておらず、より多くのデータから衝突時の頭部作用を検討する必要がある。ひずみゲージを用いて衝突時の複数部位における頭部作用力を推定する手法を確立するにはヘルメットと模擬頭部の間の密着性を高めることが必要である。
著者
阿江 数通 小池 関也 川村 卓
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.431-452, 2014 (Released:2014-12-20)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
2 1

The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinetic features of the upper limbs at different hitting-point heights (high, middle, and low) during baseball tee-batting. Twenty-three collegiate male baseball players (age: 19.8±1.3 yr, height: 1.74±0.04 m, weight: 74.1±6.2 kg, athletic career: 12.0±2.1 yr) participated. Three-dimensional coordinate data were captured using a VICON-MX system (12-camera, 250 Hz), and kinetic data for each hand were collected using an instrumented bat equipped with 28 strain gauges (1000 Hz). Three tee-batting heights were set for each subject based on the upper and lower limits of the strike zone according to the rules of baseball. Kinetic variables for the upper limbs, such as joint torque, joint torque power, and mechanical work, were calculated. The period of forward swing motion was divided into down-swing and level-swing phases. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The extension torque and positive torque power at each individual shoulder joint were significantly greater at the low hitting-point height than at other heights. 2) The positive torque power for extension torque at each individual elbow joint in the last half of the down-swing phase was significantly greater at the low hitting-point height than at other heights. 3) Negative power for adduction/abduction torque at each individual shoulder joint in the level-swing phase was observed at the low hitting-point height. 4) The mechanical work done by joint torque about the flexion/extension and adduction/abduction axes at the shoulder, the flexion/extension axis at the elbow, and the palmar/dorsal flexion and radial/ulnar flexion axes at the wrist showed large and positive values, and differed significantly among hitting-point heights. These results indicate that 1) the flexion/extension torque at each individual shoulder joint contributes greatly to adjustment of the translational movement of the bat in the vertical direction during the down-swing phase, 2) the adduction/abduction torque at each individual shoulder joint exerts a larger proportion of the longitudinal force of the bat to withstand centrifugal force at a low hitting-point height than at other heights in the level swing phase, and 3) consequently, it tends to be more difficult to adjust the bat to the hitting-point at a low height in comparison with other heights.
著者
小池 関也 山家 勝裕 下嶋 浩
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集. C編 (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.622, pp.2094-2101, 1998-06
参考文献数
15

A hybrid control method for a flexible manipulator based on an angular velocity control is presented, which is applicable to curved constraint surfaces. The error of contact force is converted into a velocity vector according to the force/velocity conversion law which consideres both force respose characteristics and variational angular velocity with respect to normal direction of the surface. The velocity vector which is tangent to the constraint surface is calculated using the velocity control law. The desired velocity vector is obtained as a sum of the above two velocity vectors, and is converted into angular velocity vectors. A vibration control law is proposed to reduce overshoot of end point velocity response. The desired angular velocity vector is obtained as a sum of the above angular velocity vector and vibration control term. Motion and force controls without calculating inverse dynamics is performed using DC motors whose desired values are equal to the above desired angular velocity vectors. Computer simulations and experimental analyses are carried out to clarify the validity of the proposed method.
著者
下嶋 浩 松永 義弘 小池 関也 梶原 逸朗
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集. C編 (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.633, pp.1849-1856, 1999-05
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
2

An approach for feedback active noise control of a one dimensional duct with multiple control sources based on modal analysis is presented in this paper. Based on experimental modal analysis, the modal parameters of an acoustical system are derived from measured multiple frequency response functions. The state equation of the duct is described by the identified modal parameters. Considering eigenvectors of the acoustical system calculated by finite element method, control sources are located to the duct. A feedback active noise controller is designed based on mixed H_2/H_∞ problem in addition to H_∞ problem, preventing the increase in dimensions of the controllers. Simulations are carried out using the designed controllers. Moreover experiments are carried out using identified controllers based on modal analysis to reduce dimensions of the controllers. The desired performances are obtained by the presented approach.
著者
小池 関也 下嶋 浩
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集 C編 (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.575, pp.p2323-2330, 1994-07
被引用文献数
2

