著者
田村 裕子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp."4-1"-"4-9", 2005

This paper notes that, in his diary, called Taiki, Fujiwara Yorinaga (1120〜1156), born in a family that produced regents/chief advisers to the Emperor during the era of rule by retired Emperors, refers to his deceased real mother as the "person of old", and its implied meaning is examined. In the background of this reference to her as the "person of old" was the existence of Minamoto Shishi, the legal wife of Tadazane, Yorinaga's father, who became Yorinaga's adoptive mother. She was something guaranteeing his legitimacy as a successor. It is this Shishi that Yorinaga identified as his mother, whom he must respect. However, the existence of his real mother was not entirely disregarded in his mind ; there are entries in his diary in which feeling of deep attachment to her can be detected. The reference to his real mother as the "person of old" represents internal fulfillment of the positioning of his two mothers, and symbolizes strong persistence in attaining the status of a regent/chief adviser to the Emperor, as well as the suppressed feelings for his real mother under that persistence, on the part of Yorinaga,who was shortly to rush headlong toward the civil war of the Hogen era.
著者
久保田 育子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.335-343, 2006

This paper focuses on Gallathea written by John Lyly in 1591. Gallathea was one of the first English plays to use the heroines in male disguise. On the English Renaissance stage, women's roles were played by boy actors, who were considered to be immature as their gender/sex had not yet developed fully to adulthood. I will highlight the multiple gender identities of boy actors and female characters and also the confusions of gender/sex created by Lyly's duplication of cross-gender disguise. In Gallathea, the two heroines disguised as boys fall in love with each other and their tangled sexual relationship shows aspects of the polymorphously perverse. The paper is divided into three parts. I will first illustrate the setting of the world of Gallathea and Lyly's design. The second part examines the relationship between male attire and constructions of male gender. In the third, I would like to explore the representation of women in breeches, which has been symbolized as invasion of the sexual norm. My focus is on the fabrication of the male gender/sex created by male clothing. The ambiguities of gender identity created by cross-gender casting and cross-gender disguises show the plasticity and multiplicity of gender/sex and sexuality.
著者
難波 知子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.41-50, 2006

This article aims at reconsidering the history of women's school uniforms from the viewpoints of the educational system, students, and uniform production in modern Japan. Though the historical studies of school uniforms have focused on the control of students' bodies and clothing by schools, this article moreover notices the significance that women students realized in their uniforms, and the situation that their uniforms were made in the transition from Kimono style to Western style. The composition of this article is as follows. First, it gives an outline of the history of women's school uniforms from the Meiji era to the early Showa era. Second, it elaborates the process of wearing HAKAMA which women students longed to put on in the 30's of the Meiji era. And third, it considers the practical situation that the school uniforms were made, worn by students and controlled by schools. To conclude, in modern Japan women's school uniforms were formed as a culture by interrelationship among schools, students, and uniform production. Schools instituted uniforms for the realization of educational policy and the regulation of clothing. On the other hand, women students created their original meanings and dressing in their school uniforms. And the school uniforms as a culture prevailed involving the changes of styles of living in clothing, for example, from Kimono style to Western style and from sewing at home to buying products in stores.
著者
星野 祐子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学大学院人間文化研究科
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.245-254, 2006

This paper aims to describe the discourse structure of a radio advice program called "Telephone JINSEI SODAN" and the role its emcee plays in the program. Each episode of this long-running call-in show involves an adviser, an advisee and an emcee and centers on the advisee's problem. The 20-minute program can be divided into 5 phases. I. Opening remarks ; the emcee and the advisee exchange greetings and the advisee acknowledges the opportunity to gain useful information ; II. Unfolding the problem ; utilizing a Q-A format, the emcee induces the advisee to describe his/her problem. The emcee then makes the gist of the issue and introduces the adviser over the phone ; III. Advising ; the adviser counsels the advisee on what to do ; IV. Summarizing ; the emcee intervenes and wraps up the previous advice-giving ; V. Closing remarks: the emcee and the adviser greet each other and the advisee expresses his/her gratitude again. The emcee takes part in Phases I, II, IV and V but not in Phase III. As a program host, the emcee uses discourse markers that facilitate a shift from one phase to the next. Such discourse markers\include "ja", "de", and "hai".
著者
松尾 江津子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.85-93, 2005

In the studies of William Shakespeare's Othello, Iago's latent homosexuality has been discussed since the mid-twentieth century. This kind of investigation, however, is criticized for nothing more than motive-hunting of Iago's malignity and taking homosexuality as pathology. Recent sexuality studies, which have brought to light various aspects of male alliance in early modern England, show that physical intimacies between men in those days were far from pathology but rather admired as "friendship." On the other hand, "sodomy" was condemned even though it seems that the acts of "sodomy" actually had little difference from the very acts that Englishmen regarded as "friendship" ; the accusation of sodomy might be considered as one of the political manipulations concerning class, gender, race, and nationality. If the play represents Iago's desire as ambiguously at once "sodomy" and "friendship," the play can be interpreted to reveal the equivocations involved in the system of male alliance. This article, which reconsiders Iago's homosexual desire for Othello in the cultural and political context of early modern England, reexamines, thereby, a historical moment in which Otherness was being constructed through discourse of sodomy.
著者
味岡 京子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.1-11, 2006

The World's Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago, USA, in 1893. There was a pavilion in the exposition known as the Woman's Building, which was completely organized and managed by women. This writing discloses the background to how Japan became part of the Woman's Building and what the exhibition was like, and considers Japan's purpose at that time and how it interacted with Western trends. The Japanese government spent a large amount of money for taking part in The World's Columbian Exposition with the prime purpose of promoting trade and introducing Japanese art to the world. Since it was the preceding year to the Sino-Japanese War, it seems that they also had the intention to appeal for Japan's superiority as the only modernized country in Asia and justify its colonial orientation. Women's art-a subject to which scant attention had been paid in Japan-was redefined in the process of modernization by providing new meanings through exhibits at the Woman's Building. This article aims to emphasize the role of women in modernization through the relationship between art and women, by revealing the status of women artists and what was expected of them.
著者
内村 理奈
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.131-139, 2006
被引用文献数
1

In a comparative analysis of clothing worn by corpses, I looked at descriptions of clothing found in corpse records of Paris and Lyon-Beaujolais in the 1770s. Statistical results revealed that the mention of silver buttons and silver buckles on shoes appears quite frequently in Paris records while there is little mention of them in records of Lyon-Beaujolais. The popularity of large square, silver buckles among Parisian men from the early 18th century onwards seems to have continued for a rather long period. The comparison strongly indicated that local differences in clothing in Paris and Lyon-Beaujolais were minor variations in ornamentation, such as buckles on shoes, rather than differences in the style of garments worn.
著者
松下 真記 MATSUSHITA Maki マツシタ マキ
出版者
お茶の水女子大学大学院人間文化研究科
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.161-173, 2006

The subject of this article is a type of capital initial letter represented as if it were a three-dimensional object carved in metal. Its central ridge forms the spine of the letter which then seems to be hollowed on either side. It appears in manuscripts illuminated in Padua or Venice in the late 1450's. Outstanding examples are found in the well-known copy of Strabo's Geography in the Latin translation of Guarino, which was sent as a present by the Venetian condottiere Jacopo Marcello to Rene of Anjou in 1459. Millard Meiss once ascribed its invention to the Paduan painter Andrea Mantegna and named it "Littera Mantiniana" (Mantegna's letter) because he believed that the illuminator of Strabo's work was certainly Mantegna, while other scholars nowadays insist that it was invented by Veronese copyist Felice Feliciano. In this article, I observe its first examples in Geography of Strabo in the terms of the characteristic of its three-dimentionality, and analyze again the possibility of Mantegna or Feliciano as its inventor.
著者
安城 寿子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.1-12, 2005

COMME des GARCONS de Rei KAWAKUBO et sa creation sont apprecies comme avant-garde de mode s'accompagnant d'une seule image artistique ou choquante: On dit qu'elle ne cesse pas de confronter sa creation a toutes les preoccupations esthetiques ou morales et etonner les spectateurs et les journalistes depuis ses vetements detruits des annees 1980. Mais la styliste et son travail sont-ils toujours representes sous cette forme? Il nous faut remarquer que la representation changera selon le sujet representant et avec le temps. En effet nous voyons leurs representations variables a travers l'analyse des documents des annees 1970-80. Vers la fin des annees 1970 c'est-a-dire avant son debut a Paris, ses collections etaient recommandees dans les revues japonaises non pas comme expression de l'idee originale mail comme habits de bonne qualite, simples et confortables. Pourtant un peu plus tard, les journalistes francais ont traduit ses premieres collections par manifestation de l'esthetique traditionnelle japonaise, tandis que Kawakubo agissait elle-meme tout comme une styliste qui ne prend sa source dans rien de concret, y compris le folklore. Et c'est apres avoir fait ses premiers pas a Paris que Kawakubo s'est fait "deleguee de la mode tokyoite" puis ses collections ont commence a etre parlees au point de vue artistique et quelque peu philosophique au Japon. Nous devons donc nous demander si COMME des GARCONS dont nous parlions est un.
著者
李 志暎
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.291-303, 2006