This paper presents a simple hybrid method for controlling both the motion and contact force of a manipulator without calculating inverse dynamics. The contact force is converted into a velocity vector according to the force/velocity conversion law. The velocity vector which is tangent to the constraint surface is calculated by the velocity servo. The desired velocity vecotor is obtained as a sum of the above two velocity vectors. The desired axial velocity vector is calculated from the desired velocity vector using inverse Jacobian matrix. Motion and force control is performed using DC motors whose desired values are the above desired axial velocity vector. The stability of the motion control system is also considered.
著者
小池 関也 小林 優揮 飯田 裕 下嶋 浩
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集. C編 (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.654, pp.321-328, 2001-02-25
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
2

This paper proposes an active noise controller applicable to a moving evaluation point in one dimensional acoustic field. A combined adaptive feedforward/feedback controller based on filtered-x LMS algorithm is proposed. The feedforward controller is utilized for the noise reduction, and the feedback controller is utilized for the reduction of howling, which occurs with use of acoustic reference signal at feedforward controller. For the sake of stable noise control under moving evaluation point, necessity for a real time identificator of transfer function of the error path, which uses a microphone fixed in the neighborhood of the control speaker, is shown. Stable noise reduction without howling is realized by using above combined controller and the real time identificator with use of acoustic reference signal aiming practical use. A straight duct is chosen as a one dimensional acoustic field. Computer simulations and experimental analyses are carried out to clarify the validity of the proposed controller.
著者
小池 関也 下嶋 浩 山家 勝裕
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集. C編 (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.590, pp.3999-4006, 1995-10-25
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1

A simple method is presented for controlling the motion and gripping force in dual flexible manipulators without calculating inverse dynamics. The gripping force is converted into a velocity vector according to the proposed force/velocity conversion law considering the flexibility of the manipulator. The velocity vector of contact point is calculated from the velocity of the object. The desired velocity vector is obtained as a sum of the above two velocity vectors, and is converted into angular velocity vector considering defectional velocity of the flexible links. The desired angular velocity vector is obtained as a sum of the above angular velocity vector and strain feedback term. Coordinative control is performed using DC motors whose desired values are equal to the above desired angular velocity vector. The characteristics of gripping force response of control system is also considered. Computer simulations and experimental analyses are carried out to clarify the validity of the proposed method.
著者
小池 関也 小林 優揮 飯田 裕 下嶋 浩
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学會論文集. C編 = Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. C (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.660, pp.2521-2527, 2001-08-25
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
2

A basic noise control system applicable to a moving evaluation point was proposed in the previous report, and its effectiveness was examined numerically and experimentally. Although the results showed that the proposed system is effective, it can only handle the case of slow evaluation point velocity. This restriction seemed to be due to the slow convergent speed of the adaptive filter. In this paper the cause of restriction is examined in detail, and an advanced control system is proposed. The features of the proposed system are as follows : 1) Improved feedback controller where main filter is less affected by the movement of the evaluation point. 2) Introduction of IIR filter together with the learning identification method to the error path identifier. The new system is examined both in simulation and experiment and shows great improvement compared with the basic model.
著者
小池 関也 下嶋 浩 榎本 明夫
出版者
一般社団法人日本機械学会
雑誌
日本機械学会論文集. C編 (ISSN:03875024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.583, pp.1064-1071, 1995-03-25
参考文献数
16

This paper presents a simple method for controlling both the motion and contact force of a flexible manipulator without calculating inverse dynamics. The contact force is converted into a velocity vector according to the proposed force/velocity conversion law considering the flexibility of the manipulator. The velocity vector which is tangent to the constraint surface is calculated using velocity control law. The desired velocity vector is obtained as a sum of the above two velocity vectors, and is converted into angular velocity vectors considering deflectional velocity of the flexible links. The desired angular velocity vector is obtained as a sum of the above angular velocity vector and strain feedback term. Motion and force control is performed using DC motors whose desired values are the above desired angular velocity vectors. Computer simulations and experimental analyses are carried out to clarify the validity of the proposed method.