Based on a preceding study that a lot of patterns circulated throughout the development of a topic in a business meeting between Japanese, tending to put off a conclusion, this study provides a comparative analysis with a meeting between Koreans. As a result, the big difference with J (Japanese) was scarcely observed to be about the number of patterns for all topics. However, a difference became clear for the process of a topic reaching a decision. As for J, the ratio of circulation topics emerged highly "before decision", and for K (Koreans), "after decision". This suggested that the process before decisions were made were different between the two groups. In this way it is thought that the expectations of Koreans engaged in business towards making a decision rather than discussing related topics are different from that of Japanese. Thus, this may be another factor that contributes to the perception that "the Japanese do not give conclusions".
著者
近藤 雅恵
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.289-296, 2005

In Japanese, written form and oral form are historically different. In this research I tried to find some regularity in transformations of oral form in written media. They are, for example, OMBIN-KA, curtailed vowel, shortcut form, and so on.
著者
蔡 美京
出版者
お茶の水女子大学大学院人間文化研究科
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.41-52, 2005
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is describing the character of Choyongmu by focusing on the upper limbs movement. The method of analysis is Benesh Movement Notation. The result goes as follows ; there are 25 kinds of upper limbs movement that are divided into 3 categories. (1) Snap touch on waist (pattern I) is supposed to be the first movement of Choyongmu and is also a basic movement. (2) Within maneuvering of extra long sleeves (pattern II), there are two patterns that should be characteristic of the movement which could be shown in only Choyongmu. II-4: sticking arms forward to the head with taking extra long sleeves. II-7: stretching arms from the shoulder at a stroke with the palms of the hands put together. (3) Passing by the abdomen (pattern V) is shown by uniting two movements many times.
著者
山川 明子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.135-143, 2005

St. Augustine says in his early work "De Ordine" that liberal arts serve as the ladder of philosophical dialectic. By philosophical dialectic, man can enter the order of universe. This view of St. Augustine can be traced back to Plato. In "Republic", Book 6〜7, Plato explains how to educate a man to be a philosopher by simile of Line and Cave. According to the simile, philosophical dialectic is the final step of education, and liberal arts are preparatory training for philosophy, because they are systematic and have logical coherence like the world of ideas, reached only by philosophical dialectic. The world of idea's system isn't based on the visible world, so it is almost impossible to learn philosophical dialect without having learned liberal arts. Liberal arts help to appreciate the order of the universe and to reach the ultimate wisdom. St. Augustine doesn't state definitely in his work, but we can read and understand his view of liberal arts by comparing with Plato.
著者
平野 恵子
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.203-212, 2005

This paper poses a problem of Javanese "traditional" gender ideology, ibuism in Indonesia. Under Suharto era (1966-1998), the state mobilizes social organizations for the economic development under the slogan of 'stability' and 'development,' which were in turn used to legitimize the regime. Two themes have drawn scholarly attention to analyze the New Order Regime: "bureaucracy" and "family". In the Family part, women and men played a role as "Ibu (mother)" and "Bapak (father)". Ibu played important role within the theme of "Family" state. Under this era, all women were seemed to be along with Ibuism in which they were assumed as housewife. However what does it mean "traditional" Javanese pyiyayi (aristocracy) norm? Then I examine the process of dominant discourse about the 1937 debate on Monogamy toward maternal and companionate women within colonial Indonesia in 1930s. The article demonstrates that in response to ongoing processes of modernization or Westernization, Javanese gender perceptions were voiced in an Indonesian idiom of a moral character. By focusing discourse about Marriage Law (1974) and the Draft of Marriage Law (1937), this gender idiom was infused with the idea of harmony: harmony between Indonesian men and women and Islam within colonial context toward new political goal.
著者
李 〓
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.93-101, 2006

1980年代、中国の文壇では、様々な文学ジャンルが相次いで勢いを見せたが、それに比べると、90年代初期の文壇は間違いなく寂しいものであった。だが、都市文学の再興によってこれらの状況は一変した。「都市文学」を研究するには、まずその定義を定めなければならない。しかし目下の所、評論家や学者らの間に「都市文学」についての定義は存在せず、学者の中には「都市文学」の概念を厳密に定義する必要はないと主張する者すらいる。それゆえ都市文学というこの特定の概念について議論・研究する場合も、それぞれが考える意味内容は決して同じではない。しかし、都市文学の概念や定義をあまりにも拡げすぎると、それを対象とする研究に支障をもたらすことになるだろう。したがって、本研究では「都市文学」を次のように定義する。都市住民・都会生活を描くことを主とし、都会の雰囲気・都会意識を表現する作品をすべて都市文学と呼ぶ。特に指摘しておく必要があるのは、本研究は90年代後期に現れた都市文学の分析に重点を置くが、その中でも小説という文学ジャンルを研究範囲としているということである。中国の文壇にとって「都市文学」は突然降って湧いたものではなく、3、40年代には都市文学の創作が大いに盛んで、劉吶鴎・穆時英・施〓存・張愛玲などの作家が都市の情景や都市住民の生活を描いて大いにもてはやされた。しかし1949年以降は都市文学の創作は低迷期に入る。80年代後半になり、10年間の改革開放政策が大陸の都市部に大きな変化をもたらし、人々の生活や思想・観念も都市化の進展に伴って大いに変化し、都市文学も次第に作家や読者に注目されはじめた。1994年、中国広東省深〓市の『特区文学』という雑誌が「都市文学」創作の烽火を上げて以来、そのブームは今日にまで至っている。今日、都市文学の創作ブームによって、多くの著名な作家が現れた。張欣もその中の一人である。張欣は中国作家協会全国委員会委員・広州市作家協会主席であり、1978年の小説デビュー以来、すでに中篇小説集12作、文集3作、長編小説9作と多数のエッセイ集を出版している。そのうち、『〓星〓案』や『浮華背後』など10作以上の都市文学作品が中国大陸にてテレビドラマとして放送されたおかげで、張欣の都市文学作品の認知度がさらに上がった。張欣は都市を熟知しているばかりでなくその表現にも優れているが、かつてインタビューの中で自らが都市にアイデンティティーを持つことを告白している。彼女の作品の中で最も魅了されるのは、彼女が描く一連の都市の女性像である。それらの女性像を通して、張欣の作品は、90年代以降、女性たちが複雑な都会生活の中で経験した苦悩と矛盾を描き出すと共に、都市という環境が女性の思想や価値観に与える影響を探究し、都市女性に特有な女性意識を表現した。都市に生きる女性の洞察と描写が、張欣作品最大の魅力であろう。本研究の骨子は次の通りである。まず90年代以降、中国において都市文学が再び盛んとなったその原因を考察し、次に90年代以降の都市文学の中国における発展状況及び都市文学の創作ブームの中に現れた著名作家と彼らの作品を紹介する。その中でも張欣の都市文学作品と彼女が描く女性像について重点的に分析する。
著者
田中 望美 セージ クリスティー
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.113-129, 2006

本研究はSageとTanaka(2006b)によるTOEFL^[○!R] iBTとセンター試験の聴解を比較・対照した前研究に引き続き、テスティングを真正性の面からさらに深く考察してゆく。センター試験のための学生に対して不利になりうる教育を懸念し、センター試験の問いと基準(若しくは、対象言語領域)がこれまでの研究や理論及びTOEFL^[○!R] iBTの特徴に基づいて、厳密に調査されている。本研究の構成は、1)過去の研究における真正性と相互性に関する概念、2)テストにおける伝達能力の側面、3)センター試験とTOEFL^[○!R] iBTのテストの問いと対象言語領域の比較及び分析、4)聴解の真正性の今後の方向性と提案、となっている。要するに、TOEFL^[○!R] iBTが対象言語領域で必要とされる能力を測定している点、また統合テスト形式を採用しているという2点から、本研究はセンター試験の聴解はTOEFL^[○!R] iBTの特徴に倣ってさらに改定していくことができると示唆する。
著者
金 〓〓
出版者
お茶の水女子大学
雑誌
人間文化論叢 (ISSN:13448013)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp."3-1"-"3-12", 2005

Toshiko Tamura and Myung-soon Kim flourished in 1910-20 in Japan and Korea. In those days it was an act of a man to write. The feminine was demanded above all to the thing which a woman wrote by the literary world and the society, so that woman does not invade a domain of a man. A lot of studies about that the motherhood is one of a model of feminine, it was used to mobilize a woman for war, while militarism advances. Then is what kind of position was there the femininity at socially and culture in Japan and Korea which had a relation such as an empire and a colony. A purpose of this paper is what did such a demand of feminine have influence on works and the strategy of two woman writer. The work of Toshiko, "The woman author (ONNA SAKUSYA)", depicted a woman writer who immersed herself in "coquetry" by wearing white face powder as part of the creative process of writing novel. It is a unique method that the only woman was able to write, and "The woman author" became one of her representative work because the text is so feminine. But Myung-soon was criticized her work and her personality, too feminine to her mother was concubine that her work smell of face powder when a prostitute make up. A difference of evaluation for a work of two writers was a difference of a woman of an empire, or a woman of a colony. And, it was same in Japan and Korea that the prostitute is perceived as immoral, a danger, a threat to 'normal' femininity and, as a consequence suffers social exclusion, marginalisation and 'whore stigma'. But, in the case of Toshiko she was married, and she write a "Woman author" like prostitute to express her identity, it was only a performance, not her personality. In the case of Myung-soon, she wrote to overcome 'whore stigma', but the man gaze did not forgive that, she cannot acquire her identity. This shows that the woman writing is not same, and it is difficult to acquire her identity in marginal.